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Diseases » Sleep disorders » Glossary
 

Glossary for Sleep disorders

  • 47,XXX syndrome: A genetic condition where females have an extra X chromosome in each of their cells. Normally female cells have two X chromosomes. This is not usually an inherited condition but a defect that occurs during cell division. Often the condition is asymptomatic.
  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Achrestic anemia: Achrestic anemia is a form of anemia similar to that caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency but it doesn't respond to treatment with Vitamin B12. The condition tends to progress slowly and can result in death if not treated. There are a variety of possible causes.
  • Acute insomnia: Insomnia which lasts for one night to a few weeks.
  • Adult ADHD: Adult ADHD, (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder with an onset in childhood that continues into adulthood. Children do not simply grow out of ADHD, as is often believed. Just the opposite is commonly true - the symptoms of ADHD often get worse as a child grows into adulthood. The predominant behaviors of adult ADHD are the same as in children and include:
    • Inattentiveness
    • Hyperactivity
    • Impulsivity

    These behaviors result in difficulties with:

    • Concentration
    • Remaining focused on a task or activity
    • Controlling behavior
    • Hyperactivity or over-activity

    The symptoms of adult ADHD can be treated, but there currently is no cure for the disorder. Most people with ADHD can be successfully treated and lead normal, productive lives at home, work, school and with friends and family. The cause or causes of ADHD are not yet known, although researchers believe that genes may be one factor in the development of the disease. It is most likely that the disorder is the result of a combination of elements, including environmental factors, traumatic head injuries, nutrition, and social influences.

  • Advanced circadian rhythm disorder: A circadian rhythm sleep disorder where a personís body clock runs faster than normal which results in a shortened sleep period with early awakening.
  • Advanced sleep phase syndrome: ASPS is a condition in which patients feel very sleepy early in the evening (e.g. 18:00-19:00) and wake up very early in the morning (e.g. 03:00).
  • Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The symptoms are variable depending on the disorder involved. Some of the disorders are: alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, alcohol intoxication delirium, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol-induced persisting dementia, alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder, alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, alcohol-induced mood disorder, alcohol-induced anxiety disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, alcohol-induced sleep disorder, liver damage, liver cancer and esophageal cancer.
  • Anemia of pregnancy: Anemia of pregnancy is anemia that occurs during pregnancy. Women's bodies have a greater demand for iron during pregnancy and if intake is not sufficient, anemia can result. Anemia in pregnant women can lead to infant problems such as premature birth, fetal death, retarded growth and other problems.
  • Angelman syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a puppet-like gait, fits of laughter and characteristic facial features.
  • Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension, and fear without apparent stimulus that is associated sometime with somatic responses
  • Anxiety disorders: Anxiety disorders are persistent and excessive feelings of fear, worry or uneasiness that are significant enough to have an impact on day-to-day life. Excessive anxiety can have repercussions on physical and mental health. There are a number of different subtypes of anxiety disorders such as General anxiety, Social anxiety, Phobias, Hypochondria and Obsessive compulsive disorder.
  • Apnea: Cessation of breathing. Apnea can be caused by neurological diseases, strangulation, drugs and airway obstruction.
  • Apnea of infancy (AOI): Temporary cessation of breathing in infants (under one year old) for longer than 15-20 seconds. The infants are not premature.
  • Apnea of prematurity: AOP occurs in infants who are born prematurely (before 34 weeks of pregnancy).
  • Apneustic breathing: It is a series of slow, deep inspirations, each one held for 30 to 90 seconds, after which the air is suddenly expelled by elastic recoil of the lung.
  • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by an abnormal immune system response which leads to the destruction of red blood cells and hence anemia. The severity of the condition varies depending on the underlying cause e.g. cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, HIV and lupus. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Brain Fag syndrome: A type of neurotic disorder that was first observed in white collar workers in Africa.
  • Breathing-related sleep disorder: Breathing-related sleep disorder refers to a spectrum of breathing anomalies ranging from chronic or habitual snoring to upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) to frank obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or, in some cases, obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS).
  • CFS subtype 1 (cognitive, musculoskeletal, sleep, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 1 tends to be more severe with the dominant symptoms being anxiety, depression and cognitive, musculoskeletal and sleeping problems.
  • CFS subtype 2 ( musculoskeletal, pain, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 2 tends to be more severe with the dominant symptoms being anxiety, depression, pain and musculoskeletal problems.
  • CFS subtype 3 (mild): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 3 tends to have milder symptoms than other subtypes.
  • CFS subtype 4 (cognitive, musculoskeletal, sleep, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 4 tends to be dominated by cognitive symptoms.
  • CFS subtype 5 (musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 5 tends to be dominated by musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • CFS subtype 6 (postexertional): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 6 tends to be dominated by excessive fatigue following exertion.
  • CFS subtype 7 (pain, infectious, musculoskeletal, sleep, neurological, gastrointestinal, neurocognitive, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 7 tends to be more severe with the dominant symptoms being pain, infections, anxiety, depression and musculoskeletal, sleep, neurological, gastrointestinal and neurocognitive problems.
