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Diseases » Tachypnea » Glossary
 

Glossary for Tachypnea

  • 4-Alpha-hydroxyphenylpyruvate hydroxylase deficiency: A very rare metabolic disorder where a deficiency of a particular enzyme results in the urinary excretion of a chemical called hawkinsin. Symptoms start once the infant is weaned off breast milk.
  • Accelerated silicosis: An occupation lung disease caused by breathing in silica dust over a long period of time. The lung damage becomes symptomatic and affects breathing and often causes weight loss as well.
  • Acrocephaly -- pulmonary stenosis -- mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized by a pointy skull, narrowed pulmonary valve and mental retardation.
  • Acute Silicosis: An occupation lung disease caused by breathing in high levels of silica dust.
  • Acute mercury inhalation: Inhalation of mercury vapor can lead to serious symptoms and even death if sufficient quantities are inhaled. Mercury inhalation is more likely in confined or poorly ventilated spaces. Mercury from a broken thermometer can lead to symptoms if it occurs in a confined space.
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Infant: A breathing disorder that occurs in infants. The underdeveloped lungs fail to functioning adequately and the body becomes deprived of oxygen. The condition is more likely to affect premature infants and the greater the prematurity, the greater the risk.
  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain, deficiency of: A rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal hemorrhage, neonatal: Hemorrhage of the adrenal gland after birth. The severity of the disorder is varies from a small hemorrhage to damage to the whole adrenal gland. Sometimes the condition is discovered incidentally during ultrasounds for other reasons. The hemorrhage may occur as the result of a variety of causes including adrenal tumor, neonatal stress, and blood coagulation disorder or for no apparent reason.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenal medulla neoplasm: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. The tumor is usually benign but can be malignant.
  • Adult respiratory distress syndrome: Severe respiratory failure
  • Adult-onset asthma: Adult-onset asthma is a type of asthma that occurs during adulthood. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways. The severity of symptoms is variable. Allergies account for about half the cases of adult-onset asthma.
  • Allergic asthma: Allergic asthma is one of the most common forms of asthma and is triggered by exposure to an allergen. Upon exposure to the allergen, the airways become constricted and inflamed which affects breathing. The severity of symptoms is variable. This form of asthma is more common in children than adults.
  • Aminophyllin -- Teratogenic Agent: Experimental studies on rats indicate that the use of Aminophyllin during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Anaphylaxis: A rare, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction.
  • Anchovy poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some anchovies contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the anchovy does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The anchovies are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Anemia: Reduced ability of blood to carry oxygen from various possible causes.
  • Anemia, Neonatal: Insufficient red blood cells that can carry oxygen around the body. It is common in premature births or can occur as a result of blood loss before, during or just after the birth.
  • Anoxemia: Lack of oxygen in the blood
  • Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension, and fear without apparent stimulus that is associated sometime with somatic responses
  • Anxiety attack: Sudden onset of extreme anxiety
  • Anxiety disorders: Anxiety disorders are persistent and excessive feelings of fear, worry or uneasiness that are significant enough to have an impact on day-to-day life. Excessive anxiety can have repercussions on physical and mental health. There are a number of different subtypes of anxiety disorders such as General anxiety, Social anxiety, Phobias, Hypochondria and Obsessive compulsive disorder.
  • Aortic arches defect: A defect in the top part of the aorta (aortic arch) that consists of several arterial branches. There is a variety of defects that can occur and symptoms will be determined by the particular defect involved. Possible types of defects includes aortic coarctation and aortic arch hypoplasia.
  • Aortic coarctation: A rare inherited birth defect where the heart blood vessel called the aorta has a narrowed area which affects blood flow. The degree of constriction is variable which mild cases asymptomatic until adulthood. The poor blood flow to the lower body gives results in it appearing less developed than that upper body.
  • Appian-Plutarch syndrome: Symptoms caused by excessive doses of a drug called atropine.
  • Apple seed poisoning: Apple seeds contain a toxic chemical called amygdalin which can cause serious symptoms if eaten in large quantities. Hospital admission is recommended if more than 50 apple seeds have been consumed.
  • Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, neonatal: A rare inherited urea cycle disorder caused by lack of enzymes (argininosuccinase lyase) needed to turn ammonia into urea resulting in excess ammonia in the body. The neonatal form of the condition can result in death or severe complications if not treated early enough.
  • Arizona Bark Scorpion poisoning: A bite from the Arizona Bark scorpion contains chemicals toxic to the nerve system and can cause serious, life-threatening symptoms.
  • Arrhythmias: Irregularity in the heart's beating rhythm.
  • Aspirin-induced asthma: Aspirin-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by the use of aspirin. A significant number of patients with aspirin-induced asthma also have steroid-dependant asthma where they require regular steroidal asthma medication to maintain normal lung functioning. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Asthma in pregnancy: Asthma in pregnancy refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is occurs during pregnancy. Women who are pregnancy may decide to stop taking their asthma medication in order to reduce the perceived risk of side effects to the developing fetus. The reality is that the potential harmful effects on the fetus are very small compared to the problems caused to mother and fetus if a severe asthma attack develops. Furthermore, uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy may also cause problems such as small birth weight or premature birth. Pregnant women should consult their physician in order to determine the optimal management of their condition. During pregnancy, asthma symptoms may become worse, improve or stay the same.
  • Atopic asthma: Atopic asthma is one of the most common forms of asthma and is triggered by exposure to an allergen. Upon exposure to the allergen, the airways become constricted and inflamed which affects breathing. The severity of symptoms is variable. This form of asthma is more common in children than adults.
  • Atrial Septal Defect 3: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 3 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 14q12. There are no other heart abnormalities associated with the condition.
  • Atrial Septal Defect 4: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 4 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 7p15-p14. There are no other heart abnormalities associated with the condition.
  • Atrial Septal Defect 5: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 5 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 15q14. There are no other heart abnormalities associated with the condition.
  • Atrial Septal Defect 6: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 6 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 4q32-q33.
