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Diseases » Spinal Cord Disorders » Glossary
 

Glossary for Spinal Cord Disorders

  • Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A rare neurological disorder where an inflammation of the brain and spinal cord occurs due to damage to the protective covering (myelin sheath) around the nerves.
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy: A rare disorder which has characteristic symptoms of Addison disease (adrenocortical insufficiency) and Schilder disease (cerebral sclerosis). Bronze skin, brain sclerosis and demyelination are the main symptoms.
  • Adrenomyeloneuropathy: A form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy characterized by spinal cord dysfunction and brain involvement may or may not be present. Those with brain involvement suffer serious symptoms that can eventually lead to total disability and even death.
  • Adult SMA: Form of Spinal Muscular Atrophy in adults.
  • Adult progressive spinal muscular atrophy, Aran Duchenne type: A group of inherited motor neuron diseases involving progressive muscle weakness, wasting and paralysis due to degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Muscle weakness and wasting usually starts in the hands and may gradually spread to other muscle groups.
  • Adult-onset ALD: Form of ALD in adults.
  • Alexander Syndrome: Brain myelin disorder causing mental degeneration.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A motor neuron disease involving progressive degeneration and eventual destruction of the function of nerves that control voluntary movement.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2, juvenile: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2q33.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 3: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 18q21.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4, juvenile: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 9q34.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 15q15.1-q21.1.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 16q12.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 7: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 20p13.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 20q13.3 and is a dominantly inherited, late-onset form.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1:
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 11: An inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 11 is differentiated by the origin of the genetic defect involved (6q21).
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 9: An inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 9 is differentiated by the origin of the genetic defect involved (14q11).
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial:
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 1: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 1 is characterized by adult onset and relatively fast progression of symptoms. It usually occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 2: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 2 is characterized by childhood or adolescent onset of symptoms which progress very slowly over decades. It occurs in an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 3: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 3 is characterized late adulthood onset of symptoms which progress slowly over 5 years. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 4: A generally fatal progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 4 is characterized by the onset of symptoms before the age of 25 and slow progression over the next few decades. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 5: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is characterized adolescent onset of symptoms with progression varying between 1 and 20 years. It occurs in an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 6: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is characterized adult onset of symptoms with progression varying between 1 and 20 years. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 7: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 7 is characterized adult onset of symptoms with progression varying between less than 5 years to several decades. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial type 8: A generally fatal, inherited progressive disease where destruction of motor nerves in the spinal cord and brain stem cause progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Type 8 is characterized by adult onset and relatively slow progression of symptoms. It occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, type 6: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 16q12.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia complex: A nerve degeneration disorder that involves progressive dementia and parkinsonism which ultimately leads to death.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex 2: A nerve degeneration disorder that involves progressive dementia and parkinsonism which ultimately leads to death.
  • Anemia, sideroblastic spinocerebellar ataxia: A rare inherited condition characterized by anemia at birth as well as spinocerebellar ataxia (impaired ability to control voluntary movements).
  • Anencephaly: A birth defect where most or all of the brain is missing - most die before birth. Usually the associated portions of skull and other tissue are also missing.
  • Anencephaly and spina bifida X-linked: A severe X-linked malformation syndrome involving anencephaly where a part or all of the brain and associated skull is missing as well as a defect or opening in the spinal column.
  • Anterior cord syndrome: Neurological symptoms caused by compression of the front part of the spinal column or damage to the anterior spinal artery.
  • Anterior horn disease: Any of a group of diseases that affect the anterior horn cells which make up part of the spinal cord. The anterior horn contains motor neurons which primarily affect the axial muscles. Symptoms will vary depending on the specific disease involved. Examples of such diseases includes Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, progressive muscular atrophy and polyiomyelitis.
  • Anterior spinal artery stroke: An interruption to the blood supply in the anterior spinal artery which affects sensation, motor control and bowel control. The symptoms may improve to varying degrees once the blood supply returns to normal. The severity of the disorder depends on the exact location of the defect and how long it persists for.