  • Cataplexy: A rare condtion characterized by episodes of severe muscle weakness which can sometimes lead to a complete collapse - it usually occurs in people with a sleep disorder called narcolepsy.
  • Central sleep apnea: Central sleep apnea is when the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep because the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing.
  • Cephalosporin-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Cephalosporin-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where a use of a medication called Cephalosporin triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Cerebellar Ataxia, Deafness and Narcolepsy: A rare condition characterized by the association of narcolepsy, deafness and cerebellar ataxia. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder where characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Antimony: Antimony is a chemical often used as an alloy with other metals such as lead. It is used in solder, ammunition, pewter, sheet metal, pipe metal and cable sheaths. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Carbon Disulfide: Carbon Disulfide is a chemical used mainly in corrosion inhibitors, cold and nickel plating, photography applications and as a solvent in gums and resins. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Chloromethane: Chloromethane is a chemical used mainly in the production of silicones as well as agricultural chemicals, butyl rubber and other products. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Glaze: Glazes are used to put a shiny finish on various surfaces such as pottery. Glazes contain chemicals such as lead and zinc oxide which can cause serious symptoms if sufficient quantities are eaten. The chemicals cause damage to the gastrointestinal lining and the damage may continue for weeks after the poison was ingested. Death can result in severe cases. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Lead-containing Paint: Lead pain contains lead as well as other harmful chemicals. The lead in the pain is toxic (especially to young children) and ingesting fresh or old paint can cause serious symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Solder: Solder contains various chemicals and heavy metals which can cause serious symptoms if sufficient quantities are swallowed. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Thallium: Thallium is an element used for such things as electronic devices, selenium rectifiers, gamma radiation detection apparatus, transmission equipment and infrared radiation detection. It is also used as a catalyst in various manufacturing processes. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chloramphenicol-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Chloramphenicol-induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused by taking a drug called chloramphenicol. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Chronic anemia: Chronic anemia refers to a low blood cell count that has occurred over a longer period of time rather than suddenly. It is associated with chronic disease processes e.g. kidney disease.
  • Chronic interstitial nephritis:
  • Chronic orthostatic hypotension: An excessive drop in blood pressure when the patient stands up causing light-headedness or dizziness.
  • Chronic renal insufficiency: Chronic lack of function of the renal system. Kidneys.
  • Chronic tension headache: Chronic headache affecting the occiput of the head often due to overwork or stress.
  • Circadian amplitude disorder: A circadian rhythm sleep disorder where the body produces insufficient night or day hormones. This causes a reduced quality of the sleep or awake period but there is usually no problems with getting to sleep or waking up.
  • Circadian rhythm disorder: Circadian rhythm disorder are a family of sleep disorders affecting, among other things, the timing of sleep.
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorder: A group of sleep disorders involving abnormalities in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Examples include jet lag and shift work sleep disorder. Sufferers are unable to wake and sleep in the normal routines required to function in normal work, school and social settings. The sleep quality is usually normal.
  • Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition where the body's immune system triggers the production of antibodies against the body's own red blood cells. The red cells are destroyed at an abnormally rapid rate which leads to anemia. Cold haemolytic anemia is characterized by the fact that the abnormal destruction of red blood cells is more active when the patient is exposed to cold temperatures. The severity of the condition varies depending on the underlying cause. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Concentration camp survivor syndrome: A type of post-traumatic stress disorder that is seen in people who have surveved abuse in concentration camps.
  • Congenital myasthenic syndrome with episodic apnea: A disorder characterized by muscular weakness.
  • Congenital spherocytic anemia: Congenital Spherocytic anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that are shaped like a sphere (spherocytes) rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormal cells are broken down prematurely resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia).
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Inadequate pumping and decline of heart function common in the elderly.
  • Congestive cardiac failure: A condition characterized by breathlessness and abnormal sodium and water retention.
  • Continuous spike-wave during slow sleep syndrome: A rare form of epilepsy that occurs between the ages of 3 and 7 and is diagnosed by the observation through an EEG of continuous spike and wave discharges during the slow sleep phase which is detected. The seizures often occur during sleep. Children outgrow the condition before adulthood but some of the effects of the disorder may continue longer.
  • Copper deficiency-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Copper deficiency-induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused insufficient quantities of copper. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells due to the lack of copper. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Cycloserine-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Cycloserine -induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused by taking a drug called Cycloserine. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Dancing Eye syndrome: Dancing eye syndrome is a rare neurological condition characterized by abnormal eye movements where the eyes seem to move randomly all over the place. Jerky limb movements are also often present. The severity of the condition and response to treatment varies considerably amongst patients.