  • Atrial septal defect 1: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 1 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Atrial septal defect 2: A rare heart malformation involving the presence of an abnormal opening between the two atrial chambers of the heart which allows abnormal mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The severity of the symptoms depends on the size and location of the defect with mild cases being asymptomatic until adulthood. Atrial septal defect 2 is caused by a mutation on chromosome 8p23.1-p22.
  • Bacteremia: A condition where there is the presence of bacteria in the blood
  • Bacterial diseases: Diseases caused by a bacterial infection
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Bindewald-Ulmer-Muller syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by a heart defect, and mental and growth retardation.
  • Black widow spider envenomation: The black widow spider bite is toxic to the nerves and can cause serious symptoms. The black widow spider is most commonly found in North America.
  • Bland-Garland-White syndrome: A rare birth malformation where the left coronary artery comes out of the pulmonary artery instead of the aorta. Usually, infants are usually healthy for a few months after which they start having symptoms of heart problems. Occasionally, patients may be asymptomatic even into adulthood but usually death occurs during infancy.
  • Bland-White -Garland syndrome: A heart disorder where the left coronary artery comes out of the pulmonary artery.
  • Bonefish poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some bonefish contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the bonefish does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The bonefish are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Bradypnea: Abnormal slow breathing.
  • Breathing symptoms: Symptoms affecting the breathing systems.
  • Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma: Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a rare type of lung cancer, it is a sub-type of lung adenocarcinoma
  • Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the bronchioles.
  • Bronchitis: Bronchitis is an inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. It occurs when the trachea and the large and small bronchi within the lungs become inflamed
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: A rare form of infant lung disease that usually occurs as a complication of ventilator use in premature babies.
  • CFS subtype 1 (cognitive, musculoskeletal, sleep, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 1 tends to be more severe with the dominant symptoms being anxiety, depression and cognitive, musculoskeletal and sleeping problems.
  • CFS subtype 2 ( musculoskeletal, pain, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 2 tends to be more severe with the dominant symptoms being anxiety, depression, pain and musculoskeletal problems.
  • CFS subtype 3 (mild): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 3 tends to have milder symptoms than other subtypes.
  • CFS subtype 4 (cognitive, musculoskeletal, sleep, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 4 tends to be dominated by cognitive symptoms.
  • CFS subtype 5 (musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 5 tends to be dominated by musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • CFS subtype 6 (postexertional): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 6 tends to be dominated by excessive fatigue following exertion.
  • CFS subtype 7 (pain, infectious, musculoskeletal, sleep, neurological, gastrointestinal, neurocognitive, anxiety/depression): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. CFS subtype 7 tends to be more severe with the dominant symptoms being pain, infections, anxiety, depression and musculoskeletal, sleep, neurological, gastrointestinal and neurocognitive problems.
  • COPD-like dyspnea: Dyspnea is a classical symptom in case of COPD and is associated with cough.
  • Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 deficiency: A very rare inherited urea cycle disorder where the lack of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase prevents ammonia from being turned into urea and being excreted in the urine. Excess ammonia builds up in the body which can cause serious complications or even death if left untreated.
  • Cardiac malformation: Any malformation or structural defect of the heart or it's structures. Some examples include atrioventricular septal defect, conotruncal malformations, transposition of great vessels and heart valve dysplasia. The symptoms vary in nature and severity depending on the type of malformation.
  • Cardiac tamponade: Symptoms caused by compression of the heart due to the accumulation of blood or fluid in the space between the heart muscle and the membrane covering the heart.
  • Cardiogenic shock: an inadequate circulation of blood due to primary failure of the ventricles of the heart to function effectively
  • Cathinone poisoning: Cathinone comes from the leaves of the Khat plant which is native to eastern Africa. Cathinone is a stimulant as well as have pain killing, weight loss and neuromuscular effects. The psychoactive effects are usually utilized by chewing on the leaves of the plant but sometimes dried leaves are used.
  • Cerebral hemorrhage: Bleeding in the brain
  • Chemical meningitis: Symptomatic aseptic, chemical meningitis is a rare complication of myelography. A number of these cases have a history of one or more episodes of chemical meningitis preceding their arachnoiditis.
  • Chemical pneumonia: Lung inflammation from inhaled chemicals
  • Chemical poisoning: Morbid condition caused by chemical.
