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Symptoms » Pigmentation symptoms » Glossary
 

Glossary for Pigmentation symptoms

Medical terms related to Pigmentation symptoms or mentioned in this section include:

  • "cafe-au-lait" spots: Where there are macules of a light brown colour located on the skin
  • ABCD syndrome: A rare inherited condition characterized by albinism, deafness, a black lock of hair and intestinal abnormalities.
  • ACTH resistance: A rare inherited genetic disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency due to the adrenal gland's inability to respond to ACTH and hence produce the hormone called cortisol.
  • APECED Syndrome: APECED is a recessively inherited genetic disease characterized by the presence of two of the following three conditions: impaired parathyroid function, yeast infection (candidiasis) and impaired adrenal gland function (Addison's disease). It is an autoimmune disease resulting from a genetic defect. The body's immune system malfunctions and attacks it's own body tissues.
  • Ablinism I syndrome: A recessively inherited form of albinism involving the complete lack of skin, hair and eye pigments.
  • Ablinism II syndrome: A recessively inherited form of albinism involving a reduction in skin, hair and eye pigments.
  • Acanthosis nigricans: A diffuse colour change to the skin with dark pigmentation, particularly in the axillae
  • Acanthosis nigricans in children: Acanthosis nigricans in children is a condition in which a child has brown to black velvety areas of excessive coloring of the skin, generally found in the folds of the body.
  • Achalasia -- Addisonianism -- Alacrimia syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by achalasia, alacrimia (absent tears) and Addison's disease. Addison's disease involves adrenal insufficiency due to a resistance to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Only about 70 cases reported worldwide.
  • Achalasia -- addisonianism -- alacrima syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by achalasia, alacrimia (absent tears) and Addison's disease. Addison's disease involves adrenal insufficiency due to a resistance to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Only about 70 cases reported worldwide.
  • Achalasia -- adrenal -- alacrima syndrome: A familial disorder characterized by adrenal gland-related hormonal problems, swallowing difficulty (achalasia) and a lack of tears (alacrima). Neurological impairment and motor and sensory neuropathy is progressive. The adrenal glands in patients are resistant to the ACTH hormone and hence fails to operate normally.
  • Acquired total lipodystrophy: A rare acquired disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue through the body. The disorder is very similar to the congenital form but the liver involvement is more severe.
  • Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by abnormalities of the bones of the skeleton as well as mental retardation. Various facial, eye and urogenital anomalies are also present.
  • Acromelanosis: A birth anomaly where there is patches of increased pigmentation in the ends of the fingers and toes. The pigmentation may spread to surrounding areas of skin.
  • Actinic keratosis: Gradual thickening of outer skin layers caused by excessive exposure to sunlight. Also called senile keratosis, senile wart or solar keratosis.
  • Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Diseases of the adrenal cortex. Examples includes Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome and adrenal fatigue.
  • Adrenal gland hypofunction: Reduced adrenal gland activity due to damage to the adrenal gland or lack of stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal gland symptoms: Symptoms affecting the adrenal glands
  • Adrenal hyperplasia: A group of disorder that occur when there is a problem in the process of making adrenal corticosteroids.
  • Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital type 3: A group of disorders that occur when a deficiency of 21-hydroxylase impairs the normal process of making adrenal corticosteroids. The severity of the condition is variable depending on the degree of deficiency.
  • Adrenal hypofunction: A condition which is characterized by a lack of production of hormones from the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal hypoplasia congenital, X-linked: A genetic disorder which affects the body tissues that produce hormones. It is characterized by underdeveloped adrenal glands which results adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy: A rare hereditary metabolic disease that only occurs in male children and is characterized by adrenal atrophy and extensive cerebral demyelination causing progressive loss of mental functioning, aphasia, apraxia and sometimes blindness. The patient usually dies within 5 years.
  • Albinism deafness syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of deafness with partial albinism involving patches of absent pigmentation in the skin and hair. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner.
  • Albinism immunodeficiency: A medical condition characterized by the association of immune system problems and albinism.
  • Albinism ocular late onset sensorineural deafness: A rare inherited condition characterized by a lack of eye pigmentation and deafness that usually starts in middle-age. Severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Albinism, ocular, autosomal recessive: A rare inherited condition characterized by reduced eye pigmentation with normal, or near normal hair and skin pigmentation.
  • Albinism-deafness of Tietz: Tietz syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by deafness and albinism. It should not be confused with the similarly named Tietz's syndrome which involves inflammation of chest cartilage.
  • Alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing syndrome: The excessive consumption of alcohol can result in symptoms similar to a condition called Cushing's syndrome. When alcohol consumption is stopped, symptoms regress.
  • Alkaptonuria: A rare inherited metabolic disease characterized by homogentisic aciduria, arthritis and ochronosis. Symptoms include darkening of urine, alkinization due to overproduction of homogentisic acid, arthritis in the large joints and black ochronotic pigmentation of cartilage and collagen tissue. However, many of these symptoms may not occur until middle age. The condition may also be caused by chronic phenol poisoning.
  • Altered pigmentation: discoloration of the skin can be caused by various factors
  • Altered pigmentation in pregnancy: Altered pigmentation in pregnancy consists of a deepening of the colour of the areolae, and appearance of the linea nigra on the abdomen, together with a change in colour of the vagina and cervix from pink to a deep purple colour due to venous dilatation. Additionally some women develop brown patches of pigmentation on their faces (typically over the cheekbones.) These changes reverse after pregnancy.
  • Angioma: A benign tumor containing blood or lymph vessels.
  • Aplasia cutis congenita -- epibulbar dermoids: A very rare syndrome characterized by increased skin pigmentation, a localized absence of skin (aplasia cutis congenital) and epibulbar dermoids (a benign eye tumor).
  • Aplastic anemia: A blood disorder where the bone marrow produces insufficient new blood cells.
  • Areas of depigmentation: decolourised areas of the skin
  • Athabaskan severe combined immunodeficiency: A severe immunodeficiency disorder found in Navajo and Apache populations.
  • Athlete's foot: A condition which is characterized by a chronic superificial infection of the foot caused by a fungi
  • Atopic dermatitis 1: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q21. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 2: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 3: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20p. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 4: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17q25.3. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 5: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q12-q14. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 6: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q31-q33. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Baber's syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by the association of congenital liver cirrhosis with Fanconi syndrome.