  • Decreased mean cell haemoglobin: A decreased hemoglobin content of the average red blood cell, calculated from the hemoglobin therein and the red cell count in erythrocyte indices
  • Decreased mean cell haemoglobin concentration: A decreased average haemoglobin concentration in the a specified volume
  • Decreased mean cell volume: A decreased mean red cell volume
  • Decreased oxygen saturation: decreased amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium
  • Delayed sleep-phase syndrome: Delayed sleep phase syndrome is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder, a chronic disorder of the timing of sleep, peak period of alertness, core body temperature, hormonal and other daily rhythms relative to societal norms.
  • Deletion 5p: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of the genetic material from the short arm (p) of chromosome 5 which results in various abnormalities. The resulting condition is often called Cri-du-Chat Syndrome and features may vary somewhat depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Depressive episode: Mood disorder where depression is not associated with a manic episode
  • Difficulty falling asleep: Sleeping difficulty, called insomnia, can involve difficulty falling asleep when you first go to bed at night, waking up too early in the morning, and waking up often during the night.
  • Dimorphic anemia: Dimorphic refers to anemia that has two different causes acting together e.g. iron deficiency as well as a Vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Disseminated Sclerosis with Narcolepsy: A rare condition characterized by the association of narcolepsy with multiple sclerosis. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder where characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis.
  • Doxepine-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Doxepine -induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Methyldopa triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Drug-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where a medication triggers the body's immune system to destroy its own red blood cells which results in anemia. Certain drugs are more likely to trigger this abnormal immune response than others e.g. cephalosphorins and Quinidine.
  • Drug-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Drug-induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused by drugs such as cycloserine, isoniazid and ethanol. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Drug-related insomnia: Drug related insomnia is sleeplessness that is attributable to the excessive usage of medications.
  • Dysomnia: Dysomnia is a general term for sleep disorder. It is a primary sleep disorder in which the patient suffers from changes in the quantity, quality, or timing of sleep.
  • Dyssomnia: A general term used to describe any sleeping condition where a person has trouble either getting to sleep or staying asleep. The condition often occurs for short periods of time but if it continues for longer periods of time it can cause problems resulting from insufficient sleep.
  • Ecstasy addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use ecstasy on a regular basis. Chronic ecstasy use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Ecstasy is a synthetic psychoactive drug often used as a recreational drug. Street names for the drug includes: XTC, Adam, Clarity, Lover's Speed, Hug, Beans and Love Drug. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Emotional disorders: A disorder of emotions
  • Endogenous insomnia: Insomnia that is often caused by a discomfort within the body ranging from indigestion to pain.
  • Ethanol-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Ethanol-induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused by consuming ethanol. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Exploding head syndrome: Exploding head syndrome is a condition that causes the sufferer to occasionally experience a tremendously loud noise as originating from within his or her own head, usually described as the sound of an explosion, roar, waves crashing against rocks, loud voices, or a ringing noise.
  • False awakening: A false awakening is where someone dreams that they have woken up from a sleep. This is considered to be a normal and relatively common sleep event that poses no problems.
  • Familial Treacher Collins syndrome: Treacher Collins syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by down-slanting eye slits, malformed external ear, abnormal lower eyelid and underdeveloped cheeks. In the familial form, the condition tends to occur in a number of people within a family. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Fatal familial insomnia: A very rare inherited brain disease that severely affects sleep and causes progressive deterioration of mental and movement functions.
  • Fibromyalgia: A difficult to diagnose condition affecting the muscles and/or joints
  • Folate-deficiency anemia: Folate-deficiency anemia is a blood condition characterized by low levels of folate in the body which leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells. It is usually the result of a poor diet, malabsorption issues or the use of certain medications.
  • Fungemia: The presence of fungi in the blood. Most commonly occurs in people with a compromised immune system. Other risk factors include dialysis, burns, diabetes and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and steroids. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Gelineau's syndrome: A neurological disorder sudden uncontrollable urge to sleep, sleep paralysis and other symptoms.
  • Generalised anxiety disorder: Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension or fear.
  • Generalized anxiety disorder: Excessive anxiety and worrying.
  • Glaucoma -- sleep apnea: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of sleep apnea with glaucoma.
  • Hatzfeldt syndrome: Hatzfeldt Syndrome or Systemic Neuro-Epiphysial Disorder (SNED) is a type of sleep disorder (somnipathy). It is mainly characterized by an irregular sleep pattern, as well as irregular behavior.
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Rue: Rue can be used to induce abortion, as a topical insect repellant or to treat spasms and delayed menstruation. The herbal agent contains chemicals (alkaloids, arborine, arborinine) which can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Hyperchromic Anemia: Hyperchromic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which contain abnormally high amounts of haemoglobin as well as a reduced number of red blood cells. This anomaly is often caused by such things as Vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia.
  • Hypernycthemeral syndrome: A rare chronic form of sleep disorder involving a disturbance of the circadian rhythm. Patients have a consistent one or two hour delay in the time the go to sleep as well as the time they wake up so their sleep pattern doesn't fit into the 24 hour cycle. Thus, the sleep cycle changes every day which can be very disruptive. It has most often been reported in blind people.
