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Glaucoma

Glaucoma: Introduction

Glaucoma is the general name for a group of common diseases that affect the eyes and can result in blindness if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

The different types of glaucoma include acute-closed-angle glaucoma, which develops suddenly and chronic open-angle glaucoma, which develops slowly over a period of years.

Chronic open-angle glaucoma is the most common form of glaucoma and is due to gradually increasing pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure). Increased intraocular pressure inside the eye results from a malfunctioning canal that does not allow the clear fluid inside the eye to drain properly. The high pressure inside the eye can eventually damage the optic nerve leading to permanent vision loss and eventually blindness. There may be no symptoms in early stages of chronic open-angle glaucoma, but without treatment, the damage to the optic nerve result in blind spots, which progressively become bigger until blindness occurs.

Acute closed-angle glaucoma is less common than chronic open-angle glaucoma and is a medical emergency. Acute closed-angle glaucoma is the result of a sudden and severe increase in intraocular pressure due to a blockage by the iris, the colored part of the eye. Symptoms of acute closed-angle glaucoma occur suddenly and can rapidly lead to blindness if not treated emergently. Symptoms include blurred vision and severe eye pain. For more information on symptoms and complications, refer to symptoms of glaucoma.

Glaucoma can affect anyone, but some factors contribute to the risk of developing the condition. These include a family history of diabetes or glaucoma or being nearsighted or being over age 60. People of African ancestry who are over the age of 40 years are also at risk for developing glaucoma.

Glaucoma is diagnosed through a combination of taking a medical history, including symptoms, and eye examination by an ophthalmologist, a physician who specializes in eye care. The eye examination can include a variety of tests. These include a visual acuity test to check the sharpness of vision. A visual acuity test involves reading an eye chart located at a specific distance across the room.

A visual field test checks sight on the peripheral (side) areas of vision. A tonometry test that measures pressure inside the eye is performed using an instrument called a tonometer. The ophthalmologist will also use eye drops to enlarge the pupil of the eye so that he and she can look directly into the eye with an instrument called an ophthalmoscope and see the retina and optic nerve.

A gonioscopy test may also be done. In this test a special lens is placed on the eye to examine the channel in the eye that drains eye fluid to see if it has become blocked or has other abnormal changes.

Because there are often no symptoms in early stages of glaucoma, a diagnosis can be delayed or missed. In addition, symptoms of glaucoma can be similar to symptoms of other diseases or conditions. For more information on misdiagnosis and diseases and conditions that can mimic glaucoma, refer to misdiagnosis of glaucoma.

Treatment of glaucoma varies depending on the specific type of glaucoma and can include medication and laser surgery. For more information on treatment, refer to treatment of glaucoma....more »

Glaucoma: Misdiagnosis

Symptoms of glaucoma can be similar to symptoms of other diseases or conditions, such as macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, migraine headache, uveitis, and stroke.

In addition, because most people have no symptoms of chronic open-angle glaucoma in the early stages, a diagnosis is easy to miss or delay. Because chronic open-angle glaucoma ...more misdiagnosis »

Causes of Glaucoma:

The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Glaucoma. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.

» Review Causes of Glaucoma: Causes | Symptom Checker »

Home Diagnostic Testing and Glaucoma

Home medical tests possibly related to Glaucoma:

Causes of Types of Glaucoma:

Review causes of more specific types of Glaucoma:

Glaucoma: Symptom Checker

Listed below are some combinations of symptoms associated with Glaucoma, as listed in our database. Visit the Symptom Checker, to add and remove symptoms and research your condition.

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Glaucoma Treatments

The first step in the treatment of glaucoma is the prevention of progression of the disease and permanent serious complications, such as blindness. This includes seeking regular eye care throughout the lifetime. This can help detect chronic open-angle glaucoma in early stages before symptoms appear. In addition, it is vital to seek immediate emergency medical care if ...Glaucoma Treatments

Some of the possible treatments listed in sources for treatment of Glaucoma may include:

Review further information on Glaucoma Treatments.

Alternative Treatments for Glaucoma

Alternative treatments or home remedies that have been listed as possibly helpful for Glaucoma may include:

Glaucoma: Animations

Medications or substances causing Glaucoma:

The following drugs, medications, substances or toxins are some of the possible causes of Glaucoma as a symptom. Always advise your doctor of any medications or treatments you are using, including prescription, over-the-counter, supplements, herbal or alternative treatments.

Drug interactions causing Glaucoma:

When combined, certain drugs, medications, substances or toxins may react causing Glaucoma as a symptom. Always advise your doctor of any medications or treatments you are using, including prescription, over-the-counter, supplements, herbal or alternative treatments.

  • Amitriptyline and Antihistamine interaction - Chronic glaucoma
  • Amitid and Antihistamine interaction - Chronic glaucoma
  • Amitril and Antihistamine interaction - Chronic glaucoma
  • Apo-Amitriptyline and Antihistamine interaction - Chronic glaucoma
  • Elatrol and Antihistamine interaction - Chronic glaucoma
  • more interactions...»

Glaucoma: Comorbid Symptoms

Some of the comorbid or associated medical symptoms for Glaucoma may include these symptoms:

Causes of General Symptom Types

Research the causes of these more general types of symptom:

Causes of Similar Symptoms to Glaucoma

Research the causes of these symptoms that are similar to, or related to, the symptom Glaucoma:

Glaucoma: Deaths

Read more about causes and Glaucoma deaths.