  • Banti Syndrome: A rare conditions where chronic congestive spleen enlargement causes it to destroy red blood cells too early. The spleen becomes enlarged due to an obstruction of blood flow in the organ and the resulting increase in blood pressure.
  • Banti's syndrome: A chronic, progressive condition marked by enlargement of the spleen which is associated with anemia, splenomegaly, ascites, jaundice, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy: A rare genetic disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus, loss of body fat, hepatomegaly, enlarged genitals, increased skeletal growth and other abnormalities.
  • Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, type 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by early-onset diabetes mellitus, loss of body fat, serious insulin resistance, high blood triglycerides and fatty liver. Type 1 is distinguished from type 2 by the origin of the genetic defect. Type 1 is caused by a defect on the AGPAT2 gene on chromosome 9q34.3. Type 1 seems to be less severe with some cases of type 2 resulting in premature death which can occur as early as the first year of life. Type 2 also involves mental retardation which is not seen in type 1.
  • Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by early-onset diabetes mellitus, loss of body fat, serious insulin resistance, high blood triglycerides and fatty liver. Type 2 is distinguished from type 2 by the origin of the genetic defect. Type 2 is caused by a defect on the BSCL2 gene on chromosome 11q13. Type 2 seems to be more severe with some cases resulting in premature death which can occur as early as the first year of life. Type 2 also involves mental retardation which is not seen in type 1.
  • Black patches of skin: Black patches of skin are irregular areas of black skin.
  • Bone-Marrow failure syndromes: A disorder where the bone marrow fails to produce enough new blood cells.
  • Brachioradial pruritus: A condition characterized by itching, burning and other sensations of the skin on one or both arms. The skin has no visible evidence of the skin unless the patient causes damage to the skin due to scratching or rubbing. The condition results from nerve damage. It is believed that in some cases the condition arises from nerve damage due to excessive sun exposure. Thus the outer parts of the arm (which tend to receive more sun) tend to be more affected than the inner parts of the arm. In other people, damage to the nerves in the neck from such things as compression or a spinal tumor may also result in the condition.
  • Bronze skin: Bronzed skin that is seen best at pressure points such as elbows and knees.
  • Brunzell syndrome: A rare recessively inherited syndrome characterized by a lack of skin fat (Seip syndrome), cystic angiomatosis of the long bones which can lead to fractures.
  • Bullous dystrophy, macular type: A rare condition characterized by loss of scalp hair, increased skin pigmentation, small head, mental retardation, short stature and blisters. The blisters do not form necessarily on skin that has suffered trauma but occurs spontaneously.
  • Bullous pemphigoid: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic itchy blistering of the skin. Also called pemphigoid.
  • Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus: A blistering disease that can develop in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The process is mediated by autoantibodies.
  • Busulfan toxicity syndrome: Symptoms caused by the use of a chemotherapy drug called Busulfan.
  • Cafe-au-lait spots in children: Cafe-au-lait spots in children are birthmarks that are the color of coffee with cream and occur in children.
  • Candidiasis familial chronic mucocutaneous, autosomal dominant, with thyroid disease: A dominantly inherited condition characterized by poor immunity to fungal infections (particularly those caused by Candida albicans) as will as thyroid disease. Persistent fungal infections tend to affect the nails, skin or mucous membranes. The degree of severity is variable with some cases leading to fugal infection of the brain which is usually fatal.
  • Cerebelloparenchymal autosomal recessive disorder 3: A rare, recessively inherited disorder characterized mainly by albinism, incoordination, low muscle tone and eye problems.
  • Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: An inherited immune system disorder resulting in frequent infections, lack of skin and eye pigmentation, neurological diseases and early death.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Formaldehyde: Formaldehyde is a chemical used mainly in blues, lacquers, fireproofing, electrical insulation, leather tanning products and embalming. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Paraffin wax: Paraffin wax is a chemical used mainly in the production of candles, paraffin papers, varnishes, floor polishes, food packaging, lubricants, cosmetics, wood waterproofing, cork and perfume extraction. The fumes from burning paraffin wax can be quite harmful if excessive inhalation occurs. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Cholestasis: A condition where bile formation or flow is reduced.
  • Chromosome 10, trisomy 10pter p13: A rare chromosomal disorder where duplication of a portion of chromosome 10 causes various abnormalities such as a wasted build, gut and heart placement abnormalities and lack of reflexes.
  • Chromosome 11, deletion 11p: A syndrome that is caused by the deletion of short arm (p) of chromosome 11. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Chromosome 14 trisomy: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of genetic material from chromosome 14 resulting in various abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is duplicated.
  • Chromosome 14 trisomy syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of genetic material from chromosome 14 resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 14q deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of genetic material from the long arm (q) of chromosome 14 resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 7 ring syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where the ends of chromosome 7 have been deleted and the two broken ends have rejoined to form a ring shape resulting in a range of symptoms determined by the size of the genetic deletion.
  • Chromosome 7, monosomy 7q21: A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation, short stature, facial anomalies and muscle and distal limb abnormalities.
  • Classic childhood ALD: Classic severe form of ALD in boys.
  • Clouston syndrome: A rare genetic ectodermal disorder characterized by skin, hair, nail and eye abnormalities.
  • Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations and Epidermal Nevi: A rare syndrome characterized by overgrowth of fatty tissue, blood vessel malformations and skin birth marks. The condition is a progressive one and there have been less than 20 reported cases.
  • Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, and Skeletal/Spinal abnormalities: A rare syndrome characterized by overgrowth of fatty tissue, blood vessel malformations, birth marks and skeletal and spinal abnormalities. The condition is a progressive one and there have been less than 20 reported cases.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): A group of disorder that occur when there is a problem in the process of making adrenal corticosteroids.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia -- simple virilizing form in males: A group of disorder that occur when a deficiency of 21-hydroxylase impairs the normal process of making adrenal corticosteroids. The simple virilizing form involves a moderate deficiency of 21-hydroxylase and differs in its effects on males and females.
  • Congenital partial lipodystrophy: A rare congenital disorder that involves adipose tissue abnormalities and is characterized by loss of adipose tissue mainly in the trunk and limbs.
  • Connective tissue dysplasia, Spellacy type: A very rare syndrome caused by an inherited collagen disorder and characterized by skin abnormalities, skeletal and eye anomalies and joint problems.
  • Costello syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by papillomas which may become malignant.