  • Hypersomnia: Hypersomnia is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or prolonged nighttime sleep.
  • Hypersomnolence, idiopathic: Extreme sleepiness that occurs for no apparent reason. The sleepiness persists even after having a sleep and can severely affect a person's ability to function. Sufferers tend to sleep at night and still require sleep during the day.
  • Hypertension in children: Hypertension in children is a condition in which a child has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence: Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence refers to a child between the ages of 11 years through adolescence who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children one to ten years: Hypertension in children one to ten years refers to a child between the ages of one to ten years who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children under one year: Hypertension in children under one year is a condition in which a child under the age of one year has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypnagogic hallucinations: These hallucinations occur just before falling asleep and last from a few seconds to minutes, all the while the subject usually remains aware of the true nature of the images.
  • Hypnic jerk: An involuntary muscle twitch that occurs in the transition between wakefulness and sleep. Patients are more prone to these twitches if they have a poor sleeping pattern or have been sleep deprived. The twitches usually only occur one or two times a night and are generally considered harmless.
  • Hypopnea syndrome: Hypopnea Syndrome is a condition in which an individual experiences severe shallow breathing or a slow rate of airflow during sleep.
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction: Abnormal function of the thalamus located in the brain. The thalamus controls pituitary gland function which in turn controls other hormone producing glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovaries and testes. The thalamus also regulates functions such as temperature control, emotions, sleep, appetite and salt balance. Abnormal thalamus functioning may be caused by such things as surgery, infection, genetic disorders, poor nutrition and tumors.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is Parkinson's disease for which no particular cause can be determined - it is the most prevalent form of the condition. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Idiopathic hypersomnia: A sleep disorder involving excessive sleep at night as well as excessive daytime sleepiness without any obvious cause. There are two subtypes of the condition: polysymptomatic cases involve excessive sleep during the night and day whereas monosymptomatic involves normal sleep during the night but excessive daytime sleepiness and need for day naps. Symptoms must continue for more than three months for a confirmed diagnosis.
  • Idiopathic hypersomnia -- monosymptomatic: A sleep disorder involving excessive sleep at night as well as excessive daytime sleepiness without any obvious cause. There are two subtypes of the condition: polysymptomatic cases involve excessive sleep during the night and day whereas monosymptomatic involves normal sleep during the night but excessive daytime sleepiness and need for day naps. Symptoms must continue for more than three months for a confirmed diagnosis.
  • Idiopathic hypersomnia -- polysymptomatic: A sleep disorder involving excessive sleep at night as well as excessive daytime sleepiness without any obvious cause. There are two subtypes of the condition: polysymptomatic cases involve excessive sleep during the night and day whereas monosymptomatic involves normal sleep during the night but excessive daytime sleepiness and need for day naps. Symptoms must continue for more than three months for a confirmed diagnosis.
  • Infantile apnea: A disorder where infants stop breathing temporarily.
  • Infantile sleep apnea: Apnea of infancy occurs in children who are younger than 1 year old and who were born after a full-term pregnancy.
  • Infectious CFS: Infectious chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic fatigue condition which may follow severe infections - viral or other. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition.
  • Inherited spherocytic anemia: Inherited Spherocytic anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that are shaped like a sphere (spherocytes) rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormal cells are broken down prematurely resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia).
  • Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.
  • Insomnia with sleep apnea: The association of insomnia with sleep apnea. Patients may be unaware that their bouts of sleep apnea is actually causing them to wake during the night and they may mistakenly believe that they simply have insomnia.
  • Iron deficiency anemia: Iron-deficiency anemia is a blood condition characterized by low levels of iron in the body which leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells.
  • Irregular sleep-wake pattern: A circadian rhythm sleep disorder where a person sleeps at random periods during the night and often also has naps during the day. The periods of sleep all add up to a normal sleeping time for the individualís age .
  • Isoniazid-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Drug-induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused by taking a drug called isoniazid. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Jet lag: Jet lag is a physiological condition which is a consequence of alterations to circadian rhythms; it is classified as one of the circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Jet lag results from rapid long-distance transmeridian (east-west or west-east) travel, as on a jet plane.
  • Kleine-Levin Syndrome: Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurring periods of excessive amounts of sleep and altered behavior.
  • Lamictal -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamictal during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lamotrigine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamotrigine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lucid Dream: A term used to describe dreams where the person is aware that they are dreaming and can participate in and alter the direction of the dream. These are normal and are harmless.
  • Macrocytic Hyperchromic Anemia: Macrocytic Hyperchromic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by abnormally large red blood cells which contain abnormally high amounts of haemoglobin. There is also a reduced number of red blood cells. This anomaly can be associated with such things as celiac disease or alcoholism.
  • Major depressive disorder: A condition which is characterized by the occurrence of a major episode of depression
  • Megalocytic-Normochromic anemia: Megalocytic-Normochromic is a blood disorder characterized by normal amounts of haemoglobin within abnormally large red blood cells. However, the number of red blood cells is low.