  • Anterior spinal artery syndrome: Neurological symptoms caused by the blockage of the anterior spinal artery. The blockage may be caused by such things as trauma, cancer, thrombosis and arterial disease. Symptoms are determined by the exact location of the blockage.
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 2: A rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. The extent of the deformity is greater in type 2 than type 1 and hence the symptoms are more severe and are often associated with a myelomeningocele (opening of the spine and spinal cord).
  • Arthrogryposis -- spinal muscular atrophy: A group of inherited motor neuron diseases involving progressive muscle weakness and wasting due to degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Joint contractures are also present at birth.
  • Autoimmune Myelopathy: A disturbance functionally or pathological change in the spinal cord
  • Autonomic dysreflexia syndrome: A complication caused by injury to the neck or upper back region of the spinal cord. Symptoms are induced by stimulation below the level of the injury which can be caused by such things as distended bladder, scratching the feet, squeezing the penis, stimulation of the rectum or accumulation of gas.
  • Back conditions: A group of conditions that affect the back
  • Back pain: Pain from the back or spine.
  • Back paresthesia (tingling): A loss of sensation located at or around the back
  • Balo disease: A rare neurological disorder where the protective sheath around brain nerve fibres are progressively destroyed. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the affected brain area.
  • Benign astrocytoma: Benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity depends on the location and size of the tumors.
  • Boucher-Neuhauser syndrome: A very rare disorder characterized by spinocerebellar ataxia, eye abnormalities and a failure of the pituitary to stimulate gonadal development during puberty.
  • Brachial Plexus Injury: Damage to the nerves controlling the shoulder and arm (often from childbirth).
  • Brown-Sequard Syndrome: A disorder where spinal cord compression and lesions involve only half of the spinal cord.
  • Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome: A very rare progressive disorder characterized by nerve deafness and cranial (and sometimes spinal) nerve paralysis.
  • Bruns-Garland syndrome: Spinal cord damage that occurs in some diabetics and results in weakness and wasting in the arms and legs.
  • COFS syndrome: A genetic disorder involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord that starts during the fetal stage.
  • Cauda equina syndrome: Is a neurological syndrome which occurs when a vertebral disc protrudes and compresses the spinal cord.
  • Caudal appendage -- deafness: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, finger bone abnormalities and a spinal extension giving a tail-like appearance (caudal appendage).
  • Caudal duplication: A rare disorder where some of the embryonic tissues that develop into the lower spine, genitalia and lower abdominal organs are duplicated - probably due to the incomplete separation of twins arising from one egg. The range of possible defects is extensive but often they are able to be surgically corrected and a relatively normal life is possible.
  • Caudal dysplasia sequence: A rare congenital disorder characterized by abnormal development of the lower spine during the fetal stage.
  • Caudal regression syndrome: A rare disorder where the bottom part of the fetal spine doesn't develop normally resulting in abnormalities that may be severe or mild depending on the degree of abnormality.
  • Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome: A genetic disorder involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord that starts during the fetal stage.
  • Cervical Spondylosis: Condition where bony changes within the cervical spine causes spinal cord compression with associated neck pain; usually seen in patients over 40 years of age.
  • Classic childhood ALD: Classic severe form of ALD in boys.
  • Congenital SMA with arthrogryposis: Type of SMA (genetic motor neuron disease) appearing from birth
  • Congenital benign spinal muscular atrophy dominant: A very rare syndrome characterized by non-progressive muscle weakness that affects mainly the legs.
  • Congenital muscular dystrophy syringomyelia: A very rare disorder characterized by muscle weakness and wasting from birth, a severely deformed spine and syringomyelia (cyst in the spinal cord).
  • Congenital stenosis of cervical medullary canal: A rare birth anomaly where the spinal canal in the upper part of the back is narrower than normal. The narrowing may be inherited or acquired (e.g. trauma). The narrowing of the canal can result in spinal cord compression and associated symptoms.