Misdiagnosis and Glaucoma

Alzheimer's disease over-diagnosed: The well-known disease of Alzheimer's disease is often over-diagnosed. Patients tend to assume that any memory loss or forgetulness...read more »

Dementia may be a drug interaction: A common scenario in aged care is for a patient to show mental decline to dementia. Whereas this can, of course, occur due to various medical conditions, such as a stroke or Alzheimer's disease, it can also...read more »

Tremor need not be Parkinson's disease: There is the tendency to believe that any tremor symptom, or shakiness, means Parkinson's disease. The reality is that there are various possibilities, such as benign essential...read more »

Rare diseases misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease: A rare genetic disorder is often misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease for men in their 50's. The disease Fragile X disorder can show only mild symptoms in the...read more »

Glaucoma: Research Related Doctors & Specialists

Other ways to find a doctor, or use doctor, physician and specialist online research services:

Hospitals & Clinics: Glaucoma

Research extensive quality ratings and patient safety measures for hospitals, clinics and medical facilities in health specialties related to Glaucoma:

Glaucoma: Related Rare Diseases

Rare types of medical conditions and diseases in related medical categories:

Glaucoma: Undiagnosed Conditions

Conditions that are commonly undiagnosed in related areas may include:

Causes of Glaucoma listed in Disease Database:

Other medical conditions listed in the Disease Database as possible causes of Glaucoma as a symptom include:

Article Excerpts about Glaucoma

Glaucoma (glaw-KOH-muh) starts from pressure building up in the eye. Over time, this pressure damages your eye's main nerve--the optic nerve. The damage first causes you to lose sight from the sides of your eyes. (Source: excerpt from Keep your eyes healthy: NIDDK)

Glaucoma is another common eye disease. This is the result of too much fluid pressure inside the eye. It can lead to vision loss and blindness. The cause of glaucoma is unknown. African-American women over the age of forty are at particular risk for glaucoma, as are all women over 60. If treated early, glaucoma often can be controlled and blindness prevented. To find glaucoma, the eye doctor will look at your eyes through dilated pupils. Treatment may be prescription eye drops, oral medications, or surgery. Most people with glaucoma have no early symptoms or pain from increased pressure. (Source: excerpt from Aging -- Women Getting Older: NWHIC)

Glaucoma results from too much fluid pressure inside the eye. It can lead to vision loss and blindness. The cause of glaucoma is unknown. If treated early, glaucoma often can be controlled and blindness prevented. To find glaucoma, the eye doctor will look at your eyes through dilated pupils. Treatment may be prescription eye drops, oral medications, or surgery. Most people with glaucoma have no early symptoms or pain from increased pressure. (Source: excerpt from Aging and Your Eyes -- Age Page -- Health Information: NIA)

"Glaucoma" is a term used for a group of diseases that can lead to damage to the...(Source: Genes and Disease by the National Center for Biotechnology)

Glaucoma (glaw-KOH-muh) starts from pressure building up in the eye. ... (Source: excerpt from Keep your eyes healthy: NIDDK)

Glaucoma is another common eye disease. This is the result of too much fluid pressure... (Source: excerpt from Aging -- Women Getting Older: NWHIC)

Glaucoma results from too much fluid pressure inside the eye. It can lead to vision loss and blindness.... (Source: excerpt from Aging and Your Eyes -- Age Page -- Health Information: NIA)

Definitions of Glaucoma:

Increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.
- (Source - Diseases Database)

Increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
- (Source - WordNet 2.1)

Group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure resulting in damage to the optic nerve and retinal nerve fibers.
- (Source - CRISP)

Detailed list of causes of Glaucoma

The list below shows some of the causes of Glaucoma mentioned in various sources:

How Common are these Causes of Glaucoma?

This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Glaucoma. Of the 150 causes of Glaucoma that we have listed, we have the following prevalence/incidence information:

  • 1 causes are "very common" diseases
  • 2 causes are "common" diseases
  • 0 causes are "uncommon" diseases
  • 2 causes are "rare" diseases
  • 7 causes are "very rare" diseases
  • 143 causes have no prevalence information.

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Glaucoma:

The following list of conditions have 'Glaucoma' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

Select from the following alphabetical view of conditions which include a symptom of Glaucoma or choose View All.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Glaucoma:

The following list of medical conditions have Glaucoma or similar listed as a medical complication in our database. The distinction between a symptom and complication is not always clear, and conditions mentioning this symptom as a complication may also be relevant. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

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Causes of Glaucoma Based on Risk Factors

This information shows analysis of the list of causes of Glaucoma based on whether certain risk factors apply to the patient:

  • Diabetes - history of diabetes or family history of diabetes?

    What are the alternative names for Glaucoma:

    Ocular hypertension, Raised intraocular pressure
    - (Source - Diseases Database)

    Classifications of Glaucoma:

    Medical Conditions associated with Glaucoma:

    Eye symptoms (5412 causes), Face symptoms (8109 causes), Head symptoms (10192 causes), Vision symptoms (2526 causes), Visual problems (2143 causes), Vision distortion (1970 causes)

    Symptoms related to Glaucoma:

    Eye pain (475 causes), Eye symptoms (5412 causes), Blurred vision (982 causes), Acute angle-closure glaucoma, Amyloidosis, Antipsychotic agents, Atropine, Chandler iris naevus syndrome, Chlorpromazine, Cocaine, Congenital glaucoma, Cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, Fahr disease

    Medical articles on signs and symptoms:

    Doctor-patient articles related to symptoms and diagnosis:

    These general medical articles may be of interest:

    Medical News summaries about Glaucoma

    Our news pages contain the following medical news summaries about Glaucoma and many other medical conditions:

    Related medical articles from our Disease Center for Glaucoma:

    More Ways To Research Medical Signs and Symptoms:

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