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Diseases » Stroke » Glossary
 

Glossary for Stroke

  • A ?-protein amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage. This particular form involves deposits of ?-proteins in the nerves resulting in Alzheimer's disease or around brain blood vessels which can cause strokes or brain bleeds.
  • Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a group of conditions that are considered major risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
  • Accelerated hypertension: Accelerated hypertension is a condition characterized by a rapid increase in blood pressure. The condition is a medical emergency which can cause organ damage if not treated promptly.
  • Air embolism: A condition which is characterized by air bubbles entering the circulation usually due to trauma, decompression sickness or surgery.
  • Ales dysfibrinogenemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal fibrinogen which is a protein essential to the blood clotting process. The Alès type was discovered in Alès.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Amyloidosis VII: Amyloidosis involves the abnormal deposit of a substance called amyloid in various parts of the body. In the Ohio type, the amyloid deposits in the leptomeningeal blood vessels, brainstem, spinal cord and eye causing central nervous system dysfunction, brain hemorrhages as well as vision impairment.
  • Amyloidosis, oculoleptomeningeal: Amyloidosis involves the abnormal deposit of a substance called amyloid in various parts of the body. In this particular type, the amyloid deposits in the leptomeningeal blood vessels, brainstem, spinal cord and eye causing central nervous system dysfunction, brain hemorrhages and vision impairment.
  • Aneurysm: Dangerous ballooning of a weakened area of an artery
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 1: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 7q11.2.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 10: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 10 is caused by a defect on chromosome 8q12.1.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 2: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19q13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 3: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 1p36.13-p34.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 4: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 5p15.2-14.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 5: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2p13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 6: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are now six different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases an individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 9p21.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 7: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 11q24-q25.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 8: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 8 is caused by a defect on chromosome 14q23.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 9: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2q33.1.
  • Angioma hereditary neurocutaneous: A rare genetic condition characterized angiomas involving both the skin and nervous system.
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome: An autoimmune disorder characterized by blood clots and pregnancy losses.
  • Aorta conditions: Conditions that affect the aorta
  • Aphasia: Language difficulty usually from brain damage or stroke.
  • Arteriosclerosis Obliterans: Arteriosclerosis that results in the narrowing and gradual blockage of the artery. Arteriosclerosis involves the deposition of cholesterol plaques and other material on the inside of the artery walls. The symptoms will depend on the location of the arteries affected and how severe the blockage is.
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Atrial Fibrillation: Common heart arrythmia with rapid beating in upper chambers
  • Atrial Septal Defect 3: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 3 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 14q12. There are no other heart abnormalities associated with the condition.
  • Atrial Septal Defect 4: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 4 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 7p15-p14. There are no other heart abnormalities associated with the condition.
  • Atrial Septal Defect 5: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 5 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 15q14. There are no other heart abnormalities associated with the condition.
  • Atrial Septal Defect 6: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 6 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 4q32-q33.
  • Autonomic Dysreflexia: A complication of spinal cord injury where a particular stimulus can trigger an excessive response from the autonomic nervous system which causes blood pressure to rise - sometimes to dangerous levels. Stimuli that can trigger the response include bladder irritation, bowel irritation (e.g. due to constipation, gas, enema), skin irritation (e.g. due to burns, pressure sores, ingrown toenails), broken bones, tight clothing, labour and temperature extremes. The severity and frequency of the condition is highly variable. The condition occurs in patients with tetraplegia or with loss of sensation above the lower rib cage.
  • Bacterial endocarditis: Infection and inflammation of the inner layers of the heart, most commonly the valves cause by bacteria.
  • Behavioral symptoms: Symptoms of personal behavior.
  • Behcet's Disease: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
  • Bing-Neel syndrome: A rare disorder involving infiltration of the central nervous system by abnormal leukemia-like cells (lymphoplasmocytoid cells) that occur in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. The abnormality increases blood viscosity which impairs its circulation through small brain and eye blood vessels.
  • Binswanger Disease: Multi-infarct dementia, caused by damage to deep white matter.
  • Binswanger's Disease: A type of senile dementia characterized by chronic cerebrovascular disease.
  • Blood pressure symptoms: High (hypertension) or low blood pressure (hypotension).
  • Body skin hyperlaxity due to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency: A rare inherited connective tissue disorder caused by a deficiency of a blood coagulation factor.
  • Botulism food poisoning: Extremely dangerous food poisoning requiring medical attention, but not always recognized because of its non-abdominal symptoms.
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Breathing difficulty: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
  • Cardiac arrest: Stoppage of the heart, usually caused by heart attack
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Diseases of the heart or blood vessels including cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke.