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Mental health conditions: Medical conditions related to mental health, emotions, behavior, personality, psychology, psychiatry, and so on.
  • Mental illness: Any psychological syndrome
  • Metabolic encephalopathy: Metabolic encephalopathy is temporary or permanent damage to the brain due to lack of glucose, oxygen or other metabolic agent, or organ dysfunction.
  • Methyldopa-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Methyldopa-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Methyldopa triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Microcytic Anemia: Microcytic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by small red blood cells (erythrocytes). The red blood cells are small due to a failure of haemoglobin synthesis or insufficient quantities of haemoglobin available. The blood disorder is usually caused by conditions such as iron deficiency, chronic diseases and thalassemias.
  • Microcytic Hyperchromic Anemia: Microcytic Hyperchromic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by abnormally small red blood cells which contain abnormally high amounts of haemoglobin. There is also a reduced number of red blood cells. This anomaly can be associated with such things as chronic infections and severe malnutrition.
  • Microcytic hypochromic anemia: Microcytic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by small red blood cells (erythrocytes) which have insufficient haemoglobin and hence have a reduced ability to carry oxygen through the body. The red blood cells are small due to a failure of haemoglobin synthesis or insufficient quantities of haemoglobin available. The blood disorder is usually caused by conditions such as iron deficiency, chronic diseases and thalassemias. The severity and range of symptoms is variable.
  • Microcytic-Normochromic anemia: Microcytic-Normochromic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by normal amounts of haemoglobin within small red blood cells. However the number of red blood cells is low.
  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mild brain injury caused by trauma, accident or injury
  • Mitochondrial Parkinson's disease: A form of Parkinson's disease that seems to be linked to mitochondrial defects - mitochondria are the energy-producing components of body cells. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Mixed apnea: Mixed apnea is a combination of central and obstructive apnea and is seen particularly in infants or young children who have abnormal control of breathing.
  • Musculoskeletal chronic fatigue syndrome: Musculoskeletal chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. Musculoskeletal chronic fatigue syndrome tends to be dominated by musculoskeletal symptoms.
  • Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy is characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
  • Narcolepsy 1: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder where characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Some cases are linked to a genetic anomaly - Type 1 is linked to an anomaly on chromosome 6p21.
  • Narcolepsy 2: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder where characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Some cases are linked to a genetic anomaly - Type 2 is linked to an anomaly on chromosome 4q13-q21.
  • Narcolepsy 3: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder where characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Some cases are linked to a genetic anomaly - Type 3 is linked to an anomaly on chromosome 21q11.2.
  • Narcolepsy 4: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder where characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Some cases are linked to a genetic anomaly - Type 1 is linked to an anomaly on chromosome 22q13.
  • Narcolepsy 5: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder where characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. Some cases are linked to a genetic anomaly - Type 5 is linked to an anomaly on chromosome 14q11.2.
  • Narcolepsy with cataplexy: Narcolepsy refers to excessive sleepiness and cataplexy refers to the sudden onset of muscle weakness in the face, legs or arms.
  • Narcolepsy without cataplexy: Narcolepsy refers to excessive sleepiness. It may or may not occur with cataplexy which refers to the sudden onset of muscle weakness in the face, legs or arms.
  • Neurological chronic fatigue syndrome: Neurological chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic fatigue condition which tends to be dominated by neurological symptoms. Symptoms tend to be more severe than other forms of CFS. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition.
  • Night sweats: Night sweats is the occurrence of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) during sleep. The sufferer may or may not also suffer from excessive perspiration while awake.
  • Night terror: Night terror is a parasomnia disorder characterized by extreme terror and a temporary inability to regain full consciousness.
  • Nightmares: Dreams that are frightening and realistic. Nightmares may be distressing enough to wake a person. They can be caused by tiredness, stress and certain drugs such as some blood-pressure medications. Generally, everyone can expect to experience nightmares at some stage in their life. The occasional nightmare is normal but anyone experiencing regular nightmares that interferes with their sleep may need to seek help.
  • Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome: Non-24 hour sleep-wake syndrome is a chronic steady pattern comprising one- to two-hour daily delays in sleep onset and wake times in an individual living in society.
  • Non-hereditary spherocytic anemia: Non-inherited spherocytic anemia is an acquired blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that are shaped like a sphere (spherocytes) rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormal cells are broken down prematurely resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). The blood condition may result from such things as acute, widespread burns to the body, low blood phosphate levels, Zieve's syndrome and toxins from poisonous snakes, spiders and insects.
  • Normochromic anemia: Normochromic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by normal amounts of haemoglobin within red blood cells but low numbers of red blood cells.
  • Normocytic anemia: Normocytic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which are of a normal size but present in insufficient quantities. It is often associated with chronic diseases, blood loss, bone marrow problems and kidney disease. It can also be the result of an inherited condition.