  • Craniofacial conodysplasia: A rare disorder characterized by neurological symptoms and abnormally-shaped bones in the hands and feet. The neurological symptoms are caused by a buildup of fluid inside the skull as well as compression of the spinal cord at the neck-skull junction.
  • Craniorachischisis: A rare malformation characterized by skull and spinal bone defects which leaves the brain and the nerves in the spine exposed. The severity of the condition is variable and generally results in death before or soon after birth. Often other defects such as imperforate anus or hernia is also present.
  • Cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis: A rare inherited disorder involving a skin birthmark as well as a blood vessel malformation in the spinal cord (angioma). The severity of the spinal involvement is variable with neurological problems occurring as a result of compression of the spinal cord or bleeding. Other cases may be undiagnosed as the cause no symptoms.
  • Dana syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by the gradual degeneration of the white matter of the spinal cord and pernicious anemia. Various neurological symptoms can result.
  • Dejerine-Klumpke syndrome: A rare condition where a lower spine lesion causes paralysis of the forearm and hand muscles as well as eye problems. The lesion may occur during birth or as a result of infection, tumor or trauma.
  • Devic disease: A rare nerve disorder involving demyelination of spinal cord and eye nerves.
  • Diastematomyelia: A congenital malformation involving a split in the spinal cord (diastematomyelia). Symptoms vary according to the size and location of the defect. Mild cases may cause few if any symptoms.
  • Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V: An inherited condition characterized by progressive muscle weakness in the hands and feet due to nerve cell damage in the spinal cord.
  • Dysraphism -- cleft lip palate -- limb reduction defects: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by an abnormal opening in the lip and palate, forearm abnormalities, spinal cord defects and an abnormal abdominal opening allowing the abdominal contents to protrude.
  • Encephalomyelitis: Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Ependymoma: A tumor that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Symptoms vary according to the aggressiveness, size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Fazio-Londe syndrome: A rare inherited motor neuron disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness which ultimately leads to premature death.
  • Female carrier ALD: Mild form of ALD in female carriers
  • Fibrocartilaginous embolism: A rare disorder where some of the material from a vertebral disc enters the blood supply to the spinal cord where it causes an obstruction. Symptoms are determined by where the obstruction occurs. The obstruction causes damage to part of the spinal cord resulting in neurological symptoms which can result in death depending on the size and location of the obstruction.
  • Foix-Alajouanine syndrome: A rare type of spinal cord disease caused by malformations in blood vessels supplying the spinal cord. Insufficient blood flow to the spinal cord causes muscle problems.
  • Friedreich ataxia: A progressive inherited neuromuscular disorder involving slow degeneration of the spinal cord and brain.
  • Friedreich ataxia -- congenital glaucoma: A rare disorder characterized by glaucoma at birth and a progressive neuromuscular disorder.
  • Friedreich's ataxia: Progressive muscle weakness from nerve damage.
  • Glioma: A rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Gliosis: proliferation of astrocytes in the central nervous system in response to injury - resulting in scar formation.
  • Hereditary ataxia: Ataxia may depend on hereditary disorders consisting of degeneration of the cerebellum and/or of the spine
  • Hip pain: Pain in the hip region
  • Holoprosencephaly -- caudal dysgenesis: A very rare syndrome where the tailbone and the portion above the tailbone (coccyx and sacrum) fail to develop. The brain also fails to divide into two lobes resulting in a single-lobed brain
  • Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia: A rare disorder that has neurological origins and causes progressive ataxia, impaired tendon reflexes, abnormal limb movements, and sensory, eye muscle and hearing impairment.
  • Kennedy Syndrome: A rare eye disorder involving the association of optic atrophy (loss of optic nerves) and scotoma (blind spot in vision) in one eye and papilledema (swelling of the optic disc) in the other. It is often associated with a tumor in the optic nerve or frontal lobe of the brain. Various other symptoms may also be associated with the condition depending on the cause.
  • Lateral meningocele syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by lateral meningoceles (openings in the spinal cord on the inside of the spine) as well as craniofacial anomalies. The syndrome is believed to involve the abnormal development of the spinal cord, cerebellum and cerebral cortex.
