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Symptoms » Brain damage » Glossary
 

Glossary for Brain damage

Medical terms related to Brain damage or mentioned in this section include:

  • 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder where insufficient levels of tetrahydropterin leads to a build up of phenylalanine in the blood which can cause toxic side effects such as nerve damage or even brain damage. The condition does not usually cause any significant symptoms.
  • Abdominal symptoms: Symptoms affecting the abdomen or digestive tract
  • Accelerated hypertension: Accelerated hypertension is a condition characterized by a rapid increase in blood pressure. The condition is a medical emergency which can cause organ damage if not treated promptly.
  • Air embolism: A condition where an air bubble enters the cardiovascular system (via injection, intravenous therapy, surgery or puncture wound) and obstructs the blood flow.
  • Aminophyllin -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on rats indicate that the use of Aminophyllin during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Amniotic fluid syndrome: A rare disorder where large amounts of amniotic fluid suddenly enters the blood stream. The amniotic fluid contains debris which can block blood vessels and dilutes the blood which affects coagulation. This can occur when there is an opening in a blood vessel wall and can occur if the birth involves difficult labor, older women, dead fetus syndrome or large babies. The condition can result in rapid death of the mother.
  • Anoxia: A condition marked by a lack of oxygen.
  • Arbovirosis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus. The virus is transmitted by arthropods such as insects and ticks. Examples of arboviruses include Yellow Fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The symptoms may vary depending on the type of virus involved. The infection can lead to life-threatening brain inflammation.
  • Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, neonatal: A rare inherited urea cycle disorder caused by lack of enzymes (argininosuccinase lyase) needed to turn ammonia into urea resulting in excess ammonia in the body. The neonatal form of the condition can result in death or severe complications if not treated early enough.
  • Arginninosuccinic acid synthetase deficiency:
  • Asphyxia neonatorum: Respiratory failure in a newborn.
  • Ballantyne-Runge syndrome: A pregnancy that goes over the normal gestation term of 42 weeks. The greatest problem with prolonged gestation is the fact that the placenta may shrink and be unable to supply the fetus with sufficient oxygen and nutrients. In extreme cases, the fetus may lose weight or suffer problems from chronic oxygen shortage.
  • Birth symptoms: Symptoms related to childbirth.
  • Bleeding in the brain: A condition which is characterized by the abnormal loss of blood from blood vessels located in the brain
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Brain damage: A condition which is characterized by damage to the brain resulting in a decrease in function
  • Brain damage in children: Brain damage in children is a condition in which a child has abnormal brain function.
  • Brain infection: Inflammation of the parietal layer and the brain tissue.
  • Brain swelling: Swelling or enlargement of the brain
  • Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
  • CMV antenatal infection: A rare condition where a fetus becomes infected with the cytomegalovirus through the mother.
  • Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 deficiency: A very rare inherited urea cycle disorder where the lack of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase prevents ammonia from being turned into urea and being excreted in the urine. Excess ammonia builds up in the body which can cause serious complications or even death if left untreated.
  • Cardiac arrest: Sudden loss of cardiac function, where the heart stops beating.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: Dangerous swelling of a brain blood vessel that may rupture.
  • Cerebral Palsy: Any brain disorder causing movement disability
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ammonium Bifluoride: Ammonium Bifluoride is a chemical used wheel cleaners, herbicides and in the manufacture of magnesium. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Window cleaner: Window cleaner contains various chemicals (usually alcohols and ammonia) which can cause serious symptoms if sufficient quantities are ingested. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Choking: Sensation of blockage or inability to breathe.
  • Citrullinemia: Citrullinemia is an inherited urea cycle disorder which causes toxic substances including ammonia to build up in the blood. There are two main subtypes of Citrullinemia (I and II) which are caused by different genetic abnormalities and result in different symptoms. Milder forms may present in childhood and rare late-onset forms (adult-onset) may not cause symptoms until adulthood.