  • Chemical poisoning -- 1,2-Dibromoethane: 1,2-Dibromoethane is a chemical used in gasoline, soil fumigants, fire extinguishers, flue gases and mechanical gauge fluid. Excessive exposure to this chemical can cause serious symptoms. Some people can suffer an adverse reaction to the chemical. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acetylsalicylic Acid: Acetylsalicylic Acid is also known as aspirin and is primarily used to relieve pain, fever and inflammation. Excessive exposure to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acrolein: Acrolein is a chemical used mainly in the manufacture of herbicides, pharmaceuticals and textiles as well as anti-contamination agents in the paper industry. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Adiponitrile: Adiponitrile is a chemical used mainly in the production of hexamethylene diamine which in turn is used mainly to produce nylon. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Aldicarb: Aldicarb is a carbamate pesticide used mainly as an insecticide, nematicide and acaricide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Amitraz: Amitraz is a chemical used mainly as a topical parasitic preventative in livestock and fruit trees. It is also used as an insect repellant and a prevention of mite infestation. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Antifreeze: Antifreeze is used in vehicles to prevent freezing or boiling over of the cooling system. The chemicals (methanol, ethylene and propylene glycol) in the antifreeze can cause severe poisoning symptoms if ingested. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Bromates: Bromate is a chemical used mainly in perming solution neutralizers and in small amounts as a bread preservative. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Bromophos: Bromophos is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Button batteries: Button batteries are small round, button-shaped batteries used in various products such as watches and calculators. Generally, swallowing the batteries will cause no problems unless it becomes stuck in the gastrointestinal tract. The batteries may also be shoved up the nose by children which can cause respiratory problems depending on how far the battery is pushed and how long it remains undetected. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Carbaryl: Carbaryl is a carbamate pesticide used mainly as an insecticide and acaricide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Chlorfenvinphos: Chlorfenvinphos is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Chlorpyrifos: Chlorpyrifos is a chemical used mainly in as an insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical may be absorbed readily through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Coumaphos: Coumaphos is used as a pesticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical may be absorbed readily through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Cresols: Cresols are a group of chemicals that occur naturally in mammals and various plants. It is also manufactured and used in the production of disinfectants, deodorizers and pesticides. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Cresylic acid: Cresylic acids are a group of chemicals that are used as solvents and in the manufacture of various products such as deodorants, disinfectants, pesticides, glues, paints, herbicides, pharmaceuticals as well as others. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Demeton-S-methyl: Demeton-S-methyl is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Diazinon: Diazinon is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Dichlorvos: Dichlorvos is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Dicrotophos: Dicrotophos is a toxic insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Diethylene Glycol: Diethylene Glycol is a chemical used mainly in coolants, manufacture of plastic products and resins as well as other uses. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether: Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether is a chemical used in a variety of applications: cleaning agents, solvent, manufacture of dyes, rubber, soap and printing products . Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Dinitrocresol: Dinitrocresol is a chemical used mainly as a herbicide and fungicide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Dinitrophenol: Dinitrophenol is a chemical that has various applications: herbicide, pesticide, fungicide, acaricide, manufacture of dyes and wood preservative. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Dioxathion: Dioxathion is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Disulfoton: Disulfoton is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ethion: Ethion is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ethylene Glycol: Ethylene Glycol is a chemical used mainly in antifreeze, coolants and as a solvent. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. Symptoms tend to occur in three phases: the first 12 hours involves inebriation, seizuresand brain swelling; the second and third day involves deterioration of lung and heart function and the third stage involves kidney damage and possibly failure. Death can occur during any of the stages.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Fensulfothion: Fensulfothion is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and nematicide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Fenthion: Fenthion is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and avicide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Formaldehyde: Formaldehyde is a chemical used mainly in blues, lacquers, fireproofing, electrical insulation, leather tanning products and embalming. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Hydroquinone: Hydroquinone is a chemical used mainly in photography developing solution, pharmaceuticals, fur processing, paints, fuel, organic chemicals, plastics, stone coatings and styrene monomers. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Jet Fuel-4: Jet Fuel-4 is an aviation turbine fuel used by the US military. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Lewisite: Lewisite is a very poisonous gas which has the potential to be used in chemical warfare due to its deadly effects. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is a hallucinogenic drug which is often misused. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Malathion: Malathion is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Methane: Methane is a natural gas that can be used as a fuel and also has industrial uses. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Methidathion: Methidathion is a chemical insecticide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Methiocarb: Methiocarb is a toxic pesticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Methomyl: Methomyl is a carbamate pesticide used mainly as an insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Mineral-Based Crankcase Oil: Mineral-Based Crankcase Oil is a chemical used mainly as a fuel . Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Parathion: Parathion is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and acaricide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Petroleum Distillates -- Naphtha: Petroleum Distillates - Naphtha is a chemical used mainly in . Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Phosdrin: Phosdrin is a toxic pesticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Profenofos: Profenofos is a toxic pesticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Propoxur: Propoxur is a carbamate pesticide used mainly as an insecticide and acaricide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Rotenone: Rotenone is a naturally occurring chemical found in certain plants (Derris and Lonchocarpus sp.). It gives the plant insecticidal and pesticidal properties and is hence utilized commercially as an insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. Inhalation tends to cause more severe symptoms than ingestion. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Sodium Oleate: Sodium Oleate is a chemical used mainly in insecticides. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Strychnine: Strychnine is used as a rodenticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Terbufos: Terbufos is a chemical pesticide used as an insecticide and nematicide. The chemical is an organophosphorus compound and ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Tetraethyl Pyrophosphate: Tetraethyl Pyrophosphate is a toxic pesticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- acetic acid: Acetic acid is a chemical used for medicinal purposes such as superficial ear infections, jellyfish stings and bladder irrigation. Acetic acid is a also a component of vinegar which is used as a cooking ingredient. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Childhood asthma: Childhood asthma is a type of asthma that occurs during childhood. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways. The severity of symptoms is variable. The asthma may be triggered by allergens, pollution, viral infections and many other factors.
  • Cholesterol pneumonia: Lung inflammation caused by cholesterol.
  • Chronic Bronchitis: Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: A rare form of interstitial lung disease that occurs in infants. Death is common even if treatment is delivered.
  • Circulation symptoms: Symptoms affecting the circulatory system
  • Coarctation of aorta dominant: A rare inherited birth defect where the heart blood vessel called the aorta has a narrowed area which affects blood flow. The degree of constriction is variable which mild cases asymptomatic until adulthood. The poor blood flow to the lower body gives results in it appearing less developed than that upper body.
  • Cognitive impairment: General loss of mental or cognitive ability
  • Collapsed lung: Deflation of all or part of one lung
  • Complete atrioventricular canal: A rare form of congenital heart disease where the there is a hole in the heart wall that separates the upper heart chambers, a hole the heart wall that separates the lower heart chambers and heart valve abnormalities (tricuspid and mitral valves). This results in excessive blood circulation in the lungs leading to congestive heart failure in untreated cases.
  • Congenital arteriovenous shunt: A rare birth defect involving the abnormal passage of blood between arteries and veins. The range and severity of symptoms is determined by the number, size and location of the arteries and veins involved.
  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A rare condition where an infant is born with an opening in the diaphragm which allows some of the abdominal organs to move into the chest cavity and cause problems.
  • Congenital herpes simplex: An infant born with a herpes simplex infection transmitted through the mother. The infection may be localized or involve various internal organs and even the central nervous system in which case death can occur.