  • Leg pain: Pain affecting the leg
  • Leg paresthesia: Leg tingling, prickling, numbness or burning sensations
  • Leukodystrophy: A very rare group of metabolic diseases where chemical anomalies affect the development or maintenance of the protective coating around nerves (myelin sheath). The brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves may be involved. The range and severity of symptoms is determined by the chemical involved but one of the main symptoms for all the leukodystrophies is a gradual loss of previously acquired mental or physical skills.
  • Lipomyelomeningocele: A rare congenital condition where a fatty mass is attached to the spinal cord and protrudes through a defect in the spinal cord. It forms a mass under the skin and damage to this mass or compression of adjacent spinal cord can have neurological consequences. Compression effects are more likely to occur if the patient gains or loses weight rapidly - especially during growth spurts. It can develop anywhere along the spine but is less common in the neck and upper regions of the spine. The condition is often associated with other congenital abnormalities such as cloacal malformations or imperforate anus. The severity of the condition is variable depending on whether neurological symptoms develop due to the attachment to the spinal cord.
  • Lissencephaly type III -- familial foetal akinesia sequence: A rare brain malformation where the surface of the brain is smoother than normal. Fetal akinesia sequence is also present and is characterized by the absence of fetal movement and degeneration of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Machado-Joseph Disease: Rare genetic muscle disease causing muscle weakness.
  • Malignant astrocytoma: A very malignant primary brain tumor consisting of astrocytes. The tumor spreads throughout the brain and a third of patients dying in the first year.
  • Meningocele: A condition which is characterized by a protrusion of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord through a defect in the spinal cord
  • Meningomyelocele: A very rare developmental disorder where a part of the membrane that covers the spinal cord and part of the spinal cord itself protrudes through an abnormal opening in the bones of the spinal column. The condition may be asymptomatic or if the defect is large, severe neurological abnormalities may result.
  • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy: An inherited biochemical deficiency involving a deficiency of the enzyme called arylsulfatase A which leads to a harmful buildup of fatty material in the body.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Muscle cramps: A condition which is characterized by the uncontrolled contractions of muscles
  • Myelitis: Spinal cord inflammation.
  • Myelopathy: Myelopathy is any disease process that effects the spinal cord.
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Neural tube defect: Any defect that occurs to the neural tube
  • Neural tube defect, folate-sensitive: Neural tube defects caused by abnormal folate or homocysteine metabolism. Neural tube defects are brain or spine defects such as an opening in the spinal cord through which the spinal cord protrudes.
  • Neural tube defects X-linked: A very rare disorder where neural tube defects (brain and spine defects) such as spina bifida are inherited in a X-linked manner (only males are affected whereas females are carriers).
  • Neurosyphilis -- tabes dorsalis: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the spinal cord and progressively impairs muscle function and nerve damage may also occur. This form of the condition is progressive and life-threatening.
  • Occult spinal dysraphism: A rare disorder characterized by progressive neurological deterioration due to compression of the spinal cord in the spine.
  • Optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis: The optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis (OSMS), characterized by recurrent involvement of optic nerve and spinal cord with rare brain magnetic resonance imaging lesions.
  • Paralysis: The loss of motor function due to dysfunction of the spinal cord
  • Paraplegia: Paralysis of legs and sometimes lower body
  • Pena Shokeir syndrome, type 1: A rare congenital syndrome involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord and characterized by facial, head, skeletal and muscular abnormalities. Reduced fetal activity causes many of the problems.
  • Pena-Shokeir syndrome Type 2: A rare progressive congenital syndrome involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord and characterized by facial, head, skeletal and muscular abnormalities as well as eye abnormalities.
  • Perineal hemangioma -- external genitalia malformations -- lipomyelomeningocele -- vesicorenal abnormalities -- imperforate anus: A term used to describe the association of infantile perineal hemangiomas with any of the following: external genitalia malformations, lipomyelomeningocele, vesicorenal abnormalities and imperforate anus.
