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Diagnostic Tests for Darkened urine

Diagnostic Test list for Darkened urine:

The list of diagnostic tests mentioned in various sources as used in the diagnosis of Darkened urine includes:

  • Physical examination
    • Examine for signs of anemia
    • Temperature - may suggest urinary tract infection, lupus erythematosus, infective endocarditis if there is blood in the urine. If jaundiced may suggest viral hepatitis, pancreatitis, cholangitis or severe alcoholic hepatitis.
    • Blood pressure - e.g. if high blood pressure may suggest glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidneys, lupus erythematosus.
    • Cardiovascular examination - to look for signs of infective endocarditis which may cause emboli to kidney e.g. fever, heart murmur, small hemorrhages on the nails.
    • Abdominal palpation for mass in flanks - e.g. bilateral flank masses may suggest polycystic kidneys and hydronephrosis; a unilateral flank mass may suggest a hypernephroma (renal cell carcinoma), unilateral hydronephrosis, solitary kidney cyst or renal vein thrombosis.
    • Abdominal examination for enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, ascites and palpable gallbladder which may be associated with various causes of jaundice and dark urine
    • Examine for bladder tenderness or enlargement - which may suggest prostatic obstruction and urine retention.
    • Digital rectal examination for enlarged prostate ( benign or malignant) or tender prostate of prostatitis
    • Examine for signs of bleeding disorder - e.g. widespread bruising, swollen joints, bleeding gums.
  • Urine tests
    • Urine analysis and microscopy - looking for protein, granular casts and red cell casts suggestive of glomerulonephritis and lupus erythematosus. Look for Bilirubin present in jaundice.
    • Urine culture and sensitivity - to diagnose urinary tract infection.
    • Urine cytology - may be useful to detect malignancies of the bladder and lower urinary tract, but is usually negative for kidney cancers.
    • First pass Urine PCR test for gonorrhea and Chlamydia to rule out sexually acquired urethritis
  • Anaerobic culture and AFB smear and culture - to rule out tuberculosis.
  • Blood test
    • Full blood count
    • ESR
    • Renal function tests (urea and Creatinine)
    • Anti-streptolysin O titers and serum complement level if suspect glomerulonephritis
    • Coagulation profile to help rule out acquired or hereditary bleeding disorders
    • Antinuclear antibody, dsDNA, Rheumatoid factor may help diagnose lupus erythematosus
    • Liver function tests with Bilirubin level
    • Viral serology for Hepatitis A, B and C and also CMV and EBV if jaundice is present
    • Serum amylase is elevated in pancreatitis
    • If a rare type of cirrhosis is present serum copper, caeruloplasmin, alpha-1 antitrypsin and iron studies
  • Radiological investigations
    • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
    • Renal ultrasound scan - may help diagnose a renal cyst, but is less sensitive at detecting lower urinary tract abnormalities.
    • Retrograde pyelography
    • If jaundice is present, Upper abdominal ultrasound scan to look for an obstructive cause - e.g. cancer or gallstones.
    • ERCP - if upper abdominal ultrasound suggests obstructive cause outside the liver i.e. dilated bile ducts. Used to diagnose a stone in the common bile duct or biliary obstruction due to cancer.
    • Renal angiogram and aortogram may be necessary to evaluate renovascular hypertension and renal embolism
  • If the above tests do not reveal the cause of blood in the urine, may need to have cystoscopy by Urologist; CT scan of abdomen and pelvis or renal biopsy
  • Liver biopsy may be required if upper abdominal ultrasound does not show dilated bile ducts in a person with jaundice

Home Diagnostic Testing

These home medical tests may be relevant to Darkened urine causes:

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Darkened urine:

The following list of conditions have 'Darkened urine' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

Select from the following alphabetical view of conditions which include a symptom of Darkened urine or choose View All.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Darkened urine:

The following list of medical conditions have 'Darkened urine' or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.

 

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