  • Conotruncal heart malformations: A rare group of heart defect involving the outflow tracts. Examples include truncus arteriosus, transposition of great arteries and tetralogy of Fallot. Obviously the symptoms will be determined by which specific defect is involved.
  • Cor Triatriatum: A rare congenital malformation where the heart has three atria instead of the normal two due to the presence of a separating membrane.
  • Cough: The noise produced from the sudden expulsion of air from the lungs
  • Croup: Respiratory infection with a characteristic cough
  • Decreased cardiac output: descreased amount of blood pumped by the heart
  • Defibrination syndrome: The generation of fibrin in the blood and consumption of pro-coagulants and platelets occurring in complications of obstetrics
  • Dehydration: Loss of fluids in the body
  • Dexedrine overdose: Dexedrine is a prescription drug mainly used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Life-threatening complication of high blood sugars and diabetes.
  • Diaphragmatic hernia, congenital: A birth defect involving an abnormal opening in the diaphragm which is a structure that assists breathing and keeps the abdominal organs from moving into the chest. The abdominal organs can protrude through this abnormal opening and restrict the growth of chest organs such as the lung and heart. The severity of the condition is variable depending on the size of the defect - some cases aren't diagnosed until adulthood.
  • Dilaudid withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Dilaudid use is discontinued or reduced. Dilaudid is a pain-killing drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually peak during the second day and last about a week.
  • Dilor -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dilor (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Disulfiram toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Double outlet right ventricle: A very rare birth defect where the aorta and the pulmonary artery both exit from the right ventricle and thus blood is unable to be pumped to the lungs. However, a hole connects the two ventricles and ultimately allows some blood flow to the lungs. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the location of the connecting hole in the heart and the exact location of the two arteries with respect to the heart.
  • Drug-induced asthma: Drug-induced associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by taking a particular drug. There is a large range of drugs that have the potential to produce asthmatic symptoms in susceptible people. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Duodenal atresia tetralogy of Fallot: A rare birth defect characterized by a heart defect and an intestinal malformation where the duodenum is absent or closed off which prevents digested material passing through.
  • Dyphylline -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dyphylline (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Emotional stress related asthma: Emotional stress related asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by emotional stress.
  • Emphysema: Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is defined as an abnormal, permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis.
  • Emphysema, congenital lobar: A rare respiratory disorder where air can readily enter the lungs but has difficulty escaping. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Endocardial fibroelastosis: A rare heart disorder characterized by a thickening of the heart muscle lining causing heart enlargement and heart failure.
  • Eosinophilic asthma: Eosinophilic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Ethylene glycol poisoning: Excessive ingestion of ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol can be found in antifreeze.
  • Eucalyptus Oil poisoning: Eucalyptus oil can be used for medicinal purposes but excessive ingestion can cause problems. Likewise, eating the leaves of the eucalyptus plant (very unlikely) can also cause poisoning symptoms.
  • Exercise: The use of the human muscles to improve ones health
  • Exercise-induced asthma: Exercise-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by exercise. The severity of symptoms is variable. Exercise involving long periods of activity or is done in a cold environment is more likely to trigger asthmatic symptoms. Exercise can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Extrinsic asthma: Extrinsic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by an exposure to an allergen. Extrinsic asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways in response to exposure to the allergen. Examples of possible allergens include dust mites, pollen and mould. The severity of symptoms and allergen involved is variable.
  • Fallot syndrome: A congenital heart disorder consisting of four heart defects - hole between the ventricles (ventricular septal defect), obstruction from right ventricles to the lungs (subpulmonary stenosis), overriding aorta and thickened right ventricle muscle.
  • Fever: Elevation of the body temperature above the normal 37 degrees celsius
  • Flail Chest: The separation of a portion of the rib cage from the rest of the chest wall - usually due to trauma. The severity of the condition varies depending on the extent of the damage.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- MSG: An intolerance to MSG is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to a food additive called MSG which is used in a number of foods. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the food additive. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- amines: An intolerance to amines is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to amines which are found naturally in foods such as bananas, pineapples, vegetables, red wine, citrus fruit and many other foods. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the substance. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- food additives: An intolerance to food additives is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to food additives. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the food additive. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- salicylate: An intolerance to salicylates is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to salicylates which is an ingredient in aspirin but is also found naturally in various fruit, vegetables, herbs and spices. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the salicylate. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food Additive Adverse reaction -- sulfite: An intolerance to sulfites is an adverse reaction (not an immune response) by the body to sulfites which is often used as a preservative in a variety of foods and medications including meats, salads and dried fruits. The adverse reaction results from the body's inability to metabolize or deal with the sulfite. The amount of the substance required to trigger the onset of symptoms and the nature and severity of symptoms may vary considerably between patients.
  • Food allergy related asthma: Food allergy related asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by an allergic reaction to a particular food. This is a very uncommon cause of asthma.
  • Francisella tularenis infection: Francisella tularenis is a type of bacteria that can cause infection involving the skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. The nature and severity of symptoms varies depending on the location of the infection. The bacteria primarily causes localized tissue necrosis. The pathogen is considered a possible biological weapon.
  • Generalized pustular psoriasis: This is a rare form of psoriasis is also known as von Zumbusch psoriasis. It can be life-threatening especially in the elderly. It is characterized by the development of pustules in the flexural areas - the backs of the knees, the insides of the elbows, the armpits and the groin. These pustules continue to spread and soon they join to form lakes of pus. The pustules rupture easily and can become infected. This condition can be fatal if the patient gets dehydrated, or the infection spreads to the bloodstream. Generalized pustular psoriasis is often triggered by stopping topical or oral steroids.
  • Gonionemus poisoning: Gonionemus is a type of hydrozoan jellyfish which can deliver a venomous sting. The sting can cause various combinations of skin, respiratory and joint and pain symptoms. In mild cases, only the skin is affected. Stings most often occur in the Northern hemisphere - especially Japanese and Russian waters.
  • Head injury: An injury to the head
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart disease: Any of various heart conditions.