  • Cowden's syndrome: A rare hereditary condition characterized by multiple noncancerous nodules called hamartomas. Sufferers also face an increased risk of particular cancers.
  • Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia: A rare syndrome characterized by skeletal defects and an unusual facial appearance consisting mainly of a prominent forehead, wide-set eyes, broad nose and a prominent forehead with a birthmark.
  • Craniosynostosis exostoses nevus epibulbar dermoid: A rare syndrome characterized by the premature fusion of skull bones, excessive bone growth (hyperostosis), epibulbar dermoids (benign eye tumor) and a skin disorder (linear verrucous epidermal nevus). Patients with this condition need to avoid using aminoglycosides as they can have a negative impact on hearing.
  • Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by the premature jointing of the skull bones as well as acanthosis nigricans which is a skin condition.
  • Cutaneomeningospinal angiomatosis: A rare inherited disorder involving a skin birthmark as well as a blood vessel malformation in the spinal cord (angioma). The severity of the spinal involvement is variable with neurological problems occurring as a result of compression of the spinal cord or bleeding. Other cases may be undiagnosed as the cause no symptoms.
  • Cutaneous Anthrax: A skin infection caused by the spores of the anthrax bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. The infection occurs when the spores enter broken skin and result in a small red bump which blisters. The blister ruptures and forms a dark scab over dead tissue.
  • Dark and light patches on the skin: dark patches on the skin are caused by increased melanin production and light patches by decreased melanin
  • Dark skin: Darkening of the skin as a symptom
  • De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome: A rare genetic ectodermal disorder characterized by sunlight sensitivity, skin atrophy and pigmentation and skin tumors as well neurologic involvement.
  • Deafness, vitiligo, achalasia: A rare disorder characterized by deafness, achalasia (difficulty swallowing) and patches of reduced pigmentation in the skin (vitiligo).
  • Decreased pigmentation: A decrease in the melanocytic composition of the skin.
  • Deletion 11p: A syndrome that is caused by the deletion of short arm (p) of chromosome 11. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Depigmented nevi: decolourised areas of the skin
  • Dermatomyositis: A muscle disease characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting in progressive muscle weakness and a characteristic rash.
  • Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by increased skin pigmentation, thickened skin on palms and soles and reduced sweating.
  • Dermatophagia: A form of obsessive compulsive disorder where a person compulsively bites their own skin, especially around the nails. Sufferers can feel the pain they inflict on themselves but the feelings of gratification and stress relief prevent them from stopping. The severity and extent of damage to the skin is variable. Stress and anxiety can trigger the compulsive skin biting.
  • Dermo-odontodysplasia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by tooth, skin, hair and nail abnormalities.
  • Diabetes-like symptoms: Symptoms similar to those of diabetes
  • Dyck Syndrome: A very rare condition observe in two brothers. It involves vision, hearing, muscle, sensory and adrenal system problems and an enlarged liver and spleen.
  • Dyskeratosis Congenita: A rare genetic disorder characterized by sking pigmentation abnormalities, nail dystrophy and mucous membrane changes.
  • Ectodermal dysplasia, Berlin type: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by the absence of many or all teeth, a lack of hair, mental retardation and skin abnormalities.
  • Ectodermal dysplasia, hypohidrotic, autosomal recessive: A rare genetic multisystem disorder characterized by hair, teeth, nail and skin abnormalities and absence of certain sweat glands.
  • Ectopic ACTH Syndrome: A tumour arising in the body which releases excess quantities of ACTH
  • Eczema: Skin rash usually from allergic causes.
  • Erythema ab igne:
  • Excess skin pigmentation: A condition which is characterized by an abnormal excess of skin pigmentation
  • Fanconi syndrome: Fanconi syndrome that occurs secondary to the accumulation of crystals of light-chain immunoglobulin molecules in the kidney tubules which affects their functioning.
  • Fanconi's anemia: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group A: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group A refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group B: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group B refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group C: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group C refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group D1: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group D1 refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group D2: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group D2 refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group E: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group E refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group F: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group F refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group G: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group G refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group I: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group I refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group J: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group J refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group L: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group L refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group M: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group M refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Complementation group N: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The subtype called Complementation group N refers to a genetic subtype of the disease. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition and various skeletal abnormalities and other birth defects may also be present. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fanconi's anemia -- Estren-Dameshek variant: Fanconi's anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by the inability of the bone marrow to produce blood cells. The Estren-Dameshek variant is Fanconi's anemia without the presence of any physical malformations or deformities which are often associated with Fanconi's anemia. An increased incidence of leukemias and other cancers is associated with this condition. The condition is present at birth but symptoms of the blood problems are often not evident until later in childhood - in rare cases, the condition may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Fournier Gangrene: A necrotizing bacterial infection of the skin on the genitals and perineum. The condition progresses rapidly and immediate medical attention is vital to prevent the bacteria entering the blood steam and resulting in death. It is usually the male genitals that are affected. The risk of the condition is increased by surgery, extreme obesity, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, leukemia and immune system disorders.
  • Fowler-Christmas-Chapple syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of polycystic ovaries with the abnormal functioning of the urinary valve.
  • Fox-Fordyce disease: A rare disorder where sweat trapped in the sweat glands results in itching inflammation of the involved tissue
  • Frostbite: damage to skin, soft tissues and blood vessels due to extreme cold
  • Gangrene: Death (necrosis) of a portion of tissue or entire organ due to decreased perfusion with blood or infectious destruction of tissue.
  • Gastrocutaneous syndrome: A arare inherited disorder characterized by peptic ulcers, hiatus hernia, eye abnormalities and skin pigmentation.
  • Glucocorticoid deficiency, familial: A rare inherited disorder where the adrenals don't respond to ACTH resulting in glucocorticoid deficiency.
  • Gradual onset depigmented nevi: Gradual onset depigmented nevi refers to the slow development of areas of abnormal skin tissue that have no coloring.
  • Halal Setton Wang syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by eye, teeth, nail and skin abnormalities.
  • Hay-Wells Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by ankyloblepharon, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip and/or cleft palate.
  • Hay-Wells syndrome, recessive type: A rare recessively inherited genetic disorder characterized by ankyloblepharon, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip and/or cleft palate. The recessive form of this condition is distinguished by the presence at birth of adhesions between the upper and lower jaws.
  • Hematochromatosis: Hemochromatosis is the abnormal accumulation of iron in parenchymal organs, leading to organ toxicity. It is the most common inherited liver disease in whites and the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorder.