  • Peripheral neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness.
  • Pontocerebellar hypoplasia with infantile spinal muscular atrophy: A rare, recessively inherited disorder characterized by an abnormally small brain and brainstem which manifests as a small head and mental retardation. The disorder is lethal with death usually occurring within the first year. The brain progressively degenerates.
  • Progressive Spinobulbar muscular atrophy: Genetic disease affecting nerves and muscles
  • Progressive muscular atrophy: A condition which is characterized by painless, degenerative myopathies.
  • Progressive spinal muscular atrophy: A group of inherited motor neuron diseases involving progressive muscle weakness and wasting due to degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. The severity of symptoms and survival varies depending on the particular form of the condition. Death can occur as early as infancy whereas some forms allow survival into adulthood.
  • Proximal spinal muscular atrophy: A rare group of muscle disorders which mainly affects the muscles closest to the trunk of the body. Muscles become progressively weak and wasted due to damage to motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.
  • Proximal spinal muscular atrophy, type 1: A type of spinal muscular atrophy which is a progressive genetic motor neuron disease involving the nerves and muscles. The condition is relatively rare and is characterized by muscle weakness which leads to structural deformities and loss or reduced capability of normal body movements. SMA type I is the most debilitating form as muscular weakness is evident at birth and diagnosis usually occurs within the first three months.
  • Proximal spinal muscular atrophy, type 3: A rare inherited disorder where motor neuron degeneration causes progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. The proximal muscles tend to be more affected than the distal ones and the legs tend to be more affected than the arms.
  • Proximal spinal muscular atrophy, type 4: A rare, progressive neuro-muscular disease that occurs in adults. Nerve cells in the spinal cord are impaired resulting in loss of voluntary muscle control in various parts of the body. The lack of use of the muscle results in atrophy or weakness. Progression and prognosis is difficult to determine as individuals are affected to varying degrees.
  • Proximal spinal muscular atrophy, type IV: A rare, progressive neuro-muscular disease that occurs in adults. Nerve cells in the spinal cord are impaired resulting in loss of voluntary muscle control in various parts of the body. The lack of use of the muscle results in atrophy or weakness. Progression and prognosis is difficult to determine as individuals are affected to varying degrees.
  • Renal agenesis -- meningomyelocele -- mullerian defect: A rare disorder characterized by the absence of a kidney, spinal abnormality and a defect involving the female reproductive organs.
  • Sacral defect and anterior sacral meningocele: A very rare syndrome characterized by a meningocele (failure of the backbone to close before birth) in the tailbone area.
  • Sacral meningocele -- conotruncal heart defects: A very rare syndrome characterized by mainly by heart defects involving the heart outflow vessels and valves, tailbone meningocele and abnormal kidney development.
  • Schwartz newark syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by pigmentation anomaly, hydrocephaly, spina bifida and a myelomeningocele.
  • Shy-Drager Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by a progressive disease of the brain and spinal cord affecting the autonomic nervous system
  • Spina bifida: A birth defect where the spinal vertebrae do not completely enclose the spinal cord often resulting in various degrees of nerve damage.
  • Spinal AVM: Spinal AVM's refers to a group of abnormal blood vessels (arteries and veins) in the spinal canal. The severity of symptoms depends on the size and growth of the blood vessel malformation. Severe complications such as paralysis can result if the malformed blood vessels rupture and bleed.
  • Spinal Cord Damage-Induced Synesthesia: Spinal cord-induced synesthesia is a form of synesthesia resulting from damage to the spinal cord - usually involves the touch sensation and tends to result in phantom sensations. Synesthesia is a relatively common perceptual anomaly where a stimulus of one of the senses (e.g. hearing) results in an experience or sensation in another sensory modality or an unusual perception in the same sensory modality.
  • Spinal Cord Tumor: Cancer of the spinal cord or central nervous system.