  • Heatstroke: Heat exhaustion and collapse from heat exposure
  • Hemorrhage: Bleeding of any type (especially when referring to severe bleeding)
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Margosa oil: Margosa oil can be used as a herbal agent to treat parasitic infestations. The herbal agent contains various chemicals which can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Polygonum multiflorum: The root from the Polygonum multiflorum can be used as a herbal agent to treat constipation, insomnia and vertigo. The herbal agent contains anthraquinones which can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Sabah vegetable: Sabah vegetable can be used as a herbal agent to treat obesity and prevent vision problems. The herbal agent contains a chemical (papvarine alkaloids) which can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Herring poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some herrings contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the herring does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The herrings are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: An inherited disorder where the enzymes that use the vitamin biotin are defective.
  • Hydrocarbon poisoning: Excessive ingestion of hydrocarbon compounds such as turpentine, pine oil, cleaning agents, fuel, polishes, kerosene and car products.
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome: A form of diabetic coma seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension in children under one year: Hypertension in children under one year is a condition in which a child under the age of one year has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hyperventilation: Excessively rapid breathing causing blood gas imbalances
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A rare condition where an infant is born with an underdeveloped left side of the heart which prevents the heart from pumping oxygenated blood efficiently to various parts of the body.
  • Hypovolemia: An abnormal decrease in volume of blood.
  • Iatrogenic pneumothorax: A pneumothorax that is caused by the actions of a physician or surgeon
  • Idiopathic diffuse interstitial fibrosis: A rare lung disease involving progressive inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of deep lung tissue which can cause shortness of breath. In idiopathic forms of the condition, there is no apparent cause.
  • Inborn amino acid metabolism disorder: A group of inherited disorders where the body is not able to metabolize amino acids consumed in the diet. Amino acids are a part of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and are metabolized in order to provide energy or to make other needed compounds. There are many steps involved in metabolism and the severity can be greatly variable depending on the exact nature of the disorder.
  • Infant asthma: Infant asthma is a type of asthma that occurs during childhood. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways. The severity of symptoms is variable. The asthma may be triggered by allergens, pollution, viral infections and many other factors.
  • Injury: Any damage inflicted in the body
  • Intrinsic asthma: Intrinsic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Isoniazid toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Isthmus coarctation: A rare inherited birth defect where the heart blood vessel called the aorta has a narrowed area which affects blood flow. The degree of constriction is variable which mild cases asymptomatic until adulthood. The poor blood flow to the lower body gives results in it appearing less developed than that upper body.
  • Kidney failure: Total failure of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Lactic acidosis congenital infantile: A rare congenital condition where an infant has high levels of lactic acid in the blood causing metabolic acidosis.
  • Laryngeal papillomatosis: A rare disease characterized by the development of tumors in the larynx, vocal cords or respiratory tract. The disease is caused by the human papilloma virus. Symptoms will vary according to the size, location and aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • Levotransposition of the great arteries: A very rare heart defect where the aorta originates from the right heart ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the left ventricle. The aorta is located in front of and to the left of the pulmonary artery. This means that oxygen-poor blood that has returned from the body is pumped into the right side of the heart and then out through the aorta and back to the body. The oxygenated blood from the lungs is sent to the left side of the heart, through the pulmonary artery and back to the lungs. Thus, the body is deprived of oxygenated blood unless. Often there is an associated heart defect such as a hole between the chambers which allows some mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood but surgery is usually urgently required. Without treatment, half of the patients with this defect will die within months of birth and nearly all will die within a year.
  • Liver failure: Acute liver failure (ALF) is an uncommon condition in which the rapid deterioration of liver function results in coagulopathy and alteration in the mental status of a previously healthy individual.
  • Lufyllin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lufyllin (a bronchodilator) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lung abscess: Pus (abscess) in the lung
  • Lung conditions: Various conditions affecting the lungs or related airways.
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Lymphoma: Cancer involving lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Malignant mesothelioma: Malignant mesothelioma affects the lining or membranes of certain large cavities in the body. These cavities, called the serous cavities, house certain major organs in the body including the heart, lungs, abdomen and others
  • Mayapple poisoning: The Mayapple is a small flowering plant which is often found growing naturally. It bears small single flowers and apple-like fruit which turns yellow when ripe. The unripe fruit and leaves contain a chemical called podophyllin which can cause poisoning if eaten. The plant is considered highly toxic and death can occur if sufficient quantities are eaten. The leaves, roots and unripe fruit are toxic but the ripe fruit is edible. The plant has been used to treat venereal warts.
  • Meconium aspiration syndrome: A condition that occurs when an infant suffers respiratory distress following birth due to the presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid.
  • Mediastinal endodermal sinus tumors: A rare yolk sac tumor that occurs in the mediastinal area (the area that separates the lungs). It is a type of cancer that originates from immature cells (germ cells) that evolve into gonadal tissue but can also be found in other parts of the body such as the chest. The tumors tend to be quite aggressive and often metastasize.
  • Melioidosis: Bacterial infection from soil or water.
  • Mendelson syndrome: Symptoms caused by breathing in gastric juices stomach contents during general anesthesia. Severe cases can lead to shock and death but this is rare. The condition is believed to be caused by the absence of laryngeal reflexes. It is most often seen in pregnant women.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Meningococcal infection: A rare infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Neisseria meningitides.
  • Mescal poisoning: The Mescal is a small rounded cactus which has no spines but has tufts of hairs and a flower in the centre. The plant is grown for use as a narcotic in some parts of the world due to its hallucinogenic effect. All above-ground parts of the plant contain toxic chemicals (mescaline, lophophorine) which can cause symptom if eaten. The plant itself is considered to have a low level of toxicity but the chemical mescaline derived from it can cause strong symptoms if ingested in excessive quantities. The psychic effects following plant ingestion can last from 6 to 12 hours.
  • Metabolic Acidosis: Metabolic acidosis is a process which if unchecked leads to acidemia (i.e. blood pH is low (less than 7.35) due to increased production of H+ by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) in the kidney.