  • Normocytic-Normochromic anemia: Megalocytic-Normochromic is a blood disorder characterized by normal amounts of haemoglobin within normal-sized red blood cells. However, the number of red blood cells is low. Conditions such as haemolytic anemia, liver disease and aplastic anemia may be associated with this blood disorder.
  • Nutritional Sideroblastic anemia: Nutritional sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused insufficient quantities of pyridoxine or copper. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells due to the lack of pyridoxine or copper. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Nutritional anemia: Nutritional anemia refers to a reduced red blood cell count due to a poor diet which is deficient in iron, folat and/or Vitamin B12.
  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is defined as the combination of obesity (body mass index above 30kg/m2), hypoxia (falling oxygen levels in blood) during sleep, and hypercapnia (increased blood carbon dioxide levels) during the day, resulting from hypoventilation (excessively slow or shallow breathing)
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Ondine syndrome: A rare condition involving defects in the mechanism that control breathing.
  • Ondine's curse: A condition involving defects in the mechanism that control breathing.
  • Optic pathway glioma: A type of tumor that arises in the optic nerve which sends messages from the eye to the brain. These tumors tend to occur mainly in children under the age of 10. The tumor may affect the hormone center of the brain and hence can affect such things as growth and weight.
  • Parasomnia: Parasomnia are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal and unnatural movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or arousal from sleep.
  • Parkinson disease 10 (PARK10): Type 10 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 1p32. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 11 (PARK11): Type 11 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 2q21.2. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 12 (PARK12): Type 12 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome Xq21-q25. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 13 (PARK13): Type 13 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 2p12. This form of the condition tends to progress slowly. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 2, autosomal recessive juvenile (PARK2): Type 2 Parkinson disease is juvenile form of the condition and is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 6q25.2-q27. The condition may be inherited in a recessive manner and symptoms tend to be milder following sleep. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 3, autosomal dominant Lewy body (PARK3): Type 3 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 2p13. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 4, autosomal dominant Lewy body (PARK4): Type 4 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 4q21. This form of the condition tends to start around the age of 45 years and progresses rapidly. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 5 (PARK5): Type 5 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 4p14. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 6, autosomal recessive early-onset (PARK6): Type 6 Parkinson disease is an early-onset form of the condition and is linked to a genetic mutation on the PINK1 gene on chromosome 1p36. The condition may be inherited in a recessive manner and symptoms tend to fluctuate during the day. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 7, autosomal recessive early-onset (PARK7): Type 7 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation in the DJ1 gene on chromosome 1p36. This form of the condition tends to start before the age of 40 years and progresses slowly. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 8 (PARK8): Type 8 Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 1p32. This form of the condition tends to progress slowly. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease 9 (PARK9): Type 9 Parkinson disease is linked to a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene on chromosome 1p36. This condition progresses rapidly and usually starts during the second decade of life. Dementia, eye movement problems and wasting of the brain tissue occur in addition to the typical symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease, familial, type 1 (PARK1): Type 1 familial Parkinson disease is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 4q21. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Penicillin-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Penicillin-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Penicillin triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Periodic limb movements in sleep: Repeated involuntary leg movements during sleep.
  • Pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder where the body is unable to use it properly use Vitamin B12 to make red blood cells.
  • Persistent anxiety: Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension or fear.
  • Pickwickian syndrome: A syndrome characterized by obesity, somnolence, hypoventilation and erythrocytosis
  • Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation with periods of overbreathing and apnea.
  • Poikilocytic anemia: Poikilocytic anemia refers a blood disorder characterized by abnormally shaped red blood cells. The abnormal red blood cells may be destroyed prematurely resulting in anemia. The severity of the anemia and hence the severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Positional plagiocephaly: Flattening of one side of an infant's skull in the first couple of months after birth. It can occur when the infant consistently sleeps with it's head on one particular side.
  • Post-ADD chronic fatigue syndrome: Post- ADD chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which occurs in young adults who have suffered attention deficit disorder during childhood. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder: Stress following a traumatic event.
  • Post-viral CFS: Post-viral chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic fatigue condition which may follow severe viral infections. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the thyroid after a pregnancy
  • Posttraumatic hypersomnia: Posttraumatic hypersomnia is excessive sleepiness that occurs as a result of a traumatic event involving the central nervous system.
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Condition with cyclic symptoms related to menstruation.
  • Primary Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Primary autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by an abnormal immune system response. The body's immune system produces antibodies against the body's own red blood cells which leads to the destruction of red blood cells and hence anemia. The secondary form of the condition is the result of an underlying condition such as lupus or hepatitis whereas the primary form has no underlying condition.
  • Primary Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Primary cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition where the body's immune system triggers the production of antibodies against the body's own red blood cells. The process occurs only when the patient is exposed to temperatures colder the average body temperature. The red cells are destroyed at an abnormally rapid rate which leads to anemia. The primary form of the condition means that there is no underlying condition. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Primary insomnia: Primary insomnia is sleeplessness that is not attributable to a medical, psychiatric, or environmental cause.