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A rare condition characterized by progressive degeneration of the spinal and brainstem motor neurons. During fetal development excess primary neurons are formed. The body automatically destroys the extra primary neurons so that only some survive and mature into neurons. In spinal muscular dystrophy, the process that destroys the excess primary neurons doesn't switch off and continues destroying the neurons resulting in progressive motor problems. Various types of the condition range from mild to severe enough to cause death within a couple of years of birth.
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I: Type of SMA, a genetic motor neuron disease affecting nerves and muscles.
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy type II: Type of SMA, a genetic motor neuron disease affecting nerves and muscles.
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy type III: Type of SMA, a genetic motor neuron disease affecting nerves and muscles.
  • Spinal atrophy -- ophthalmoplegia -- pyramidal syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by weak eye muscles, progressive spinal cord deterioration resulting in muscle weakness and wasting
  • Spinal bulbar motor neuropathy: A rare inherited disease that affects the nerves in the spine and in the bulbous (bulbar) part of the brain stem. The main signs are muscle weakness and wasting.
  • Spinal conditions: Any condition that affects the spine
  • Spinal cord injury: Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord as a result of a direct trauma to the spinal cord itself or as a result of indirect damage to the bones and soft tissues and vessels surrounding the spinal cord.
  • Spinal cord neoplasm: A growth (tumor) that arises from the spinal cord. The tumor may be benign or malignant.
  • Spinal curvature: Various types of curvature of the spine
  • Spinal deformity: Congenital or acquired back deformities.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy -- Dandy-Walker complex -- cataracts: A rare syndrome characterized by muscle weakness in the ends of the limbs, cataracts and a brain anomaly called a Dandy-Walker malformation.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy type 2: A group of inherited motor neuron diseases involving progressive muscle weakness and wasting due to degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress 1: An inherited neuromuscular disease that causes progressive weakness in the arm and chest muscles leading to severe respiratory problems early in life. Sufferers are never able to sit independently and breathing problems progress rapidly with breathing assistance needed within the first five years.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy, Adult form: A rare, progressive neuro-muscular disease that occurs in adults. Nerve cells in the spinal cord are impaired resulting in loss of voluntary muscle control in various parts of the body. The lack of use of the muscle results in atrophy or weakness. Progression and prognosis is difficult to determine as individuals are affected to varying degrees.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy, Ryukyuan type: A recessively inherited disorder occurring in males from a Japanese inhabitants of Ryukyu Islands. The disorder is characterized by muscle wasting and weakness that affects the lower legs more than the arms.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy, scapuloperoneal: A recessively inherited disorder involving muscle wasting and weakness that occurs mainly in the shoulder and lower leg girdle muscles. It results from a loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy, type 3: A rare inherited disorder where motor neuron degeneration causes progressive muscle weakness and atrophy.
  • Spinal muscular atrophy, type I, with congenital bone fractures: A group of inherited motor neuron diseases involving progressive muscle weakness and wasting due to degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Bone fractures also occur in newborn infants.
  • Spinal shock: A rare condition that can occur after spinal cord injury and involves a period of absent reflexes which may be permanent or last for hours to weeks. This period may be followed by a period of excessive reflexes.
  • Spinal stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal cavity around the spinal cord.
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia: A condition characterised by a failure of muscle coordination due to pathology arising in the spinocerebellar tract of the spinal cord
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia 9: An inherited condition characterized by slowly progressive incoordination and speech and eye movement problems due to degeneration of part of the brain called the cerebellum.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia -- amyotrophy -- deafness: A very rare syndrome characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, ataxia and deafness.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia -- dysmorphism: A rare inherited syndrome characterized by ataxia and unusual facial appearance.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 10: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 22q13 defect) characterized by gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder). The severity of the condition is variable with some patients becoming wheelchair dependent.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 11: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 15q14-21.3 defect) characterized by gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder). This form of the condition progresses slowly and doesn't affect life expectancy.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 12: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 5q31-q33 defect) characterized by variable symptoms such as arm tremors, gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) with other.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 13: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 19 defect) characterized by progressive mental retardation. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 14: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 19q13.4qter defect) characterized by gait ataxia, tremors and dysarthria (speech disorder). The condition progresses slowly.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 15: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 3p26-p25 defect) characterized by gait ataxia, eye movement problems and dysarthria (speech disorder). The condition tends to progress slowly over decades with most patients retaining the ability to walk.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 16: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 3p26.2-pter defect) characterized by gait ataxia, eye movement problems, tremor and dysarthria (speech disorder). The progression of the condition is variable (1-40 years).