  • Citrullinemia I: A very rare urea cycle disorder where a lack of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase prevents ammonia being turned into urea which can then be excreted in the urine. The build up of ammonia in the body can cause harmful effects. The neonatal form of citrullinemia type I is generally more serious than the later onset form which may sometimes be mild enough to produce no symptoms.
  • Citrullinemia II: A very rare urea cycle disorder involving a deficiency of the transport compound called Citrin. Citrin transports aspartate to where the enzyme argininosuccinic acid synthase can combine it with citrulline to make argininosuccinic acid. The deficiency prevents ammonia being turned into urea which can then be excreted in the urine. The build up of ammonia in the body can cause harmful effects.
  • Coenzyme Q cytochrome c reductase deficiency of: A rare genetic defect where an enzyme deficiency (CoQ-Cytochrome C reductase) disrupts cellular processes. Any of a variety of the components of the enzyme may be missing or defective and hence the clinical presentation and severity may vary. The deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms and conditions of variable severity such as cardiomyopathy, fatal infant conditions and Leber's myopathy.
  • Cognitive impairment: General loss of mental or cognitive ability
  • Coma: Loss of consciousness for a long period
  • Congenital nonhemolytic jaundice: A rare disorder where the liver is unable to remove bilirubin from the body which results in jaundice. Chronically high bilirubin levels can lead to neurological toxicity which manifests as progressive neurological symptoms.
  • Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type 1: A rare congenital condition involving a total absence of the liver enzyme called glucoronyl transferase which is needed to change bilirubin into a form that can be removed from the body. The bilirubin builds up in the body and causes damage and severe symptoms.
  • Decompression sickness: Condition from overly rapid decompression, especially when diving.
  • Dilor -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dilor (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Drowning: Accidental loss of life due to water.
  • Encephalitis: Infection of the brain (as a symptom)
  • Epilepsy: Paroxysmal transient disturbances of brain function that may manifest as loss of consciousness, abnormal motor phenomena
  • Erythroblastosis fetalis: A condition which is characterized by a hemolytic anaemia of the fetus due to transplacental transmission of antibodies
  • Febrile Seizures: Fever-caused seizures in infants or children.
  • Fungal meningitis: Fungal meningitis is an infection that causes swelling and irritation of the tissue around the brain and spinal cord. It usually strikes people whose weakened immune systems can't fight off infection. The disease is not common. but it can be very serious.
  • Head injury: Any injury that occurs to the head
  • Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
  • Head trauma: injury to the haed
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 1: A disorder where too much insulin causes low blood sugar in infants. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid the brain being damaged by repeated periods of low blood sugar. The various types of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia are distinguished by their genetic origin. HHF1 is due to a mutation in the gene for SUR1 (surfonlyurea receptor 1) on chromosome 11p15.1.
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 2: A disorder where too much insulin causes low blood sugar in infants. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid the brain being damaged by repeated periods of low blood sugar. The various types of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia are distinguished by their genetic origin. HHF2 is due to a mutation in the gene for Kir6.2 on chromosome 11p15.1.
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 3: A disorder where too much insulin causes low blood sugar in infants. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid the brain being damaged by repeated periods of low blood sugar. The various types of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia are distinguished by their genetic origin. HHF3 is due to a mutation in the gene for glucokinase on chromosome 7p15-p13.
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 4: A disorder where too much insulin causes low blood sugar in infants. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid the brain being damaged by repeated periods of low blood sugar. The various types of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia are distinguished by their genetic origin. HHF4 is due to a mutation in the gene for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase on chromosome 4q22-q26.
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 5: A disorder where too much insulin causes low blood sugar in infants. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid the brain being damaged by repeated periods of low blood sugar. The various types of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia are distinguished by their genetic origin. HHF5 is due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene on chromosome 19p13.2.
  • Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 6: A disorder where too much insulin causes low blood sugar in infants. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid the brain being damaged by repeated periods of low blood sugar. The various types of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia are distinguished by their genetic origin. HHF6 is due to a mutation in the GLUD1 gene on chromosome 10q23.3.
