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Abdominal distension is the swelling or enlarging of the abdomen in the area between the ribs and the groin. Abdominal distension is symptom of a wide variety of mild to serious diseases, disorders and conditions. Abdominal distension can result from infection, malignancy, inflammation, trauma, fluid retention, obstruction and other abnormal processes. Abdominal distension can also be normal when it is due to pregnancy.
Abdominal distension can occur in any age group or population. Abdominal distension can be due to a mild condition, such as mild indigestion or overeating. Abdominal distension can also happen in a moderate condition, disorder or disease, such as premenstrual syndrome, colic or being overweight. Abdominal distension can also be due to serious, even life-threatening conditions or trauma, including blunt abdominal trauma, abdominal cancer, congestive heart failure, intestinal obstruction or kidney failure.
Depending on the cause, abdominal distension can be short-term and disappear quickly, such as when abdominal distension occurs after a single episode of overeating and indigestion. Abdominal distension can also be recurring over a longer period of time, such as when abdominal distension is due to premenstrual syndrome. Abdominal distention can be acute and occur relatively quickly, such as in peritonitis. Abdominal pain may also be ongoing over a period of time, such as in ascites that is due to cirrhosis of the liver.
Abdominal distension can be the result of a wide variety of gastrointestinal or digestive conditions. These include constipation, pancreatic cancer and food poisoning. Abdominal distention can also result from an enlarged prostate and urinary retention.
Abdominal distension generally occurs in conjunction with other symptoms, which vary depending on the underlying disease, disorder or condition. Other common symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and gas. The underlying disorder, disease or condition that is causing abdominal distension can cause complications, some of which can be serious, even life-threatening. For more details about symptoms and complications, see symptoms of abdominal distension.
Diagnosing abdominal distension and its root cause begins with taking a thorough personal and family medical history, including symptoms, and completing a physical examination. Diagnosis may also include a complete blood count, which can help to determine if an infectious process, such as food poisoning is present. A chemistry panel is a blood test that can evaluate if abdominal distension coupled with vomiting and/or diarrhea has lead to the complications of dehydration or electrolyte imbalance. An urinanalysis can also help to determine dehydration and if glomerulonephritis or kidney failure may be causing abdominal distension.
Making a diagnosis may also include performing a variety of other tests to help to diagnose other potential underlying diseases, conditions or disorders, such as ovarian cancer, congestive heart failure, abdominal trauma, and cirrhosis of the liver. Depending on the suspected cause, tests can include additional blood tests, culture and sensitivity of stool, and imaging tests such as X-ray, CT scan, nuclear scans, MRI, biopsy, and endoscopy.
In an endoscopy procedure, a special lighted instrument is passed into the area or areas of the gastrointestinal system that are suspected to be the cause of the abdominal distension and other symptoms. This instrument, called an endoscope, takes pictures of the digestive tract and/or sends images to a computer monitor.
A diagnosis of abdominal distension and its cause can easily be delayed or missed because abdominal distension may be mild or intermittent and for other reasons. For information on misdiagnosis, refer to misdiagnosis of abdominal distension.
Treatment of abdominal distension involves diagnosing and treating the underlying disease, disorder or condition that is causing it. Some conditions can be easily and successfully treated and cured, while others may require more intensive treatment and may not have an optimal prognosis. For more information on treatment, refer to treatment of abdominal distension....more »
Diagnosing abdominal distension and its cause may be delayed or missed because in some cases, abdominal distension may not be severe enough or last long enough for a person to seek medical care. This can happen with overeating or indigestion.
Abdominal distension is a symptom of many different conditions, some potentially life threatening, so recurrent abdominal distension should be ...more misdiagnosis »
The following medical conditions are some of the possible
causes of Abdominal distension.
There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor
about your symptoms.
» Review Causes of Abdominal distension: Causes
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Treatment plans for abdominal distension are individualized depending on the underlying cause, the presence of coexisting diseases, the age and medical history of the patient, and other factors. Treatment generally involves a multifaceted plan that addresses the cause, minimizes the discomfort of abdominal distension and decreases the risk of developing serious complications of underlying ...Abdominal distension Treatments
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Read more about causes and Abdominal distension deaths.
Chronic digestive conditions often misdiagnosed: When diagnosing chronic symptoms of the digestive tract, there are a variety of conditions that may be misdiagnosed....read more »
Intestinal bacteria disorder may be hidden cause: One of the lesser known causes of diarrhea is an imbalance of bacterial in the gut, sometimes called intestinal imbalance. The digestive system contains a variety of "good"...read more »
Antibiotics often causes diarrhea: The use of antibiotics are very likely to cause some level of diarrhea in patients. The reason is that antibiotics kill off not only "bad" bacteria, but can also kill the "good"...read more »
Food poisoning may actually be an infectious disease: Many people who come down with "stomach symptoms" like diarrhea assume that it's "something I ate" (i.e. food poisoning). In fact, it's more likely to be an infectious diarrheal illness (i.e. infectious diarrhea...read more »
Mesenteric adenitis misdiagnosed as appendicitis in children: Because appendicitis is one of the more feared conditions for a child with abdominal pain, it can be over-diagnosed (it can, of course, also fail to be diagnosed with fatal effect). One...read more »
Chronic digestive diseases hard to diagnose: There is an inherent difficulty in diagnosing the various types of chronic digestive diseases. Some of the better known possibilities are peptic ulcer, colon cancer, irritable bowel...read more »
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causes of Abdominal distension as a symptom include:
The list below shows some of the causes of Abdominal distension mentioned in various sources:
This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Abdominal distension. Of the 112 causes of Abdominal distension that we have listed, we have the following prevalence/incidence information:
The following list of conditions have 'Abdominal distension' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.
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on whether certain risk factors apply to the patient:
Medical Conditions associated with Abdominal distension:
Symptoms related to Abdominal distension:
Abdominal pain (2568 causes), Abdominal mass (207 causes), Abdominal symptoms (5930 causes), Stomach pain (49 causes), Ascites (176 causes), Cirrhosis of liver (119 causes), Portal hypertension (53 causes), Hepatocellular carcinoma, Heart failure (274 causes), Central obesity
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