  • Primary restless leg syndrome: Primary restless leg syndrome is a condition that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can also affect the arms or torso.
  • Probable human carcinogenic occupational exposure -- Shiftwork involving circadian disruption: Occupations involving shiftwork that disrupts the circadian rhythm are deemed to probably have a carcinogenic effect on humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Problem Sleepiness: Problem daytime drowsiness.
  • Pseudoadrenoleukodystrophy: A rare disorder where an enzyme deficiency (Acyl-CoA Oxidase) results in symptoms such as seizures, apnea, delayed psychomotor retardation and neurological deterioration.
  • Psychiatric disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psycho-reactive insomnia: Insomnia is a common complaint in which the sufferer has poor sleep that is often broken many times during the course of the night and psychoreactive trait is the stimulus.
  • Psychological disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychoneurosis: Neuroses is characterized by anxiety, depression, or other feelings of unhappiness or distress that are out of proportion to the circumstances of a person's life.
  • Psychophysiological insomnia: The primary components involved are intermittent periods of stress, which result in poor sleep and generate maladaptive behaviors.
  • Puerperal psychosis: An acute mental illness which occurs to a mother following childbirth
  • Pyridoxine deficiency-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Pyridoxine deficiency-induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused insufficient quantities of pyridoxine. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells due to the lack of pyridoxine. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Quinidine-induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Quinidine-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Methyldopa triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Rapid eye movement behaviour disorder: REM sleep behavior disorder is dream-enacting behavior that includes talking, yelling, punching, kicking, sitting, jumping out of bed, arm flailing, and grabbing.
  • Recurrent hypersomnia: is a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia that typically occur weeks or months apart.
  • Respiratory depression: Also known as bradyapnea is the decreased rate of breathing.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, Susceptibility To, 1: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs. Symptoms tend to occur mainly at night. Type 1 refers to an increased susceptibility to the condition which is caused by a defect in chromosome 12q12-q21.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, Susceptibility To, 2: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs. Symptoms tend to occur mainly at night. Type 2 refers to an increased susceptibility to the condition which is caused by a defect in chromosome 14q13-q31.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, Susceptibility To, 3: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs. Symptoms tend to occur mainly at night. Type 3 refers to an increased susceptibility to the condition which is caused by a defect in chromosome 9p24-p22.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, Susceptibility To, 4: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs. Symptoms tend to occur mainly at night. Type 4 refers to an increased susceptibility to the condition which is caused by a defect in chromosome 2q33.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, Susceptibility To, 5: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs. Symptoms tend to occur mainly at night. Type 5 refers to an increased susceptibility to the condition which is caused by a defect in chromosome 20p13.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, Susceptibility To, 6: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs. Symptoms tend to occur mainly at night. Type 6 refers to an increased susceptibility to the condition which is caused by a defect in chromosome 6p21.
  • Restless Legs Syndrome, Susceptibility To, 7: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs. Symptoms tend to occur mainly at night. Type 7 refers to an increased susceptibility to the condition which is caused by a defect in chromosome 2p14.
  • Restless leg syndrome: Restless leg syndrome is a condition that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can also affect the arms or torso.
  • Secondary Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Secondary autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by an abnormal immune system response. The body's immune system produces antibodies against the body's own red blood cells which leads to the destruction of red blood cells and hence anemia. The secondary form of the condition is the result of an underlying condition such as lupus or hepatitis whereas the primary form has no underlying condition. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Secondary Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Secondary cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition where the body's immune system triggers the production of antibodies against the body's own red blood cells. The process occurs only when the patient is exposed to temperatures colder the average body temperature. The red cells are destroyed at an abnormally rapid rate which leads to anemia. The secondary form of the condition means that it is the result of an underlying condition - it usually occurs after some sort of infection. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Secondary insomnia: Secondary insomnia differs from primary insomnia in that a specific condition can be identified as the cause of the sleep problem and should be evaluated by a physician.
  • Secondary restless leg syndrome: Secondary restless leg syndrome is a condition that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can also affect the arms or torso.
  • Severe depression:
  • Shallow Breathing: Small breathes (usually with rapid breathing)
  • Shift work sleep disorder: Shift work sleep disorder is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder which affects people who change their work or sleep schedules frequently or work longterm on other than the day shift.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which are crescent-shaped rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormally shaped red blood cells are unable to function normally and tend to undergo premature destruction which leads to anemia. If the genetic defect which causes the condition is inherited from both parents the condition can be quite severe whereas if it is inherited from only one parent, often there are no symptoms. The abnormally shaped red blood cells can cause problems when they clump together and block blood vessels.
  • Sideroblastic anemia: Sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder where the body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly. The condition may be inherited, acquired or secondary.
  • Sideroblastic anemia, hereditary: An inherited form of anemia where an enzyme deficiency prevents red blood cells from using iron properly. The red blood cells become overloaded with iron which impairs the blood's ability to carry oxygen.
