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ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder. The hallmarks of ADHD are problems with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. It is estimated that three to five percent of the children in the U.S have ADHD, according to the National Institutes of Health.
The predominant symptoms or behaviors of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. These behaviors result in further symptoms, including difficulties with concentration, controlling behavior, and remaining focused on a task or activity. People with ADHD may also experience hyperactivity or over-activity. For more information about symptoms, refer to symptoms of ADHD.
ADHD does not directly cause complications, but people with the condition are more likely to have or develop such conditions as Tourette syndrome, anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, and learning disabilities.
The cause or causes of ADHD are not yet known, although researchers believe that genes may be one factor in its development. It is most likely that the disorder is the result of a combination of elements, including environmental factors, exposure to toxins, traumatic head injury, nutrition, and/or social influences.
A common misnomer about the cause of ADHD is that children with the disorder are "spoiled" or that they consume too much sugar and caffeine. Although caffeine may have some impact on energy levels, ADHD is a true medical disorder and is not cause purely by "bad parenting" or too much candy. Current studies have not linked the use of sugar to a difference in behavior.
There is no single test for ADHD, and a diagnosis of the condition is based partly on symptoms. Only a full evaluation by a licensed health care professional can truly diagnose or rule out ADHD. It is generally accepted that person must exhibit symptoms to an extent greater than the average person of the same age for six months or more.
It is important that a person who is exhibiting symptoms of ADHD be evaluated for other medical conditions that might be affecting their behavior. These include petit mal seizures, diabetes, learning disabilities, depression, anxiety, and conditions that can affect hearing or vision, such as ear infections or a need for glasses.
Although there is no cure, ADHD is treatable and can be successfully controlled to effectively reduce symptoms and allow a person with the condition to live a normal, productive life. This can be achieved by developing an individualized treatment plan that may include the use of a combination of medication and psychotherapy.
This is no way to directly prevent ADHD, but there are ways to help ensure that a person is as healthy as possible and best able to live effectively with ADHD. These include not smoking, avoiding toxins, and keeping a daily routine. For more information on treatment, refer to treatment of ADHD....more »
A diagnosis of ADHD may missed because its symptoms can mimic symptoms of such conditions as anxiety disorder, depression, conduct disorder, and learning disabilities. It is important to understand that although these disorders are separate conditions from ADHD, they often accompany ADHD.
The following medical conditions are some of the possible
causes of Adhd.
There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor
about your symptoms.
Home medical tests possibly related to Adhd:
Review causes of types of Adhd in more specific categories:
Listed below are some combinations of symptoms associated with Adhd, as listed in our database. Visit the Symptom Checker, to add and remove symptoms and research your condition.
Symptoms of ADHD can be successfully controlled with medications. Drugs call stimulants are commonly prescribed. Stimulants actually work in reverse in people with ADHD and can produce a calming effect and improved concentration.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication treatments for ADHD are generally considered safe when given under regular medical ...Adhd Treatments
Some of the possible treatments listed in sources for treatment of Adhd may include:
Review further information on Adhd Treatments.
Some of the comorbid or associated medical symptoms for Adhd may include these symptoms:
Research the causes of these more general types of symptom:
Read more about causes and Adhd deaths.
Mild worm infections undiagnosed in children: Human worm infestations, esp. threadworm, can be overlooked in some cases, because it may cause only mild or even absent symptoms. Although the most common symptoms are anal itch (or ...read more »
Parental fears about toddler behavior often unfounded: There are many behaviors in infants and toddlers that may give rise to a fear that the child has some form...read more »
Rare epilepsy misdiagnosed as ADHD: The less common disorder of temporal lobe epilepsy is a type of epilepsy without physical seizures. Some patients suffer from hyperactivity and similar symptoms, making a...read more »
Various conditions misdiagnosed as ADHD: The hyperactivity type symptoms that are often diagnosed as ADHD, can also be caused by a number of physical conditions, as reported in the book ...read more »
ADHD diagnosis overlooked hidden nutritional disorder: The book "A Dose of Sanity" reports on a case of a boy diagnosed with ADHD and receiving Ritalin. His symptoms included tiredness, irritability, poor growth, and...read more »
Undiagnosed stroke leads to misdiagnosed aphasia: BBC News UK reported on a man who had been institutionalized and treated for mental illness because he suffered from sudden inability to speak. This was initially misdiagnosed as a "nervous breakdown" and other...read more »
Dementia may be a drug interaction: A common scenario in aged care is for a patient to show mental decline to dementia. Whereas this can, of course, occur due to various medical conditions, such as a stroke or Alzheimer's disease, it can...read more »
Mesenteric adenitis misdiagnosed as appendicitis in children: Because appendicitis is one of the more feared conditions for a child with abdominal pain, it can be over...read more »
Blood pressure cuffs misdiagnose hypertension in children: One known misdiagnosis issue with hyperension, arises in relation to the simple equipment used to test blood...read more »
ADHD under-diagnosed in adults: Although the over-diagnoses of ADHD in children is a well-known controversy, the reverse side related to adults. Some adults can remain undiagnosed, and indeed the condition has usually...read more »
Bipolar disorder misdiagosed as various conditions by primary physicians: Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder) often fails to be diagnosed correctly by primary care physicians. Many patients with bipolar seek help from...read more »
Eating disorders under-diagnosed in men: The typical patient with an eating disorder is female. The result is that men with eating disorders often fail to be diagnosed or have a delayed diagnosis....read more »
Depression undiagnosed in teenagers: Serious bouts of depression can be undiagnosed in teenagers. The "normal" moodiness of teenagers can cause severe...read more »
Children with migraine often misdiagnosed: A migraine often fails to be correctly diagnosed in pediatric patients. These patients are not the typical...read more »
Undiagnosed anxiety disorders related to depression: Patients with depression (see symptoms of depression) may also have undiagnosed anxiety disorders (see symptoms of anxiety disorders)....read more »
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Rare types of medical conditions and diseases in related medical categories:
Conditions that are commonly undiagnosed in related areas may include:
The list below shows some of the causes of Adhd mentioned in various sources:
This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Adhd. Of the 4 causes of Adhd that we have listed, we have the following prevalence/incidence information:
The following list of conditions have 'Adhd' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.
Select from the following alphabetical view of conditions which include a symptom of Adhd or choose View All.
The following list of medical conditions have Adhd or similar listed as a medical complication in our database. The distinction between a symptom and complication is not always clear, and conditions mentioning this symptom as a complication may also be relevant. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.
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Medical Conditions associated with Adhd:
Hyperactivity symptoms (273 causes), Behavioral symptoms (4608 causes), Movement symptoms (6001 causes), Cognitive symptoms (3664 causes), Brain symptoms (2787 causes), Mental problems (3121 causes), Neurological symptoms (9575 causes), Muscle symptoms (7251 causes), Nerve symptoms (9132 causes), Psychiatric symptom (971 causes), Musculoskeletal symptoms (6264 causes), Personality symptoms (4029 causes), Society problems (1785 causes), Head symptoms (10192 causes)
Doctor-patient articles related to symptoms and diagnosis:
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