  • Carotid artery stenosis:
  • Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial: A rare disorder where abnormal deposits of amyloid in the brain blood vessels causes spasticity, incoordination and dementia. Brain hemorrhage and strokes may also result in severe cases.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: Dangerous swelling of a brain blood vessel that may rupture.
  • Cerebral Arteriosclerosis: Hardening or blockage of arteries in the brain.
  • Cerebral Autosomal Recessive Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy: A rare inherited condition characterized primarily by progressive degeneration of the brain white matter and disease of the brain blood vessels as well as additional symptoms not involving the brain e.g. thin skin, alopecia and spinal disc disease.
  • Cerebral hemorrhage: Bleeding in the brain
  • Cerebral oedema:
  • Cerebral ventricle neoplasm: A tumor that occurs in the fluid-filled spaces of the brain called the ventricles. Symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor and whether it is cancerous or not.
  • Cerebrovascular Conditions: Conditions of the brain's blood vessels including stroke.
  • Cerebrovascular accident: Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted and results in cell injury and death.
  • Circulatory system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the heart and the circulatory system.
  • Cocaine abuse: Stimulant drug with various effects
  • Cocaine addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use cocaine on a regular basis. Chronic cocaine use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Cocaine overdose: Cocaine is an illegal and highly addictive recreational drug. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Cognitive impairment: General loss of mental or cognitive ability
  • Coma: Prolonged unconsciousness
  • Congenital aneurysms of the great vessels: A bulge in one of the main blood vessels in the body - pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, vena cava and aorta. The condition is generally asymptomatic unless the aneurysm becomes very large or bursts which can result in rapid death depending on the location of the aneurysm.
  • Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn's syndrome: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adenoma, carcinoma or enlargement of the adrenal gland or glands. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Convulsions: Involuntary spasms especially those affecting the full body
  • Coordination problems: Symptoms affecting physical coordination.
  • Crack addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use crack on a regular basis. Chronic crack use can lead to dependency in as little as two weeks. Crack is a form of cocaine - powdered cocaine is heated with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate to make rocks of crack. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Crystal meth addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use crystal meth on a regular basis. Crystal meth is a powerful stimulant used illegally for its effects. It is highly addictive and known by street names such as ice, speed, glass, crank and chalk. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Decompression sickness: Condition from overly rapid decompression, especially when diving.
  • Defective apolipoprotein B-100: A rare inherited condition where defective apolipoprotein B-100 impairs the metabolism of cholesterol and results in high blood cholesterol which in turn increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Diabetes: Failing or reduced ability of the body to handle sugars.
  • Diabetic hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar attack from insulin or diabetes medications
  • Dienestrol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dienestrol (a synthetic form of Viagra) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen
  • Dissecting aortic aneurysm: aortic dissection is a potentially life-threatening condition in which there is bleeding into and along the wall of the aorta, the major artery leaving the heart
  • Dizziness: Feelings of lightheadedness or giddiness.
  • Dysarthria: Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder characterized by difficulty forming and expressing words that is the result of injury to or pathology of the nervous system.
  • Dysbarism: A condition that occurs when there is a change in the surrounding pressure such as when scuba diving or moving to places of different altitudes. Dysbarism can occur when pressure increases or decreases and includes conditions such as decompression sickness, barotraumas, nitrogen narcosis, high pressure nervous system and atrial gas embolism.
  • Dysphasia: Dysphasia refers to difficulty swallowing.
  • Eclampsia: Eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure. The blood pressure can return to normal after delivery or may persist for a period of time.
  • Ecstasy abuse: Use of the illicit drug called ecstasy
  • Ecstasy overdose: Ectsasy is an illegal and highly addictive recreational drug. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Embolism: Blockage of an artery or blood vessel
  • Emotional symptoms: Symptoms affecting the emotions.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
  • Endocarditis, infective: A rare condition where a bacterial infection attacks the inner lining of the heart muscle and valves which is called the endocardium.
  • Endomyocardial fibrosis: Heart disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lining of one or both lower heart cavities. This results in constriction of the heart cavity and may involve the heart valves and other structures.
  • Epilepsy: Brain condition causing seizures or spasms.
  • Epoetin alfa -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Epoetin alfa (used to treat some forms of anemia) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Epogen -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Epogen (used to treat some forms of anemia) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Essential thrombocytosis -- same as essential thrombocythemia: A rare blood disorder where the blood contains too many platelets due to excessive megakaryocytes (platelet-producing cells). Platelets are essential for blood clotting but in essential thrombocythemia excessive platelets can cause the blood to form abnormal clots. If the platelets are defective as well then bleeding problems can occur. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Eye movement symptoms: Symptoms affecting the movement of the eye
  • Fabry's Disease: Genetic fat storage disorder
  • Familial Apolipoprotein A-I and C-III Deficiency: Familial Apolipoprotein A-I and C-III Deficiency is a lipid metabolism disorder characterized by low HDL cholesterol and a lack of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III in the blood.