  • Methamphetamine overdose: Methamphetamine is a prescription drug mainly used to treat ADHD . Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Methanol poisoning: Excessive ingestion of methanol. Methanol can be found in fuel, solvents and paint products.
  • Methionine malabsorption syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by impaired absorption of methionine and other amino acids. The methioning that is not absorbed is converted by an intestinal bacteria into an acid which gives the urine a distinctive odor. The urine smells like that of a building used to dry hops.
  • Mexican tea poisoning: Mexican tea is plant that bears elongated clusters of small green flowers and small greenish fruit which contain seeds which are green when fresh and black when dry. The plant has a strong odor. The oil in the seeds contain chemicals (including terpene peroxide ascaride) which are very poisonous and cause death if sufficient quantities are eaten. The oil from the seeds is often used to control worm infestations in livestock.
  • Mitral atresia: A rare defect where the mitral valve is closed off. The mitral valve connects the two chambers on the left side of the heart (atrium and ventricle). The blood is therefore unable to flow between the two heart chambers.
  • Mixed asthma: Mixed asthma is a type of asthma that can be caused by an exposure to an allergen as well as other intrinsic triggers such as exposure to cold air or cigarette smoke. Mixed asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways that may or may not involve an allergic reaction.
  • Mixed granulocytic asthma: Mixed granulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Morphine withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Morphine use is discontinued or reduced. Morphine is a pain-killing drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence. Symptoms are usually the most severe between 36 and 72 hours after withdrawal and symptoms tend to abate within a week. Craving may persist for months.
  • Musculoskeletal chronic fatigue syndrome: Musculoskeletal chronic fatigue syndrome is a chronic condition which is characterized by symptoms such as severe persistent fatigue, depression, weakness, muscle pain and lack of energy. The condition is often debilitating and may be difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific tests for the condition. There is no known cause but it appears to be associated with a previous infection in some cases. Musculoskeletal chronic fatigue syndrome tends to be dominated by musculoskeletal symptoms.
  • Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Lung disease mostly in premature newborns; see also adult RDS.
  • Nervous system disorders: Any disorder affecting the nervous system
  • Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A severe, potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs.
  • Neutrophilic asthma: Neutrophilic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable. This type of asthma is usually driven by such things as pollution and viral infections rather than exposure to an allergen.
  • Non cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: Non cardiogenic pulmonary oedemais caused by changes in permeability of the pulmonary capillary membrane due to a direct or an indirect pathologic insult.
  • Non-allergic asthma: Non-allergic asthma is a type of asthma that is not triggered by exposure to an allergen. Non-allergic asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways that can be caused by such things as exercise, cold air, cigarette smoke and inhalation of chemicals.
  • Non-atopic asthma: Non-atopic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Nosocomial pneumonia: A form of pneumonia which is contracted in a hospital
  • Obesity associated asthma: Obesity associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is associated with obesity. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Beauticians: People employed as beauticians may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to henna extract, ammonium thioglycolate, monoethanolamine, hexamethyhlenamine and persulfate salts. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Boiler Cleaners: People employed as boiler cleaners may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to vanadium and vanadium pentoxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Brewery Workers: People employed as brewery workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to Choloramine T and sulfone chloramides. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Cement Industry: People employed in the cement industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to chromates and dichromates. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Chemical Industry: People employed in the chemical industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to trimellitic anhydride, nickel and nickel compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Chemists: People employed as chemists may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to naphthalene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Cosmetics Industry: People employed in the cosmetics industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to carmine. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Detergent Industry: People employed in the detergent industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to amylases and proteases. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Dye Industry: People employed in the dye industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to carmine. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Electroplating Industry: People employed in the electroplating industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to chromium and nickel and chromium and nickel compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Epoxy Resin Industry: People employed in the epoxy resin industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to phthalic anhydride, hexahydrophthalic anhydrides, trimellitic anhydride, phthalic anhydride and tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Fabric Dying Industry: People employed in the fabric dying industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to anthroquinone. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Fire Retardant Industry: People employed in the fire retardant industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to himic anhydride. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Foundry Workers: People employed as foundry workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Fur Dying: People employed in the fur dying industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to paraphenyl diamine. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Galvanising Industry: People employed in the galvanising industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to Zinc. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Hairdressers: People employed as hairdressers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to ammonium thioglycolate, monoethanolamine, hexamethyhlenamine and persulfate salts. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Hard Metal Industry: People employed in the hard metal industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to cobalt. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Hospital staff: People employed as hospital staff may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to enfluorane anaesthetic. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Jewellery Industry: People employed in the jewellery industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to platinum, nickel and nickel compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Laminating Industry: People employed in the laminating industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to toluene diisocyanate and diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Laxative Manufacturing: People employed in the laxative manufacturing industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to psyllium. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Manufacturing Industry: People employed in the manufacturing industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to amylases and proteases. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Medical Sterilisers: People employed as medical sterilisers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to ethylene oxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Nurses: People employed as nurses may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to cephalosporins. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Paint Manufacturing Industry: People employed in the paint manufacturing industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Photocopying workers: People employed as photocopying workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to diazonium salt. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Polyurethane Foam Industry: People employed in the polyurethane foam industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to diphenylmethane diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Polyurethane Industry: People employed in the polyurethane industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to toluene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Refining Industry: People employed in the refining industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to platinum. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Rubber Workers: People employed as rubber workers may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to azodicarboamide and ethylene oxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Spray Paining Industry: People employed in the spray painting industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Tanning Industry: People employed in the tanning industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to chromium and chromium compounds. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Turbine Cleaners: People employed as turbine cleaners may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to vanadium and vanadium pentoxide. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational Asthma -- Varnish Manufacture Industry: People employed in the varnish manufacture industry may face an increased risk of developing asthma due to exposure to toluene diisocyanate. The risk may vary depending on the duration and level of exposure of the exposure.