  • Hypoxia: This is where there is a reduction of oxygen supply to parts of the body below what is required for adequate perfusion
  • Inborn urea cycle disorder: A genetic disorder involving a deficiency of one of the enzymes needed in the urea cycle. The urea cycle is the process of removing ammonia from blood stream by converting it to urea and excreting it via urine. A build-up of ammonia in the blood is toxic to the body and can cause serious brain damage. The progressively severe symptoms usually become obvious within the first few weeks of birth. Nevertheless, mild or partial enzyme deficiencies may cause little or no symptoms or symptoms that don't start until later in life.
  • Infant Cytomegalic virus: A serious CMV viral infection in newborns.
  • Intrauterine infections: Infection of the fetus while still inside the womb. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the type of infection and at what stage of pregnancy it occurs. Some cases are mild enough to be asymptomatic and others are severe enough to cause a miscarriage.
  • Lead poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to lead.
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: A form of epilepsy that occurs mostly in preschool-aged children and is characterized mainly by absences.
  • Lucey Driscoll syndrome: A rare condition characterized by severe jaundice at birth and caused by the presence of a gestational hormone that passes from the mother to the infant across the placenta but eventually disappears after birth. Excessive jaundice result in kernicterus can cause complications such as brain damage.
  • Malignant hypertension: Malignant hypertension is a condition characterized by very high blood pressure and swelling of the optic nerve. This type of hypertension is more common in people with kidney problems such as narrowed kidney blood vessels. The condition is a medical emergency which can cause organ damage if not treated promptly.
  • Malignant hyperthermia: A very rare genetic disorder where sufferers suffer episodes of adverse reactions when certain anesthetics or muscle relaxants are administered.
  • Measles: Once common viral infection now rare due to vaccination.
  • Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A rare disorder where the body lacks enzymes needed to convert some fats (medium-chain fatty acids) into energy and hence these fats build up in the body and cause damage.
  • Meningitis: Infection of the membrane around the brain (as a symptom)
  • Meningococcal A: Meningococcal meningitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningococcal meningitis A is caused by meningococcus A which is mostly common in hyperendemic areas in Africa known as the meningitis belt.
  • Meningococcal B: Meningococcal meningitis B is an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
  • Meningococcal C: Meningitis C is a strain of meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mild brain injury caused by trauma, accident or injury
  • Mild citrullinemia: Citrullinemia is an inherited urea cycle disorder which causes toxic substances including ammonia to build up in the blood. There are two main subtypes of Citrullinemia (I and II) which are caused by different genetic abnormalities and result in different symptoms. Milder forms may present in childhood and rare late-onset forms (type II) may not cause symptoms until adulthood.
  • Mouth symptoms: Symptoms of the mouth or oral area.
  • Movement symptoms: Changes to movement or motor abilities
  • Muscle symptoms: Symptoms affecting the muscles of the body
  • N-acetyl glutamate synthetase deficiency: A rare inherited urea cycle disorder where a lack of a certain enzyme (N-acetyl glutamate synthetase) results in accumulation of ammonia in the blood as it can't be broken down and removed through the urine.
  • Neonatal jaundice: A yellow discolouration of the skin which sometimes occurs in newborns
  • Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
  • Nesidioblastosis of pancreas: A rare genetic disorder where abnormal islets of Langerhans cells in the pancreas produce excess insulin which causes very low blood sugar levels. Untreated low blood sugar can cause permanent brain damage.
  • Neurological symptoms: Any symptoms that are caused by neurological conditions
  • Neurosyphilis -- general paresis: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the brain cells and causes a range of neurological symptoms. The condition is progressive and life-threatening.
  • Neurotoxicity syndromes: Altered nervous system functioning caused by exposure to certain chemicals (manmade or natural) that affect the nervous system - essentially it is the poisoning of the nervous system. Examples of toxic compounds that may cause neurotoxicity include lead, certain solvents and pesticides. Symptoms may occur immediately or gradually over a period of time.
  • Niemann-Pick disease, type A: Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited metabolic disorder where lipids are not able to be metabolized adequately and hence build up and cause damage in various parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain. The different types of the disease are due to different genetic mutations. Type A is a severe infantile form in which death usually occurs by early childhood.