  • Hemochromatosis type 1: A genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 1 is the most common form of the disorder, has an adult onset and is inherited recessively.
  • Hemochromatosis type 2: A rare genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 2 is a more severe type, has a juvenile onset and is inherited recessively.
  • Hemochromatosis type 3: A rare genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 3 has an onset that is between type 1 and type 2 and is inherited recessively.
  • Hemochromatosis type 4: A rare genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. Type 4 has an adult onset but is inherited dominantly.
  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. There are 4 types of hemochromatosis and they are distinguished by age of onset, genetic cause and type of inheritance. Some sufferers may be asymptomatic.
  • Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by various degrees of albinism, bleeding due to a platelet defect and accumulation of a waxy substance in cells (lysosomal ceroid storage).
  • Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2: A rare disorder characterized by various degrees of albinism, bleeding due to a platelet defect, an accumulation of a waxy substance in cells (lysosomal ceroid storage) and immunodeficiency. HPS type 2 differs from type 1 in that it also involves immunodeficiency due to congenital neutropenia.
  • Humeroradioulnar synostosis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by abnormalities in the arm bones where some of the bones in the upper and lower arms are fused.
  • Hyperpigmentation: Excess skin pigment or coloration
  • Hyperpigmentation in children: Hyperpigmentation in children refers to a child who has areas of skin that are lighter in color than the surrounding skin.
  • Hyperpigmentation of body folds: discoloration of body folds like groin and axilla.
  • Hyperpigmentation of fingers: Increased pigmentation of the finger tips.
  • Hyperpigmentation of nails: Increased pigmentation of the nail.
  • Hyperpigmentation of nipples: Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and/or areola (HNA) is defined as excessive keratinization of the nipple and/or areola.
  • Hyperpigmentation of scars: extremely discolored scars
  • Hyperpigmentation, Cutaneous, With Hypertrichosis, Hepatosplenomegaly, Heart Anomalies, Hearing Loss, And Hypogonadism: A rare syndrome characterized by various skin and nail anomalies as well as other problems.
  • Hyperpigmented patches of skin: also known as hypermelanosis
  • Hyperpigmented patches of skin in pregnancy: Appearence of darker patches of skin in a woman who is pregnant.
  • Hypoadrenalism: Reduced adrenal gland activity.
  • Hypoadrenocorticism -- hypoparathyroidism -- moniliasis: An autoimmune disorder where hormone production by various glands is reduced. The main features of the disorder are Addison disease and/or hypoparathyroidism and/or chronic candidiasis.
  • Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: An inherited disorder involving the developmental abnormalities during the fetal stage that can affect the skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. This form of ectodermal dysplasia is characterized by a reduced ability to sweat due to a lack of sweat glands or dysfunction of present sweat glands.
  • Hypomelanosis of Ito: A rare genetic neurocutaneous disorder characterized by unusual patterns of depigmented skin and associated disorders such as seizures, psychomotor retardation and eye abnormalities.
  • Hypomelanotic disorder: Lack of pigmentation
  • Hypopigmentation: Whitening of the skin from pigment loss
  • Hypopigmentation in children: Hypopigmentation in children is a lack of normal coloration or loss of skin color in a child.
  • Hypopigmentation/Deafness of Tietz: Tietz syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by deafness and albinism. It should not be confused with the similarly named Tietz's syndrome which involves inflammation of chest cartilage.
  • Hypopigmented lesions in adults: Hypopigmented lesions in adults are sores or ulcers that are colorless or have lost color in an adult.
  • Hypopigmented lesions in children: Hypopigmented lesions in children refers are sores or ulcers that are colorless or have lost color in a child.
  • Hypopigmented patches of skin: also known as hypomelanosis
  • Incontinentia Pigmenti: A rare genetic skin pigmentation disorder characterized by eye, teeth, bone, nail and hair malformations as well as central nervous abnormalities and mental deficiency.
  • Increased pigmentation: An increase in the melanocytic composition of the skin.
  • Increased pigmentation in pregnancy: Increased pigmentation in pregnancy consists of a deepening of the colour of the areolae, and appearance of the linea nigra on the abdomen, together with a change in colour of the vagina and cervix from pink to a deep purple colour due to venous dilatation. Additionally some women develop brown patches of pigmentation on their faces (typically over the cheekbones.) These changes reverse after pregnancy.
  • Increased skin pigmentation: Increased skin pigmentation is coloring of the skin that is greater than it was in the past.
  • Increased skin pigmentation in children: Increased skin pigmentation in children refers to coloring of a child's skin that is greater than it was in the past.
  • Increased skin pigmentation in pregnancy: Increased skin pigmentation in pregnancy consists of a deepening of the colour of the areolae, and appearance of the linea nigra on the abdomen, together with a change in colour of the vagina and cervix from pink to a deep purple colour due to venous dilatation. Additionally some women develop brown patches of pigmentation on their faces (typically over the cheekbones.) These changes reverse after pregnancy.
  • Inguinal freckling: freckles in the inguinal region
  • Insulin resistance, short fifth metacarpals: A rare syndrome characterized by short fifth fingers and fifth hand bones as well as insulin resistance.
  • Insulin-resistance syndrome, type A: A syndrome characterized by insulin resistance resulting in distinctive skin lesions called acanthosis nigricans. It is the least severe form of insulin resistance.
  • Insulin-resistance type B: A very rare syndrome where insulin resistance is associated with autoimmune disease. The disorder is caused by antibodies which attack the bodies insulin receptors.
  • Insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans, type A: A patch of velvety, pigmented skin that occurs in association with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus.
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Chronic arthritis affecting children and teens
  • Kaposi's Sarcoma: Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancerous tumor of the connective tissue, and is often associated with AIDS.
  • Kaposiform hemangio-endothelioma: A rare blood vessel tumor that occur primarily in children. It causes localized damage but is not metastatic. Main sites affected are the retroperitoneum and skin but can also occur in the head and neck area, mediastinum and deep soft tissue of the trunk and limbs. Symptoms and prognosis is determined by the size and location of the tumors.
  • Kawanism: Kava can be used as a herbal agent to treat anxiety, restlessness, stress and sleeping problems due to anxiety. The herbal agent contains chemicals including alpha-pyrone which can cause various symptoms if it is taken for long periods of time.