  • Occupational asthma: Occupational asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that occurs in a workplace setting. There is a wide range of chemicals and other airway irritants that are used in a workplace settings and can result in inhalation exposure that can produce asthma symptoms. The severity of symptoms is variable. Occupational exposures can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Orthopnea: is the dyspnoea which occurs on lying down and is relieved on sitting up
  • Panic attack: Sudden attack of unreasonable panic or fear without any real danger
  • Panic disorder: It is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood.
  • Paucigranulocytic asthma: Paucigranulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by normal levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Pericarditis: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
  • Peritonitis: Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity
  • Pheochromocytoma: Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth and secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Pheochromocytoma as part of Neurofibromatosis: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. This tumor is often associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. The tumor affects automatic body activities such as regulating breathing rate and heartbeat.
  • Pleurisy: Inflammation of the pleural membrane
  • Pneumococcal pneumonia: Lung pneumnoia from streptococcus bacteria.
  • Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia: An infectious disease caused by the fungus called Pneumocystitis carinii which causes pneumonia. It primarily occurs in people with a poor immune system.
  • Pneumocystosis: Infection of the lung by a fungal organism called pneumocystis Carinii. The organism is found readily in most environments but generally does not affect healthy individuals. It occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised people such as AIDS sufferers or those undergoing chemotherapy.
  • Pneumocytosis: A pneumonia caused by a fungal infection
  • Pneumonia: Infection of the lung by bacteria, viruses or fungus.
  • Pneumonia caused by serotype O11 Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Inflammation of the lungs and bronchioles caused by an opportunistic pathogen called Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lungs and bronchioles caused by bacteria.
  • Pneumonia, Staphylococcal: Inflammation of the lungs and bronchioles caused by the Staphylococcal bacteria. The condition is not common and often occurs as a complication of influenza or other viral respiratory infections. This form of pneumonia is considered serious and up to a third of cases can result in death.
  • Pneumonic plague: Severe flea-borne bacterial disease affecting the lungs
  • Pneumothorax: Air in the pleural spaces around the lungs.
  • Poisoning: The condition produced by poison
  • Postoperative pulmonary embolism: Pulmonary embolism (lung blood clot) after surgery.
  • Postoperative respiratory failure: A condition characterised by the inability to use the lungs to perfuse the body with oxygen that occurs following an operation
  • Postoperative septicaemia: When a person contracts a bacterial infection in their blood system that occurs after an operation
  • Postpartum haemorrhage: The loss of blood by the mother after delivery of her child
  • Pulmonary atresia -- intact ventricular septum: A very rare heart defect where the opening that allows blood to travel from the heart to the lung is narrowed or absent which impairs the body's ability to oxygenate blood. Death generally occurs without immediate medical attention.
  • Pulmonary branches stenosis: A very rare disorder where the pulmonary branches are narrower than normal. The severity of symptoms depends on the degree of narrowing.
  • Pulmonary cystic lymphangiectasis: A rare congenital condition where the lungs fail to develop normally. The disorder is characterized by the presence of dilated lymph ducts throughout the lungs.
  • Pulmonary edema: Severe condition of excess fluid in the lungs.
  • Pulmonary embolism: Blocked lung blood vessel often from a blood clot.
  • Pulmonary fibrosis: A scarring condition that affects the lungs
  • Pulmonary heart disease: Heart disease that is caused by pulmonary conditions
  • Pulmonary infections related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Pulmonary lymphangiectasia, congenital: A rare congenital condition where the lungs fail to develop normally. The disorder is characterized by the presence of dilated lymph ducts throughout the lungs.
  • Pulmonary veins stenosis: A congenital malformation where the pulmonary veins are narrowed.
  • Pulmonary venous return anomaly: A rare disorder where one or more of the four veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs drain to the right atrium of the heart instead of the left atrium. Symptom severity is determined by the number of veins involved and the exact location of the heart that the veins drain into.
  • Respiratory Insufficiency: A condition where the lungs are unable to function properly and maintain the normal processes of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide removal.
  • Respiratory conditions: Any condition that affects the respiratory system
  • Respiratory distress syndrome, infant: A respiratory disorder caused by deficiency of pulmonary surfactant in premature infants which prevents normal lung functioning.
  • Respiratory failure: Failure of the respiratory system
  • Respiratory infections: Any infection that occurs to the respiratory system
  • Respiratory system cancer: A condition that is characterised by a malignancy anatomically located in the respiratory system
  • Respiratory tract infections:
  • Rostan asthma: Shortness of breath caused by fluid accumulation in the lungs associated with congestive heart failure. Symptoms usually occur at night.
  • Salicylate-sensitive asthma: Salicylate-sensitive asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by salicylates which can be found in medications such as aspirin as well as many foods. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Sardine poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some sardines contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the sardines does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The sardines are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Seasonal asthma: Seasonal asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by the presence of airborne allergens such as pollen. This type of asthma tends to occur in a seasonal cycle in response to seasonal increases in levels of pollen and other airborne allergens in the air. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Secondary pulmonary hypertension: Secondary pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood to the lungs. Blood pressure in other parts of the body is normal or sometimes even low. The condition may be caused by such things as lung conditions (e.g. emphysema, chronic bronchitis), heart conditions (e.g. congestive heart failure, birth defects involving heart), AIDS or medications such as fenfluramine (a diet drug).
  • Sedative dependence: The psychological or physical dependence on sedative medication
  • Selected Encephalitides: Selected conditions which cause inflammation of the brain
  • Septic shock: serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis, though the microbe may be systemic or localized to a particular site
  • Septicemia: A systemic inflammatory response to an infection.
  • Severe asthma:
  • Severe, refractory asthma: Severe refractory asthma is a type of asthma that is severe and difficult to treat. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Sexual dysfunction: Any dysfunction of sexual activity
  • Shallow breathing: Small breathes (usually with rapid breathing)
  • Shock: Severe condition from reduced blood circulation
  • Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Cardiogenic shock is caused by impaired heart function which means that blood is unable to be pumped effectively around the body.