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 17: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 6q27 defect) characterized by . Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 18: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 7q22-31 defect) characterized by muscle atrophy and sensory loss. The severity of symptoms is variable. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 19: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 1p21-q21 defect) characterized by mild cognitive impairment and myoclonus. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 2: A disorder involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord and causing progressive coordination difficulty and other symptoms. Symptom generally become more severe earlier than in spinocerebellar ataxia 1.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 20: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 11 defect) characterized by palatal tremor and dysphonia. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 21: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 7p21.3-p15.1 defect) characterized by extrapyramidal features and cognitive impairment. The condition progresses slowly over decades. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 22: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome defect) characterized by ataxia, eye movement problems and dysarthria (speech disorder). The condition progresses slowly over decades.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 23: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 20p13-12.3 defect) characterized by ataxia, sensory loss and pyramidal signs. It is a slowly progressing condition.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 25: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 2p15-p21 defect) characterized by sensory neuropathy and damage to the motor control part of the brain (cerebellar atrophy) resulting in ataxia. It is a slow progressing condition.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 26: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 19p13.3 defect) characterized by slowly progressive ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder).
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 27: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome FGF14; 13q34 defect) characterized by tremors, dyskinesia and psychiatric episodes. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 28: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 18p11 defect) characterized by eye muscle paralysis (ophthalmoplegia) and increased reflexes. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 29: A form of ataxia which starts from birth but is nonprogressive. The severity of symptoms may vary amongst patients.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 3: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 14q32.1defect) characterized by . Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types. The duration of the disease is 1-20 years.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 4: An inherited disorder where degeneration of certain parts of the brain and spinal cord results in symptoms such as ataxia, sensory neuropathy and spastic paraplegia.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 5: A genetic disorder involving progressive degeneration of the spinal cord resulting in symptoms such as incoordination and eye movement problems.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia 8: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 13q21 defect) characterized by horizontal nystagmus and mild sensory neuropathy. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy, type 2: A neurological disorder characterized by progressive ataxia, tremor and muscle weakness and wasting. The rate of progression and severity is variable with some needing wheelchairs in their second decade and others still capable of some walking in their 4th decade.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, Machado-Joseph type I: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 14q32.1defect) characterized by early onset of symptoms - ataxia, bulging eyes and extrapyramidal symptoms. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, Machado-Joseph type II: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 14q32.1defect) characterized by intermediate onset of symptoms. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, Machado-Joseph type III: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 14q32.1defect) characterized by later onset of symptoms such as weak eye muscles and peripheral neuropathy. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, Machado-Joseph type IV: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 14q32.1defect) characterized by late onset of symptoms - muscle twitching and Parkinsonism. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, Machado-Joseph type V: A rare genetic disorder (chromosome 14q32.1defect) characterized by spastic paraparesis. Gait ataxia and dysarthria (speech disorder) also occur and are symptoms common to all the spinocerebellar ataxia types.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, X-linked, 2: A rare neurological disorder characterized mainly by ataxia, spasticity and early death.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, X-linked, 3: A rare neurological disorder involving mainly ataxia and deafness which starts during infancy and progresses quite rapidly to result in childhood death.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, X-linked, 4: A rare neurological disorder involving mainly ataxia and dementia which starts during adulthood. The condition is slowly progressive.