  • Familial Apolipoprotein A-I, C-III, A-IV Deficiency: Familial Apolipoprotein A-I, C-III and A-IV Deficiency is a lipid metabolism disorder characterized by low HDL cholesterol and a lack of apolipoproteins A-I and C-III in the blood.
  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A genetic abnormality which causes patients to have abnormally high cholesterol levels (low-density lipoproteins). The condition usually leads to early cardiovascular disease.
  • Familial atrial fibrillation: A rare inherited condition where abnormal electrical activity in the heart causes it to have a fast and irregular beat. The condition may go unnoticed or may cause stroke or sudden death in some cases.
  • Familial hemiplegic migraine:
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia of arteries: A rare disease where the blood vessel walls thicken and harden which reduces blood flow through the arteries and into various organs. The main arteries that may be affected are those in the kidney's and abdomen as well as the carotid artery which caries blood from the heart to the neck.
  • Forgetfulness: Forgetting things or loss of memory ability
  • Frozen Shoulder: Frozen shoulder, or adhesive capsulitis, is a condition that causes restriction of motion in the shoulder joint.
  • Gliosis: proliferation of astrocytes in the central nervous system in response to injury - resulting in scar formation.
  • Granulomatous Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The condition tends to recur.
  • HERNS syndrome: A rare inherited syndrome characterized by blood vessel disease which causes eye and kidney disease and strokes. Neurological manifestations tend to occur around the 2nd and 3rd decade of life due to the blood vessels in the brain being affected.
  • HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  • Headache: In medicine a headache or cephalalgia is a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and sometimes neck. Some of the causes are benign while others are medical emergencies. It ranks among the most common pain complaints
  • Hearing symptoms: Problems with the ear's hearing ability
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Hemiparesis: One-sided paralysis of the body
  • Hemiplegia: Paralysis of one side of the body.
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: A blood disorder triggered by the use of the drug called heparin which is an anticoagulant. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia is an inherited condition involving abnormal lipid metabolism. Cholesterol levels tend to be with coronary artery disease usually developing before the age of 50. The heterozygous form of the condition is not as severe as the homozygous form of the disease.
  • Hiccups: Noise and diaphragm muscle contractions (properly called "hiccoughs")
  • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension:
  • High Cholesterol: High levels of blood cholesterol, triglycerides, or other lipids.
  • Homocystinuria: A rare inherited metabolic disorder involving the amino acid methionine and resulting in a harmful accumulation of homocysteine in the body.
  • Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency: A rare genetic biochemical disorder where a deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase results in high levels of methionine and homocysteine in the blood and reduced levels of cyteine in the blood. There are two subtypes of the disorder with varying manifestations. One type responds to Vitmain B6 supplementation and the other doesn't. Those who do respond to Vitamin B6 tend to have milder manifestations.
  • Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia is a severe inherited condition involving abnormal lipid metabolism. Cholesterol levels tend to be very high with problems occurring early in life. Death from a heart attack can occur within the first few years of life in severe cases.
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia: Hyperlipoproteinemia is a medical term for high levels of lipids in the blood which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure
  • Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta: Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta is high blood pressure resulting from a birth defect where a heart blood vessel called the aorta is abnormally narrowed. The high blood pressure tends to affect mainly the upper part of the body. Babies and very young children tend to have more severe symptoms as the degree of narrowing tends to be greater than in older children or adults.
  • Hyperventilation: Excessively rapid breathing causing blood gas imbalances
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Lung fibrosis from unknown causes.
  • Impotence: Inability to attain or sustain an erection.
  • Infective endocarditis: The infection and inflammation of the inner heart layers, especially the valves. The infection is usually bacterial. The condition carries a high risk of death.
  • Intracranial arteriovenous malformation: A congenital malformation where there is an opening that connects an artery with a vein inside the brain. Severity of symptoms is determined by the extent of the malformation.
  • Ischemia: Inadequate blood supply to tissues, usually caused by a problem in the blood vessel.
  • Language problems: Symptoms affecting language processing.
  • Lipoproteinemia: A disorder in which the proteins that carry fat around the body are defective.