  • Keratosis: A localized thickening or overgrowth of the upper skin layer such as in a callus or wart.
  • Kuskokwim disease: A rare syndrome where abnormal muscle attachment causes abnormalities such as muscle wasting or excessive growth and contractures.
  • Lawrence-Seip syndrome: Lawrence-Seip syndrome is a relatively uncommon condition involving generalized loss of skin fat that is acquired rather than congenital as in Berardinelli-Seip Syndrome. Patients can also develop diabetes mellitus and other problems. The loss of skin fat tends to occur during childhood or adolescence and is often triggered by infections such as measles and hepatitis. The diabetes tends to occur after fat loss begins. The limbs and face tend to be the most affected.
  • Leprechaunism: A very rare genetic disorder characterized by insulin resistance which leads to growth delay and endocrine system abnormalities.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 1: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 2: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q25.2-q27.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 3: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 4q32 and 4p14.
  • Leprosy, susceptibility to, 4: A chronic, progressive infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae which causes skin sores and also affects the eyes, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. The range of manifestations and severity of symptoms is quite variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic mutations linked to an increased susceptibility to leprosy. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Lipodermatosclerosis: A rare condition that affects the skin above the ankles. It tends to occur in people with chronic vein problems which affects the blood flow the this area of skin. The skin becomes smooth, brown, tight and painful.
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, due to AKT2 mutations: An inherited disorder characterized by the loss of fatty tissue from the extremities while fatty tissue on the face, neck and trunk is normal or increased.
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 1 (FPLD1): An inherited disorder characterized by the loss of fatty tissue from the extremities while fatty tissue on the face, neck and trunk is normal or increased.
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, type 3 (FPLD3): A rare metabolic disorder involving abnormal fat gradually disappears from the limbs, trunk and buttocks but stays the same or accumulates on areas such as the face, shoulders, neck and genitals.
  • Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia where the early phase of adrenal cortisol production is defective which causes mineralocorticoid deficiency. Male pseudohermaphroditism is the main characteristic of this disorder.
  • Liver conditions: Any condition that affects the liver
  • Lymphatic Obstruction: A blockage of the lymph vessels that drain fluid from body tissues and facilitate immune system cell movement through the body. Lymphatic obstruction can be caused by such things as tumors, surgery, injury and infection. Obstruction can be primary (as in the case of inherited conditions such as lymphatic hypoplasia) or secondary (as in the case of infection).
  • Lymphocytic vasculitis: Blood vessel inflammation due to infiltration of blood vessel walls with lymphocytes which can causes raised skin welts which can be tender and painful. The skin often remains darkened after the lesions are resolved.
  • Macrodactyly -- Hemihypertrophy -- Connective tissue nevi syndrome: A birth disorder characterized manily by large toes, large head, skin pigmentation anomaly and asymmetrical face and arm.
  • McCune-Albright Syndrome: A rare genetic multisystem disorder characterized by abnormal skin pigmentation and endocrine gland dysfunction and replacement of parts of bone tissue with fibrous material.
  • Meinecke syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation and short broad thumbs.
  • Mende syndrome: A rare condition characterized by congenital deafness, mutism, partial albinism and a mongoloid face as well as other anomalies.
  • Mental retardation -- hypotonia -- skin hyperpigmentation: A rare condition characterized mainly by mental retardation, reduced muscle tone and increased skin pigmentation.
  • Mental retardation -- short broad thumbs: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation and short, broad thumbs.
  • Microcephaly immunodeficiency lymphoreticuloma: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, reduced immunity and increased risk of cancer. There are a wide range of other abnormalities and symptoms that can occur.
  • Miescher syndrome (2): A rare inherited disorder characterized by pigmented velvety patches of skin, excess body hair, failure to thrive, retarded growth, diabetes and facial abnormalities.
  • Milner-Khallouf-Gibson syndrome: A rare recessively inherited genetic disorder characterized by a variety of symptoms which are typical of a condition called Fanconi's anemia.
  • Mole: Darkened growths on the skin; everyone has a few.
  • Mouth pigmentation: The presence of pigmentation of the mucosa of the mouth
  • Navajo poikiloderma: A rare genetic blood disorder found in Navajo populations and characterized by a progressive skin disorder and neutropenia (lack of neutrophils which are needed to fight bacterial infections).
  • Neck symptoms: Symptoms affecting the neck
  • Nelson Syndrome: The rapid growth of a pituitary adenoma (tumor) after the surgical removal of both adrenal glands to treat Cushing's disease. The condition is triggered by the resultant loss of the regulatory function of cortisol.
  • Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy: A rare disorder characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin as well as other symptoms. The course of the disease may be mild or aggressive and occurs in patients with underlying disorders kidney disease.
  • Neurofibromatosis syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3A: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant. The skin tumors tend to develop characteristically on the palms of the hands.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3B: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and intestinal tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 6: A rare, dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the presence of at least 6 café-au-lait spots without the presence of neurofibromas or Lisch nodules typically present in neurofibromatosis.
  • Neurofibromatosis-1: Genetic disorder often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis-like skin pigmentation changes: Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant condition in which the myelin sheath are affected. It is characterised by specific skin pigmentary changes known as café-au-lait spots.
  • Nevus: Any type of permanent skin mark
  • Nevus flammeus: A condition which is characterized by any congenital skin lesion
  • Nevus of ota retinitis pigmentosa: A very rare syndrome characterized by abnormal pigmentation of the eye and the skin surrounding the eye.
  • Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, reduced immunity and increased risk of cancer. There are a wide range of other abnormalities and symptoms that can occur.
  • Ocular Albinism type 1: A rare eye disorder characterized primarily by lack of eye pigmentation. Females tend to have few if any symptoms as the condition is X-linked.
  • Oculo-osteo-cutaneous syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by eye, skeletal and skin abnormalities.
  • Oculocerebral syndrome with hypopigmentation: A rare inherited disorder involving lack of pigmentation and eye and brain defects caused by central nervous system abnormalities.
  • Oculocutaneous albinism, minimal pigment type: A rare inherited condition characterized by very little pigmentation in the skin, eye and hair. It is believed to be a variant for of oculocutaneous albinism type 3.
  • Oculocutaneous albinism, type 2: A rare inherited disorder characterized by reduced pigmentation in the skin, eyes and hair. Type 2 has normal levels of active tyrosinase which is needed for the production of melanin which gives the skin, hair and eyes their color - the fairness is caused by a different genetic mutation (OCA2 gene).
