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Kidney stones

Kidney stones: Introduction

Kidney stones are small bits of hard crystallized material that form in the kidney. The human body has two kidneys. The kidneys are vital organs that filter waste products from the blood to make urine, which then flows from the kidneys into small tube called ureters into the bladder. The bladder stores urine until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra.

Kidney stones, also called renal lithiasis, are a common condition and are often made up of calcium, but can also contain uric acid or amino acids (proteins). One or more kidney stones can form in one or both kidneys. Kidney stones begin as small specks and can gradually increase in size. A person with a small kidney stone may be unaware of the condition, and it may pass in the urine out of the body without causing pain or other problems. There are generally no symptoms of large kidney stones that remain in the kidney. However, when a large kidney stone moves out of the kidney into the ureter it causes severe pain, called renal colic.

Other symptoms of a large kidney stone that has moved out of the kidney include hematuria, (blood in the urine), dysuria (difficulty urinating), nausea and vomiting. Most kidney stones generally pass out of the body in the urine. On occasion, a kidney stone can get stuck in a ureter and result in potentially serious, even life-threatening complications in some people. For more information on complications and symptoms, refer to symptoms of kidney stones.

Kidney stones are more likely to develop in men than in women. Certain other populations have a higher risk for developing kidney stones, including people over the age of 30. People who become dehydrated and/or live in hot climates are at risk for kidney stones because they lose more body water and produce smaller amounts of urine that contains a higher concentration of substances that form kidney stones, such as calcium and amino acids. Kidney stones also run in families. People with kidney deformities or anomalies, such as horseshoe kidney, are also at risk. Other diseases and condition that increase risk include obesity, being bedridden, gout, urinary tract infection, hypertension, history of kidney stone, extreme stress, and having a diet that is very high in protein.

Making a diagnosis of a kidney stone begins with taking a thorough personal and family medical history, including symptoms, and completing a physical examination. Diagnostic testing includes blood tests and performing a urinalysis test, which checks for the presence of blood in the urine and other elements and help to differentiate between a kidney stone and a urinary tract infection. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or CT, are performed to determine the cause of symptoms and locate any possible kidney stones. A urine test that includes collecting urine for 24 hours may be ordered to evaluate the urine for substances that typically form kidney stones.

A diagnosis of a kidney stone can be delayed or missed because there may be no symptoms. In addition, some symptoms of a kidney stone are similar to symptoms of other diseases and conditions, such as urinary tract infection. For more information about disease and conditions that can mimic kidney stones, refer to misdiagnosis of kidney stones.

Kidney stones may be prevented by ensuring good hydration and with prescribed medication in some cases. Once a stone has developed, treatment may include hospitalization, pain medication, and certain procedures that remove or crush large stones so that they pass more easily out of the body. Small kidney stones may require no treatment. For more information on treatment, refer to treatment of kidney stones....more »

Kidney stones: Misdiagnosis

A diagnosis of kidney stones may be missed or delayed because there may be no symptoms of a small kidney stone or of a kidney stone that has not yet passed out of the kidney.

A diagnosis of kidney stones can be also be missed or delayed because symptoms can be similar to symptoms of other conditions. These include urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, ...more misdiagnosis »

Causes of Kidney stones:

The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Kidney stones. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.

» Review Causes of Kidney stones: Causes | Symptom Checker »

Home Diagnostic Testing and Kidney stones

Home medical tests possibly related to Kidney stones:

Kidney stones: Symptom Checker

Listed below are some combinations of symptoms associated with Kidney stones, as listed in our database. Visit the Symptom Checker, to add and remove symptoms and research your condition.

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Kidney stones Treatments

The first step in treating kidney stones is prevention. Prevention measures include avoiding dehydration, drinking plenty of fluids, urinating as soon as possible when the urge is felt, and drinking lemonade, which may have qualities that prevent the formation of kidney stones. Medications may be prescribed to prevent the formation of certain types of kidney stones. Treating ...Kidney stones Treatments

Some of the possible treatments listed in sources for treatment of Kidney stones may include:

Review further information on Kidney stones Treatments.

Alternative Treatments for Kidney stones

Alternative treatments or home remedies that have been listed as possibly helpful for Kidney stones may include:

  • Horse gram soup (Kuluth saar) with pomegranate seeds
  • Alternate hot and cold compress for pain
  • Watermelon juice with large pinch of coriander
  • Punarnava guggulu
  • Gokshura guggulu
  • more treatments »

Stories from Users for Kidney stones

Real-life user stories relating to Kidney stones:

Medications or substances causing Kidney stones:

The following drugs, medications, substances or toxins are some of the possible causes of Kidney stones as a symptom. Always advise your doctor of any medications or treatments you are using, including prescription, over-the-counter, supplements, herbal or alternative treatments.

Drug interactions causing Kidney stones:

When combined, certain drugs, medications, substances or toxins may react causing Kidney stones as a symptom. Always advise your doctor of any medications or treatments you are using, including prescription, over-the-counter, supplements, herbal or alternative treatments.

  • Allopurinol and high dose Vitamin C interaction
  • Lopurin and high dose Vitamin C interaction
  • Zylopurin and high dose Vitamin C interaction
  • more interactions...»