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Malignant hypertension: Malignant hypertension is a condition characterized by very high blood pressure and swelling of the optic nerve. This type of hypertension is more common in people with kidney problems such as narrowed kidney blood vessels. The condition is a medical emergency which can cause organ damage if not treated promptly.
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Methamphetamine overdose: Methamphetamine is a prescription drug mainly used to treat ADHD . Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Methylmalonic aciduria -- homocystinuria: A rare group of disorders characterized by methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria resulting from abnormal metabolism of vitamin B12 by the liver. There are various subtypes of the condition with varying ages of onset and severity of symptoms.
  • Migraine: Chronic recurring headaches with or without a preceding aura.
  • Mitochondrial diseases: Any of a group of mitochondrial disorders affecting cell metabolism and especially muscles.
  • Mitral-valve prolapse: A common heart condition that is often harmless.
  • Mountain sickness: Illness from poor adjustment to low oxygen at altitude.
  • Movement symptoms: Changes to movement or motor abilities
  • Moyamoya Disease: Brain blood vessel disorder.
  • Multi-Infarct Dementia: Dementia due to brain blood clots and strokes.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Muscle weakness: A condition which is characterized by an inability of the muscles to function at their full strenght
  • Narcotic addiction: An uncontrollable desire to use narcotics on a regular basis. The drug may be used as a therapeutic medication for various conditions but it's use is also frequently abused. Examples of narcotic drugs include heroin, morphine, Demerol and codeine. Frequent use leads to an increased tolerance to the drug so higher and higher doses are required to achieve the desired euphoric feeling.
  • Nausea: The queasy feeling of nausea and often also vomiting.
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Neurogenic bladder: Problems with the nerves controlling the bladder and urination.
  • Neurosyphilis: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and causes a range of neurological symptoms. The condition can be life-threatening but some cases are asymptomatic. There are four forms of the condition: asymptomatic, meningovascular, tabes dorsalis and general paresis.
  • Neurosyphilis -- general paresis: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the brain cells and causes a range of neurological symptoms. The condition is progressive and life-threatening.
  • Neurosyphilis -- meningovascular: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the central nervous system and causes cranial nerve palsies and pupil abnormalities.
  • Numbness: Loss of feeling or sensation
  • Nystagmus: Involuntary jerky eye movements
  • Osteopetrosis, intermediate form: A recessively inherited bone disease characterized bybrittle bones with increased density. The intermediate form is less severe than the infantile form but more severe than the adult form.
  • Pain: A feeling of suffering, agony, distress caused by the stimulation of pain fibres in the nervous system
  • Paralysis: The loss of motor function due to dysfunction of the spinal cord
  • Paralysis symptoms: Loss of body control and/or feeling.
  • Poisoning: The condition produced by poison
  • Polycythemia vera: A condition which is characterized by myeloproliferation of unknown etiology
  • Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: Inflammation of blood vessels that affect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). There are three main types within this category: benign angiitis of the central nervous system (BACNS), granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system (GACNS) and atypical primary angiitis of the central nervous system (atypical ACNS). Symptoms vary depending on which particular type is involved and which part of the central nervous system is involved.
  • Procrit -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Procrit (used to treat some forms of anemia) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Progeria: A rare fatal genetic disorder characterized by extremely premature aging.
  • Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: A rare malformation where there is an abnormal opening between a lung artery and a lung vein which causes some blood to pass through the lungs without being oxygenated.
  • Reflex symptoms: Changes to the nerve reflexes
  • Rheumatoid vasculitis: A rare disorder where sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis with joint inflammation develop inflammation of small and medium sized blood vessels. It tends to mostly affect the blood vessels in the skin. The symptoms are determined by which part of the body is affected.
  • Senior health conditions: Medical conditions affecting seniors, male or female.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which are crescent-shaped rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormally shaped red blood cells are unable to function normally and tend to undergo premature destruction which leads to anemia. If the genetic defect which causes the condition is inherited from both parents the condition can be quite severe whereas if it is inherited from only one parent, often there are no symptoms. The abnormally shaped red blood cells can cause problems when they clump together and block blood vessels.
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Sneddon Syndrome: A rare progressive inherited disorder involving the blood vessel disease and neurological symptoms.
  • Speech symptoms: Problems with speech or voice.
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia -- nephritic syndrome:
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia -- nephrotic syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by skeletal and immunity abnormalities. The immune defect leads to progressive kidney dysfunction which can ultimately cause death during the first decade.
  • Stokes Adams syndrome: Heart condition causing fainting or blackouts
  • Stroke symptoms: Brain-related symptoms of bleeding or blockage.
  • Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by excessive blood vessel growth, calcium accumulation inside the brain and seizures.