  • Oculocutaneous albinism, type 4: A rare inherited disorder characterized by reduced pigmentation in the skin, eyes and hair. Type 4 involves a normal levels of tyrosinase which is needed for the production of melanin which gives the skin, hair and eyes their color. However, albinism is caused by mutation of the MATP gene (membrane associated transporter protein).
  • Oral thrush: Oral thrush is a fungal infection of the mouth.
  • Osteopathia striata pigmentary dermopathy white forelock: A rare disorder characterized by longitudinal striations on long bones and pigmentation abnormalities affecting the skin and hair.
  • POEMS: A very rare disorder that has widespread effects on the body: P -- polyneuropathy, O -- organopathy, E -- endocrinopathy, M -- monoclonal gammopathy and S -- skin changes.
  • POEMS syndrome: A very rare disorder that has widespread effects on the body: P - polyneuropathy, O - organopathy, E - endocrinopathy, M - monoclonal gammopathy, S - skin changes.
  • Pediculosis: Medical name for infection with lice (see head lice)
  • Peripheral type neurofibromatosis:
  • Persistent brown pigmentation: The persistent occurrence of a brown pigmentation
  • Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by abnormally pigmented areas on the skin which is associated with neurological problems. The skin pigmentation spreads and generally occurs only on one side of the body.
  • Phaeohyphomycosis: An opportunistic infection that is caused by dermatiaceous fungi
  • Phenylketonuria: A metabolic disorder where there is a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which leads to a harmful buildup of the phenylalanine in the body. Normally the phenylalanine is converted into tyrosine. The severity of the symptoms can range from severe enough to cause mental retardation to mild enough not to require treatment. Severity is determined by the level of impairment of enzyme activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase.
  • Phosgene oxime -- skin exposure: Phosgen oxime has no useful purpose but may be manufactured for use as a chemical weapon. The chemical is poisonous and exposure can occur through ingestion, inhalation and absorption through the skin. The chemical can penetrate clothing and the severity of symptoms will vary depending on the extent and duration of the exposure.
  • Phosgene oxime exposure: Phosgene oxime has no useful purpose but may be manufactured for use as a chemical weapon. The chemical is poisonous and exposure can occur through ingestion, inhalation and absorption through the skin. Symptoms will vary depending on the method of exposure, degree of exposure and duration of exposure. The chemical can penetrate clothing.
  • Phototoxic eczema: Phototoxic eczema is skin irritation and inflammation which occurs as an abnormal response to exposure to UV light radiation. The cause of this sensitivity may result from the use of certain drugs or exposure various other photosensitizing substances such as certain plants.
  • Pigmented lesion: Coloured by deposit of pigment.
  • Pigmented lesions in children: Pigmented lesions in children are colored areas of abnormal tissue in a child.
  • Pigmented retina: Abnormal colouring of the retina.
  • Pinta: A tropical American skin disease that only affects dark-skinned races. It is caused by an organism the causes thickening and loss of pigmentation of the skin.
  • Poikiloderma of Rothmund-Thomson: A rare disease which causes sufferers to have a senile-like appearance with skin, growth, hair and eye abnormalities.
  • Poikilodermatomyositis -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation , muscle inflammation and weakness and pigmentation abnormalities.
  • Polychlorobiphenyls (ingested) -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that that exposure to Polychlorobiphenyls (ingested) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Polycystic ovaries urethral sphincter dysfunction: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of polycystic ovaries with the abnormal functioning of the urinary valve.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Polyendocrine deficiency syndrome type 2: Multi-endocrine syndrome usually affecting young adults.
  • Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by the malfunction of more than one endocrine gland resulting in impaired hormone production. The gland malfunction results from autoimmune damage to the tissue. There are four subtypes of the disorder with type 3 occurring mainly in female adults. Type 3 usually starts with thyroid gland problems and then other autoimmune conditions such as diabetes.
  • Porokeratosis of Mibelli: A rare skin disorder characterized by skin lesions that tend to spread and may be located on the limbs, face, genitals and mouth. The condition progresses and regresses spontaneously and mild scarring may result. There is an associated increased risk of skin cancer.
  • Porphyria cutanea tarda, sporadic type: A rare metabolic condition involving a deficiency of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in the liver only. Type II involves a deficiency of the same enzymes activity in various tissues throughout the body.
  • Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in children: Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in children refers to a child who has a change in the color of tissue that occurs after an inflammatory disease or condition.
  • Pott gangrene: Tissue death that usually occurs in the extremities of elderly people as a result of arterial blockages. The toes are most commonly affected.
  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 1: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic condition involving progressive destruction of the bile ducts in the liver. This results in an abnormal buildup of bile in the liver which eventually progresses to liver failure. Primary biliary cirrhosis 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p12-q13.2.
  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 2: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic condition involving progressive destruction of the bile ducts in the liver. This results in an abnormal buildup of bile in the liver which eventually progresses to liver failure. Primary biliary cirrhosis 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis 3: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic condition involving progressive destruction of the bile ducts in the liver. This results in an abnormal buildup of bile in the liver which eventually progresses to liver failure. Primary biliary cirrhosis 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p31.2.
  • Primary Lymphatic Obstruction: A blockage of the lymph vessels from birth. Lymph vessels drain fluid from body tissues and facilitate immune cell movement through the body. Primary obstruction can be the result of underdeveloped or malformed lymph vessels.
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic and progressive cholestatic disease of the liver.
  • Primordial short stature -- microdontia -- opalescent and rootless teeth: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature and very small abnormal teeth.
  • Prurigo: Itchy nodules created by repeated scratching.
  • Prurigo nodularis of Hyde: A relatively uncommon skin disorder involving the development of firm itchy skin nodules. The nodules usually start on the arms and legs but can affect any part of the body in varying numbers. The exact cause is unknown but it is often associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis, linear IgA disease, liver failure, kidney failure, internal malignancies and Becker's nevus.
  • Pseudopapilledema -- blepharophimosis -- hand anomalies: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by malformations involving the hands, feet ears and face as well as deafness.
  • Pseudoxanthoma elasticum: A group of inherited, progressive connective tissue disorders affecting the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system. The condition is characterized by calcium deposits in the connective tissue which affects its ability to function. Some cases remain undiagnosed to the mildness of symptoms.
  • Purple skin: Purple or blue-purple coloring of the skin.
  • Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome: A very rare genetic disorder involving severe insulin resistance which is where the body fails to be able to use insulin which is needed to control blood sugar levels.
  • Recurrent infections -- short stature -- hypopigmentation -- coarse face: A rare syndrome characterized by recurring infections, short stature, reduced pigmentation and a coarse face.
  • Retinis pigmentosa -- deafness -- hypogenitalism: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by progressive retinal damage, deafness and genital anomalies.
  • Revesz Syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by disease of the eye retinas, anemia and central nervous system anomalies.
  • Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome: A syndrome which is characterized by atrophy, pigmentation and telangiectasia of the skin.
  • Saul-Wilkes-Stevenson syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by muscle problems, abnormal skin pigmentation, movement disorder, mental retardation and scoliosis.
  • Schrander-Stumpel, Theunissen, Hulsmans syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by vitiligo, psychomotor retardation, cleft lip and other facial anomalies.
  • Schwartz newark syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by pigmentation anomaly, hydrocephaly, spina bifida and a myelomeningocele.
  • Schwartz, Cohen-Addad, Lambert syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by increased pigmentation and a central nervous system malformation (myelomeningocele).
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Seckel syndrome 2: Seckel syndrome is a rare inherited disorder mainly involving retarded growth, mental retardation, small head and a facial appearance resembling a bird. It is often referred to as bird-headed dwarfism. There are three subtypes of the disorder. Type 2 tends to have less severe motor and mental retardation and the head is not small. Type 2 also involves at least one café au lait spot. Additional variable symptoms may also occur.
  • Seckel syndrome 3: Seckel syndrome is a rare inherited disorder mainly involving retarded growth, mental retardation, small head and a facial appearance resembling a bird. It is often referred to as bird-headed dwarfism. There are three subtypes of the disorder with type 1 being the most severe.
  • Secondary Lymphatic Obstruction: A blockage of the lymph vessels that occurs secondary to some other condition such as infection. Lymph vessels drain fluid from body tissues and facilitate immune cell movement through the body. Secondary lymphatic obstruction can be caused by such things as tumors, surgery, injury and infection.
  • Selenium poisoning: Excessive exposure to selenium. Selenium is essential to the diet in small amounts but is toxic in large amounts. Poisoning can occur through inhalation or ingestion.
  • Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal bone development and brain and skin abnormalities.
  • Short limbs subluxed knees cleft palate: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by short limbs, partially dislocated knees and a cleft palate.
  • Short stature -- abnormal skin pigmentation -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, mental retardation and skin pigmentation abnormalities.
  • Sideroblastic anemia, autosomal: An inherited form of anemia where an enzyme deficiency prevents red blood cells from using iron properly. The red blood cells become overloaded with iron which impairs the blood's ability to carry oxygen.
  • Sideroblastic anemia, hereditary: An inherited form of anemia where an enzyme deficiency prevents red blood cells from using iron properly. The red blood cells become overloaded with iron which impairs the blood's ability to carry oxygen.
  • Simpson Dysmorphia Syndrome:
  • Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by accelerated growth and other defects.
  • Skin color changes: Skin changes such as redness, blueness, or whitening.
  • Skin colour changes in pregnancy: Skin colour changes in pregnancy consists of a deepening of the colour of the areolae, and appearance of the linea nigra on the abdomen, together with a change in colour of the vagina and cervix from pink to a deep purple colour due to venous dilatation. Additionally some women develop brown patches of pigmentation on their faces (typically over the cheekbones.) These changes reverse after pregnancy.
  • Skin discoloration: The occurrence of discolouration of the skin
  • Skin discolouration in pregnancy: Skin discolouration in pregnancy consists of a deepening of the colour of the areolae, and appearance of the linea nigra on the abdomen, together with a change in colour of the vagina and cervix from pink to a deep purple colour due to venous dilatation. Additionally some women develop brown patches of pigmentation on their faces (typically over the cheekbones.) These changes reverse after pregnancy.
  • Skin disorders related to close contact sports: Contact sports such as wrestling, boxing etc exposes the individual to possible bacterial and viral infections
  • Skin pigmentation: The occurrence of pigmentation that is located in the skin
  • Skin pigmentation changes: discoloration of the skin can be caused
  • Skin pigmentation changes in pregnancy: Skin pigmentation changes in pregnancy consist of a deepening of the colour of the areolae, and appearance of the linea nigra on the abdomen, together with a change in colour of the vagina and cervix from pink to a deep purple colour due to venous dilatation. Additionally some women develop brown patches of pigmentation on their faces (typically over the cheekbones.) These changes reverse after pregnancy.
  • Skin pigmentation in pregnancy: Skin pigmentation in pregnancy is altered. The changes consist of a deepening of the colour of the areolae, and appearance of the linea nigra on the abdomen, together with a change in colour of the vagina and cervix from pink to a deep purple colour due to venous dilatation. Additionally some women develop brown patches of pigmentation on their faces (typically over the cheekbones.) These changes reverse after pregnancy.
  • Skin problems: Any condition that affects the skin
  • Skin symptoms: Symptoms affecting the skin.
  • Skin, bronze: The occurrence of skin that is bronze in colour
  • Sonoda syndrome: An extremely rare disorder characterized by a congenital heart defect, round face, retarded development, short stature and various facial anomalies.
  • Southwestern Athabaskan genetic diseases: A group of four genetic diseases that are unique to the Navajo and Apache (Southwestern Athabaskan) populations. The disease are Athabaskan severe combined immunodeficiency, Navajo neurohepatopathy, Navajo poikiloderma and Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis.
  • Sparse hair -- short stature -- skin anomalies: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by sparse hair, short stature and skin anomalies.
  • Spastic paraplegia 23: A rare disorder characterized mainly by progressive stiffness and weakness of the leg muscles, premature graying, characteristic facial appearance and a skin pigmentation anomaly. Pigmentation anomalies usually start from the age of 6 months and leg problems may be noticed around the middle of the first decade.
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia -- nephritic syndrome:
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia -- nephrotic syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by skeletal and immunity abnormalities. The immune defect leads to progressive kidney dysfunction which can ultimately cause death during the first decade.
  • Spondylohypoplasia arthrogryposis popliteal pterygium: A very rare inherited syndrome characterized by webbing at the back of the knees, spinal defects and various other skeletal abnormalities.