Kidney stones: Comorbid Symptoms

Some of the comorbid or associated medical symptoms for Kidney stones may include these symptoms:

Causes of General Symptom Types

Research the causes of these more general types of symptom:

Research the causes of related medical symptoms such as:

Causes of Similar Symptoms to Kidney stones

Research the causes of these symptoms that are similar to, or related to, the symptom Kidney stones:

Kidney stones: Deaths

Read more about causes and Kidney stones deaths.

Misdiagnosis and Kidney stones

Interstitial cystitis an under-diagnosed bladder condition: The medical condition of interstitial cystitic is a bladder condition that can be misdiagnosed as various conditions such as overactive bladder or other causes of pelvic pain. This condition can...read more »

Kidney stones: Research Related Doctors & Specialists

Other ways to find a doctor, or use doctor, physician and specialist online research services:

Hospitals & Clinics: Kidney stones

Research extensive quality ratings and patient safety measures for hospitals, clinics and medical facilities in health specialties related to Kidney stones:

Kidney stones: Undiagnosed Conditions

Conditions that are commonly undiagnosed in related areas may include:

Causes of Kidney stones listed in Disease Database:

Other medical conditions listed in the Disease Database as possible causes of Kidney stones as a symptom include:

Article Excerpts about Kidney stones

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney out of substances in the urine.

A stone may stay in the kidney or break loose and travel down the urinary tract. A small stone may pass all of the way out of the body without causing too much pain.

A larger stone may get stuck in a ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. A problem stone can block the flow of urine and cause great pain. (Source: excerpt from What Are Kidney Stones: NIDDK)

Kidney stones is the term commonly used to refer to stones, or calculi, in the urinary system. Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system. They vary in size. Some stones cause great pain while others cause very little. The aim of treatment is to remove the stones, prevent infection, and prevent recurrence. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatments are used. Kidney stones affect men more often than women. (Source: excerpt from Your Urinary System and How It Works: NIDDK)

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney out of substances in the... (Source: excerpt from What Are Kidney Stones: NIDDK)

Kidney stones is the term commonly used to refer to stones, or calculi, in the... (Source: excerpt from Your Urinary System and How It Works: NIDDK)

Definitions of Kidney stones:

Calculi occurring in the kidney. Calculi too large to pass spontaneously range in size from 1 cm to the staghorn stones that occupy the renal pelvis and calyces.
- (Source - Diseases Database)

Detailed list of causes of Kidney stones

The list below shows some of the causes of Kidney stones mentioned in various sources:

How Common are these Causes of Kidney stones?

This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Kidney stones. Of the 107 causes of Kidney stones that we have listed, we have the following prevalence/incidence information:

  • 2 causes are "very common" diseases
  • 2 causes are "common" diseases
  • 3 causes are "uncommon" diseases
  • 0 causes are "rare" diseases
  • 4 causes are "very rare" diseases
  • 101 causes have no prevalence information.

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Kidney stones:

The following list of conditions have 'Kidney stones' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

Select from the following alphabetical view of conditions which include a symptom of Kidney stones or choose View All.

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  • Nephrocalcinosis ... Calcium deposits in the kidney, calcium salt deposits in kidneys

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  • Oxalosis ... calcium oxalate crystal deposits in kidney, kidney stones
  • Oxalosis, type I ... calcium oxalate crystal deposits in kidney, kidney stones
  • Oxalosis, Type II ... calcium oxalate crystal deposits in kidney, kidney stones

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Conditions listing medical complications: Kidney stones:

The following list of medical conditions have Kidney stones or similar listed as a medical complication in our database. The distinction between a symptom and complication is not always clear, and conditions mentioning this symptom as a complication may also be relevant. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

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Causes of Kidney stones Based on Risk Factors

This information shows analysis of the list of causes of Kidney stones based on whether certain risk factors apply to the patient:

  • Travel - has the patient travelled recently?
  • Diabetes - history of diabetes or family history of diabetes?

    What are the alternative names for Kidney stones:

    Renal stones, Urolithiasis, Nephrolithiasis
    - (Source - Diseases Database)

    Classifications of Kidney stones:

    Medical Conditions associated with Kidney stones:

    Kidney symptoms (1125 causes), Upper abdominal symptoms (2707 causes), Abdominal symptoms (5930 causes), Digestive symptoms (5299 causes)

    Symptoms related to Kidney stones:

    Kidney symptoms (1125 causes), Kidney pain (14 causes), Urinary symptoms (1228 causes), Hypertension (398 causes), Acute pancreatitis (78 causes), Hemorrhage (1783 causes), Urinary tumor, Internal bleeding (22 causes), Urinary stones, Acute nephritis, Glomerulonephritis (61 causes), Heat exhaustion (46 causes), Chronic nephritis, Shock (259 causes)

    Medical articles on signs and symptoms:

    Doctor-patient articles related to symptoms and diagnosis:

    These general medical articles may be of interest:

    Evidence Based Medicine Research for Kidney stones

    Medical research papers related to Kidney stones include:

    Research More Evidence-Based Medicine at TripDatabase.com

    Related medical articles from our Disease Center for Kidney stones:

    More Ways To Research Medical Signs and Symptoms:

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