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, X-linked, 5: A rare, X-linked neurological disorder which is not progressive and mainly involves ataxia, nystagmus and dysarthria.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, X-linked, type 4: A rare neurological disorder involving mainly ataxia and dementia which starts during adulthood. The condition is slowly progressive.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal dominant: A group of disorder involving slow progressing incoordination and speech and eye movement problems due to degeneration of the cerebellum of the brain. The various forms of the disorder vary according to the degree and range of muscle involvement.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 1: A neurological disorder characterized by progressive ataxia, tremor and muscle weakness and wasting. The rate of progression and severity is variable with some needing wheelchairs in their second decade and others still capable of some walking in their 4th decade.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 2: A rare, recessively inherited brain disorder characterized by ataxia and mental retardation. The severity of the disorder is variable and the condition is nonprogressive.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 3: A rare neurological disorder caused by a genetic defect (chromosome 6p21, recessive) and resulting in ataxia and loss of vision and hearing.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 4: A rare neurological disorder caused by a genetic defect (chromosome 1p36, recessive) and resulting in ataxia and eye movement problems.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 5: A rare neurological disorder caused by a genetic defect (chromosome 15q24-q26, recessive) and resulting in ataxia, mental problems and a skin disorder. Symptoms start during infancy and more than half of the patients never gain the ability to walk.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 6: A rare disorder that has neurological origins and causes nonprogressive ataxia, which begins during infancy.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 7: A rare, recessively inherited neurological disorder caused by abnormalities in the cerebellum and spinal cord. The severity of the disorder is variable.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 9: A rare, recessively inherited neurological disorder caused by abnormalities in the cerebellum and spinal cord. This particular form of the condition is caused by a defect in the CABC1 gene on chromosome 1q42.2.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive, with axonal neuropathy: A rare neurological disorder caused by a genetic defect (chromosome 114q31-q32, recessive) and resulting in ataxia and dysarthria.
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia-dysmorphism syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by characteristic facial anomalies, ataxia, delayed psychomotor development and various skeletal deformities.
  • Spinocerebellar degenerescence, book type: A very rare syndrome characterized by movement problems and mental retardation that originates from a brain defect.
  • Spondylosis: Spinal degeneration of the discs or spinal joints
  • Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord: Gradual spinal cord degeneration
  • Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system: A rare disorder where hemosiderin (free iron) is deposited in parts of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord tissue). It is often caused by repeated periods of bleeding in the brain (subarachnoid space).
  • Syringobulbia: A neurological disorder that progresses slowly and is characterized by a fluid filled cavity in the spinal cord and brain stem.
  • Syringomelia: A rare disorder characterized by the presence of cavities in the spinal cord which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid. The condition may occur for no apparent reason (primary) or may have a known causes (secondary) such as Chiari malformation, posttraumatic spinal canal compression, posttraumatic myelomalacia, intraspinal tumor or postinfective arachnoiditis. The severity of the condition is greatly variable with some people remaining generally asymptomatic whereas others suffer disability and require surgical intervention.
  • Syringomyelia: Spinal cord cysts
  • Syringomyelia, cervical lesion: A slowly-progressing neurological disorder characterized by a fulid-filled cavity in the spinal cord in the neck region.
  • Syringomyelia, lumbar lesion: A slowly-progressing neurological disorder characterized by a fluid-filled cavity in the spinal cord in the region between the lower ribs and pelvis.
  • Syringomyelia, medulla oblongata lesion: A slowly-progressing neurological disorder characterized by a fluid-filled cavity in the spinal cord at base of the brain.
  • Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome: Spinal cord condition from abnormally stretched spinal cord.
  • Thigh paresthesias: Burning, tingling, numbness or sensations of the thigh
  • Transverse myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord which results in various neurological and muscle symptoms. The inflammation can occur for no obvious reason or may result from a virus, bacterial infection, autoimmune disease or vaccination. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and degree of inflammation.
  • Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: A form of spastic partial paralysis of the lower limbs which occurs in the tropics
  • Vacuolar myopathy: A term used to describe a group of conditions involving degeneration of the spinal cord. It is most often seen in AIDS patients but also occurs in conditions such as inherited muscle diseases and other neuromuscular conditions.

 

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