  • Spondylohypoplasia, arthrogryposis and popliteal pterygium: A very rare inherited syndrome characterized by webbing at the back of the knees, spinal defects and various other skeletal abnormalities.
  • Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with combined immunodeficiency: A rare syndrome characterized by skeletal abnormalities as well as a poor immune system.
  • Stretch Mark: A blemish on the skin caused by an excessive amount of strain put on it
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Vitiligo, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and vitiligo. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p13.
  • Tang Hsi Ryu syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by enlarged liver and spleen, increased pigmentation and abnormal peripheral nerve functioning.
  • Telangiectasia: A cluster of dilated blood vessels on the skin's surface.
  • Thanos-Stewart-Zonana Syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the premature fusion of skull bones, excessive bone growth (hyperostosis), epibulbar dermoids (benign eye tumor) and a skin disorder (linear verrucous epidermal nevus). Patients with this condition need to avoid using aminoglycosides as they can have a negative impact on hearing.
  • Thrush: A condition which is characterized by an infection caused by a fungus
  • Thumb deformity, alopecia, pigmentation anomaly: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a deformed thumb, lack of hair and abnormal pigmentation.
  • Tietz Albinism-Deafness Syndrome: Tietz syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by deafness and albinism. It should not be confused with the similarly named Tietz's syndrome which involves inflammation of chest cartilage.
  • Tietz syndrome: Tietz syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by deafness and albinism. It should not be confused with the similarly named Tietz's syndrome which involves inflammation of chest cartilage.
  • Torticollis, keloids, cryptorchidism, renal dysplasia: A rare genetic condition characterized by undescended testes, kidney defects, torticollis and the formation of keloids which are scar-like elevations on the skin. The symptoms occur in males though females carriers can have mild symptoms.
  • Transient bullous dermolysis of the newborn: A rare blistering skin disorder that affects infants and is inherited in a dominant manner. The blistering usually only occurs during the first year of life. The blisters tend to occur mainly on the extremities and other parts of the body that receive more friction.
  • Tricho-odonto-onychial dysplasia: A very rare syndrome characterized by abnormal skull calcification, reduced scalp hair and nail and tooth enamel abnormalities.
  • Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type I:
  • Triploid syndrome: A complete extra set of chromosomes.
  • Tuberous sclerosis, type 1: A rare genetic disorder with a variety of abnormalities such as seizures, mental retardation, skin lesions and nodules in various body tissues and organs.
  • Turner Syndrome: Rare chromosome syndrome with one X but no second X or Y chromosome.
  • Uncombable hair syndrome: A syndrome which is characterised by an abnormality in the structure of hair resulting in it being uncombable
  • Uremia: Build up of toxins usually excreted by the kidneys, associated with real failure in a woman who is pregnant.
  • Uremic frost: The occurrence of powdery deposits of ureas and uric acid salts in the skin
  • Varicose eczema: Varicose eczema is a chronic skin condition that involves the skin on or near varicose veins in the legs - usually the skin on the ankles are affected. Varicose veins occur when the valves in particular blood vessels malfunction and allow the blood to flow backwards. The condition is more likely to occur in people who are overweight.
  • Variegate porphyria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of a certain enzyme which results in a build-up in the body of porphyrins or their precursors. This form of hepatic porphyria causes the sufferer to have acute attacks as well as skin sensitivity.
  • Vitiligo: A condition which is characterized by chronic pigmentary changes to the skin seen by white patches
  • Vitreoretinochoroidopathy dominant: A form of hereditary fundus dystrophy
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by poliosis and hair, skin, eye and ear abnormalities as well as retinal detachment and neurological involvement.
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Waardenburg syndrome type 2: A hereditary, autosomal dominant disorder.
  • Waardenburg syndrome types I: A rare genetic disorder characterized by lateral displacement of medial canthi, partial albinism and deafness.
  • Watson syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by short stature, reduced intelligence, café au lait spots and narrowing of pulmonary valves.
  • Whipple's Disease: Rare malabsorption disease from bacterial digestive infection
  • Whitaker syndrome: A condition that usually occurs in childhood caused by an autoimmune polyendocrinopathy
  • White nails: White or pale nails.
  • White patches: White patches on the skin
  • White skin patches: The occurrence of white patches on ones skin
  • Whitening: Whitening or reduced coloring of the skin
  • Whyte Murphy Syndrome: A syndrome which is characterised by hyperpigmentation, white forelock and osteopathia striata
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.
  • Wilson's disease: Wilson disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a neurodegenerative disease of copper metabolism.
  • Wolcott-Rallison syndrome: A very rare genetic condition characterized primarily by the onset of diabetes mellitus during infancy and epiphyseal dysplasia (abnormal joint development).
  • Wyburn Mason's syndrome: A rare genetic condition mainly involving enlarged brain blood vessels and skin and eye abnormalities.
  • Wyburn-Mason Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by arteriovenous aneurysms on one or both sides of the brain
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum: A rare pigmentary disease that is caused by an enzyme deficiency
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 1: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation - type 1 has the lowest level of repair and the most neurological complications.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 2: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type B is often associated with signs of Cockayne syndrome.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 3: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Neurological symptoms are rarely experienced in type 3.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 4: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type D involves neurological symptoms.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 5: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type E is a very rare form of the condition and involves mild skin symptoms with no neurological symptoms.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 6: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. The skin and neurological symptoms in Type 6 tend to be mild.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum, type 7: A rare genetic disorder where the enzyme that repairs DNA damage done by UV radiation is defective. It is characterized by sensitivity to sunlight, skin pigmentation and atrophy and actinic skin tumors. The different types of xeroderma pigmentosum vary in the body's ability to repair the damage to DNA done by UV radiation. Type G usually involves severe neurological symptoms.
  • Yellow nail syndrome: A rare nail condition characterized by thickened yellow nails as well as swelling of parts of the body due to lymphatic drainage problems resulting from blocked or damaged lymphatic system.
  • Zellweger-like syndrome, without peroxisomal anomalies: A rare syndrome characterized by unusual facial appearance, very low muscle tone, mental retardation and metabolic defects.
  • Ziprkowski-Margolis syndrome: A congenital disorder characterized by lack of skin pigmentation with patches of pigmented skin (piebaldism), different colored eyes and deafness.

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Pigmentation symptoms:

The following list of conditions have 'Pigmentation symptoms' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Pigmentation symptoms:

The following list of medical conditions have 'Pigmentation symptoms' or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.

 

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