  • Niemann-Pick disease, type C1: Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited metabolic disorder where lipids are not able to be metabolized adequately and hence build up and cause damage in various parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain. The different types of the disease are due to different genetic mutations. Type C is a juvenile or subacute form of the condition which usually starts during childhood and survival into adulthood is possible.
  • Niemann-Pick disease, type D: Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited metabolic disorder where lipids are not able to be metabolized adequately and hence build up and cause damage in various parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain. Type D is no longer a relevant term as research has shown that it has the same genetic mutation as Type C and is therefore the same condition.
  • Ondine syndrome: A rare condition involving defects in the mechanism that control breathing.
  • Ondine's curse: A condition involving defects in the mechanism that control breathing.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta: Weak bones ("brittle bone disease") and loose joints
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 3: A rare genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by progressive limb deformity and normal sclerae.
  • Osteopetrosis lethal: A severe, lethal form of the brittle bone condition called osteopetrosis.
  • Oxycontin overdose: Oxycontin is a prescription drug mainly used to treat pain. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Periodic hyperlysinemia: A rare genetic disorder where the body lacks enzymes to metabolize lysine which then causes a harmful builds up of lysine and ammonia in the body.
  • Reye's syndrome: is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver
  • Rh Disease: A disease that can occur when the mother's blood is not compatible with the fetal blood i.e. when an Rh-negative mother had a Rh-positive child. If the baby's blood is exposed to the mother's blood (through placenta, abortion, miscarriage, amniocentesis) the mother's body becomes sensitized and develops antibodies the Rh-positive blood. In future pregnancies, the mother's antibodies can attack the red blood cells of the unborn baby resulting in hemolytic disease. The severity of the disease is variable and can range from mild fetal anemia to severe anemia and even fetal death.
  • Rheumatoid vasculitis: A rare disorder where sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis with joint inflammation develop inflammation of small and medium sized blood vessels. It tends to mostly affect the blood vessels in the skin. The symptoms are determined by which part of the body is affected.
  • Shaken Baby Syndrome: A condition caused by violent shaking of a baby.
  • Strangulation: The arrest of circulation in a part of the body due to compression
  • Stroke symptoms: Brain-related symptoms of bleeding or blockage.
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage: A condition which is characterized by haemorrhage of blood into the subarachnoid space
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage: subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain. This area is called the subarachnoid space
  • Suffocation: The death of an individual due to a lack of oxygen
  • Syncope: Loss or interruption of consciousness.
  • Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Treponema pallidum). The condition is often asymptomatic in the early stages but one or more sores may be present in the early stages. Untreated syphilis usually results in remission of visible symptoms but further severe damage may occur to internal organs and other body tissues which can result in death.
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency: A condition which is characterized by a deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiencies: A rare genetic disorder where insufficient levels of tetrahydropterin leads to a build up of phenylalanine in the blood which can cause toxic side effects such as nerve damage or even brain damage. The condition does not usually cause any significant symptoms.
  • Togaviridae disease: Infection with any of a number of togaviridae viruses which can caused conditions such as Equine encephalitis, Ross River virus and Rubella virus. Symptoms are determined by the type of virus involved. Togaviridae are arboviruses and are transmitted by arthropods.
  • Toxoplasmosis: Infection often caught from cats and their feces.
  • Trauma-related symptoms: Symptoms related to trauma or injury.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain injury from trauma or accident.
  • Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency -- Early onset: Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency is a rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form. The early-onset form is the most severe and can readily lead to death if undiagnosed.
  • Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency -- adult-onset: Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency is a rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form. The adult-onset form is relatively mild and tends to be characterized mainly by muscle problems.
  • Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency -- intermediate: Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency is a rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form. The intermediate form is relatively mild and tends to be characterized by periods of low blood sugar - symptoms tend to develop during childhood.
  • Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form.
  • Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis
  • Wilson's disease: Wilson disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a neurodegenerative disease of copper metabolism.

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Brain damage:

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