  • Sideroblastic anemia, pyridoxine-responsive, autosomal recessive: Pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of iron in the red blood cells which makes them unable to function properly. The condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and responds to treatment with pyridoxine.
  • Sideropenic anemia: Sideropenic anemia is a blood abnormality characterized by reduced iron levels in the plasma. It is a very common form of anemia.
  • Silicosis: An occupation lung disease caused by breathing in silica dust.
  • Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Syndromes involving the cessation of breathing during sleep. Examples include obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. The condition may range from mild to severe.
  • Sleep Disorders, Extrinsic: An extrinsic sleep disorder is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder that is caused by factors outside the body such as jetlag and shift work as opposed to processes within the body. Delayed sleep phase syndrome and non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome are examples of extrinsic sleep disorders.
  • Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: An intrinsic sleep disorder is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder that is caused by processes within the body as opposed to extrinsic which is caused by factors outside the body such as jetlag and shift work.
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Sleep deprivation: The condition of not getting enough sleep.
  • Sleep dept: Sleep debt is a term used to describe the cumulative effects of insufficient sleep. It refers to the time difference between the recommended amount of sleep to the amount of sleep actually achieved.
  • Sleep disturbance related fibromyalgia: Sleep disturbance related fibromyalgia refers to fibromyalgia that is associated with sleep disturbance. Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized mainly by pain mainly in the muscles which involves no associated damage to the tissues.
  • Sleep sex: Sleep sex is a form of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnia that causes people to engage in sexual acts while they are asleep.
  • Sleep talking: Sleep talking is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud in one's sleep. It can be quite loud, ranging from simple sounds to long speeches, and can occur many times during sleep. Listeners may or may not be able to understand what the person is saying.
  • Sleepwalking: Sleepwalking is a parasomnia or sleep disorder where the sufferer engages in activities that are normally associated with wakefulness while he or she is asleep or in a sleep-like state.
  • Smith-Magenis Syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by various developmental problems as well as various physical defects primarily affecting the head and the face.
  • Smoking Cessation:
  • Snoring: is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound, due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping.
  • Spherocytic anemia: Spherocytic anemia is a blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that are shaped like a sphere (spherocytes) rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormal cells are broken down prematurely resulting in a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). The condition may be inherited or acquired.
  • Stress: Emotional stress (sometimes refers to physical stress)
  • Substance induced mood disorder: A substance induced mood disorder is characterized by depressions or manic episodes which develop during either a time when the person is taking a medication which causes the depression or the manic symptoms, a time when the person is intoxicated by a drug ,a time when the person is withdrawing from an intoxicating drug.
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: SIDS is a syndrome marked by the symptoms of sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year.
  • Sulphonamide -induced Immune Hemolytic Anemia: Sulphonamide-induced immune hemolytic anemia is a condition where use of a medication called Methyldopa triggers the body's immune system to destroy it's own red blood cells which results in anemia.
  • Thyroid disorders: Any disorder of the thyroid gland.
  • Tiredness: Feeling tired either physically or mentally
  • Toxin-induced Sideroblastic anemia: Toxin-induced sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder caused by toxins such as lead or zinc poisoning. The body has sufficient iron levels but is unable to utilise it properly in red blood cells. The iron becomes abnormally deposited in red blood cells which make them unable to function properly.
  • Ultram withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Ultram use is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Undifferentiated Somatoform disorder: A disorder which is characterised by one or more physical complaints that are not intentionally produced or feigned
  • Upper airway resistance syndrome: UARS is a sleep disorder characterized by airway resistance to breathing during sleep.
  • Uremic encephalopathy: Uremic encephalopathy is a consequence of renal failure and occurs due to build up of toxins which are normally cleared by the kidneys.
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency: A deficiency of Vitamin B12 primarily causes anemias the body is unable to make sufficient quantities of normal red blood cells. Severe cases can lead to permanent nervous system problems. The vitamin B12 deficiency can result from absorption problems, insufficient dietary intake, certain medications (e.g. metformin), inherited conditions (e.g. transcobalamin deficiency) and certain chronic parasitic intestinal infestations.
  • War sailor syndrome: A type of post-traumatic stress disorder that occurred in merchant ship sailors from World War II.
  • Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a condition where the body's immune system triggers the production of antibodies against the body's own red blood cells. The red cells are destroyed at an abnormally rapid rate which leads to anemia. Warm haemolytic anemia is characterized by the fact that the abnormal destruction of red blood cells is more active when the patient is exposed to warm temperatures. The severity of the condition varies depending on the underlying cause e.g. cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, HIV and lupus. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • X-linked sideroblastic anaemia:
  • X-linked sideroblastic anemia: X-linked sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of iron in the red blood cells which makes them unable to function properly. The body continues to absorb more iron from digesting food in order to try and correct the problem but this simply leads to excessive iron being deposited in body tissues as the it can't use the iron properly. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Zanoli-Vecchi syndrome: A complication of spinal surgery where bleeding in the spine causes blood to move into the brain ventricles and results in apnea, convulsions and loss of consciousness.

 

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