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage: A condition which is characterized by haemorrhage of blood into the subarachnoid space
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Brain bleeding in the subarachnoid area
  • Swallowing difficulty: Difficulty or pain when swallowing
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Hemolytic Anemia, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and hemolytic anemia - the anemia often occurs months or even years before symptoms of SLE develop. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11q14.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Nephritis, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and nephritis. More than half of SLE patients will develop nephritis. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q22.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Vitiligo, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and vitiligo. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p13.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q41.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 10: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 7q32.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 11: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 11 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q32.2-q32.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 12: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 12 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8p23.1.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 13: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 13 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p23.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 2: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q37.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 3: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 4p16-p15.2.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 4: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q24.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 5: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q32.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 6: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16p11.2.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 7: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20p12.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 8: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 8 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20q13.1.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 9: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 9 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q32.
  • The Methylmalonic Acidemias: A condition which is characterized by an excess of methylmalonic acid in the blood
  • Thrombocythemia: A haematological disorder in which there is excessive proliferation of platelet precursor cells, resulting in increased numbers of platelets in the blood.
  • Thromboembolism: Lodgement of a blood clot causing blockage
  • Thrombosis: Blood clot occurring in a blood vessel
  • Todd's Paralysis: Recurrent episodes of seizure and paralysis.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Tremor: Involuntary trembling most commonly of the hands.
  • Type 1 diabetes: Severe insulin-treated diabetes typically occurring in young people.
  • Type 2 diabetes: Most common diabetes in adults, usually progressing slowly, mostly treated without insulin at diagnosis.
  • Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type I Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of lipoprotein lipase which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type II Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type II Hyperlipoproteinemia is a condition characterized by high levels of beta-lipoproteins in the blood. The high cholesterol results from abnormally high levels of low density lipoproteins in the blood due to a deficiency of LDL receptors. There are two subtypes of this condition: type IIa and type IIb. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare genetic condition characterized by increased blood levels of intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. The high IDL levels are caused by an abnormality in apolipoprotein E. Apolipoprotein E is a protein found on IDLs which allows the IDLs to bind to liver cells. Without this binding process, the level of IDLs in the blood increase. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type IIa Hyperlipoproteinemia: Familial Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare genetic condition characterized by high levels of low density lipoproteins in the blood. A deficiency of LDL receptors leads to an increased level of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type IIb Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type IIb Hyperlipoproteinemia is a condition characterized by increased blood levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and apoprotein B (ApoB). This in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Type IV Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type IV Hyperlipoproteinemia is an inherited condition characterized by high levels of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the blood which in turn causes high cholesterol levels. Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream. The high VLDL levels are a result of increased production and reduced elimination of the VLDLs. Environmental factors are the driving force behind this condition.
  • Type Ia Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ia Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of lipoprotein lipase which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type Ib Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ib Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of low levels of apolipoprotein C-II which is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type Ic Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type Ic Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare inherited condition characterized by high levels of chylomicrons (a type of lipoprotein) in the blood. This condition is the result of inhibited lipoprotein lipase activity. Lipoprotein lipase is responsible for lowering lipoprotein levels. Cholesterol levels are usually normal and the risk of heart disease is low.
  • Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia: Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare condition characterized by increased synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and reduced levels of lipoprotein lipase (an enzyme). Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol in the bloodstream and high levels of them in the bloodstream means that there are high levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Vascular malformations of the brain: Conditions affecting the brain blood vessels. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the type, location and extent of the malformation. There are six types of vascular malformations of the brain: telangiectasis, venous malformations, cavernous malformations, arteriovenous malformations, vein of Galen malformation and mixed malformations.
  • Vasculitis: Inflammation of a blood or lymph vessel
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome: A genetic disorder which can present with a wide range of phenotypic manifestations which has lead to a number of different names being assigned to the various presentations e.g. DiGeorge Syndrome and Cayler Anomaly Face Syndrome. There are nearly 200 different symptoms that can occur and the severity of the condition is also highly variable depending on the nature and severity of the symptoms that are present.
  • Vertebral Artery Dissection: A tear that develops in the vertebral artery and tends to result in a stroke. It is the most common cause of stroke in young people. Vertebral artery dissections can be caused by trauma to the neck, manipulation of the spine (chiropractics), high blood pressure or even blowing the nose in some cases.
  • Vision changes: Any change in vision or sight.
  • Vomiting: Vomiting or retching symptoms.
  • Weakness: Symptoms causing weakness of the body
  • Wegener's granulomatosis: A rare disease involving blood vessel inflammation which can affect the blood flow to various tissues and organs and hence cause damage. The respiratory system and the kidneys are the main systems affected.

 

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