  • Shock, Distributive: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Distributive shock occurs when the blood vessels are dilated with affects blood volume and blood pressure within the vessels. Septic, neurogenic and anaphylactic shock are various forms of distributive shock.
  • Shock, Endocrine: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Endocrine shock is caused by a disturbance in the endocrine (hormone producing) system. Some examples include severe cases of hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and severe adrenal insufficiency.
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Hemorrhagic shock is caused by excessive bleeding which reduces the blood volume.
  • Shock, Hypovolaemic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Hypovolaemic shock is caused by a rapid fluid loss which reduces the blood volume.
  • Shock, Neurogenic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Neurogenic shock is caused problems with the nervous system.
  • Shock, Obstructive: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Obstructive shock is caused by obstruction the blood flow. Causes include cardiac tamponade, pulmonary embolism and narrowing of the aortic artery.
  • Shock, Septic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Septic shock is caused by infection which affects large parts of the body. This form of shock results in death in about half of the cases.
  • Shock, Traumatic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Traumatic shock is caused by a serious injury or trauma to the body which affects the blood volume through one or more factors such as severe bleeding, heart damage and lung damage.
  • Shortness of breath: The feeling of being short of breath
  • Silent asthma: Silent asthma is a type of asthma that occurs suddenly and is usually severe. The wheezing that usually precipitates and asthma attack is usually absent or very mild. Silent asthma involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Silicosiderosis: A lung disorder caused by breathing in dust containing iron and silica.
  • Silicosis: An occupation lung disease caused by breathing in silica dust.
  • Silo unloader syndrome: An occupational lung disease that occurs in farm workers who go into a silo and breath in the nitrogen dioxide which are toxic to the body. Death can occur in some cases. Symptoms usually occur within a week of entering the silo.
  • Slickhead poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some slickhead contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the slickhead does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The slickhead are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Smokers cough: A smoker's cough refers to coughing that normally occurs in people who have a history of chronic smoking. The coughing occurs mainly in the morning as the airways try and clear toxins and mucus that has built up during the night. Smoking affects the cilia that line the trachea and airways so that they can't effectively remove mucus and phlegm so coughing is an alternative way of removing the buildup.
  • Sputum: The phlegm like substance that is expelled from the bronchi, trachea, and lungs
  • Steroid-dependant asthma: Steroid-dependant asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that can be managed only through regular use of oral steroids. Excessive use of steroids can lead to side effects so other therapies are often advised e.g. immunoglobulin therapy. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma: Steroid-resistant asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that does not respond to treatment with steroids. However, higher than normal doses of steroids will alleviate symptoms in most patients but the higher doses carries an increased risk of side effects from steroid use. Other therapies such as immunoglobulin therapy is advised. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma, type I: Steroid-resistant asthma is a type of asthma that doesn't respond to steroid treatment. Steroids work by attaching to a particular part of the T-cells which make up the immune system. In type I, the T-cells have sufficient attachment points for the steroids but they are ineffective. In type II, there are insufficient attachment points for the steroids. Steroid-resistant asthma (like other forms of asthma) involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Steroid-resistant asthma, type II: Steroid-resistant asthma is a type of asthma that doesn't respond to steroid treatment. Steroids work by attaching to a particular part of the T-cells which make up the immune system. In type I, the T-cells have sufficient attachment points for the steroids but they are ineffective. In type II, there are insufficient attachment points for the steroids which make them less effective or completely ineffective. Steroid-resistant asthma (like other forms of asthma) involves rapid constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult.
  • Steroid-sensitive asthma: Steroid-sensitive asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that responds well to treatment with steroids. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Stress: Emotional stress (sometimes refers to physical stress)
  • Stridor: A harsh high pitched breath sound
  • Subpulmonary stenosis: A narrowing in the artery that allows blood to flow from the right heart ventricle to the lungs in order to be oxygenated. Severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of narrowing.
  • Suffocation: A state of asphyxiation that results in the arrest of respiration
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by servere breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgent between the lungs and the blood supply.
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 1: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 1 involves a defect in the pulmonary associated surfactant protein B (SFTPB) and due to a genetic anomaly located on chromosome 2p12-11.2.
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 2: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxygen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 2 involves a defect in the pulmonary associated surfactant protein C (SFTPC) and due to a genetic anomaly located on chromosome 8p21.
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 3: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 3 involves a defect on chromosome 16p13.3 which is believed to affect the secretion of surfactant.
  • Syncope: Temporary loss of conciousness or fainting.
  • Tarpon poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some tarpon contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the tarpon does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The tarpon are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot: A condition which is characterized pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy and dextroposition of the aorta
  • The Congenital Lactic Acidoses: A condition which is characterized by congenital lactic acidoses
  • Tobacco smoke associated asthma: Tobacco smoke associated asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by exposure to tobacco smoke. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Transposition of great arteries: A congenital malformation where the aorta and pulmonary artery are transposed which causes oxygenated blood from the lungs to be sent back to the lungs and de-oxygenated blood to be sent to body tissues. Often there is some other defect such as an opening in the heart chambers which allows mixing of the blood and hence survival is possible for a short while at least.
  • Transposition of the great arteries: A condition which is characterized by transposition of the great arteries
  • Truncus Arteriosus: A rare congenital heart vessel abnormality where the heart has only one artery coming out of it which forms the aorta and pulmonary artery and delivers blood to the body and the lungs. Normally the blood flow to the body and the lungs is carried out through separate blood vessels.
  • Tubatoxin poisoning: Tubatoxin is a naturally occurring chemical found in certain plants (Derris and Lonchocarpus sp.). It gives the plant insecticidal and pesticidal properties and is hence utilized commercially as an insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. Inhalation tends to cause more severe symptoms than ingestion. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • VLCAD deficiency: A rare condition that is characterised by cardiomyopathy, fatty liver, skeletal myopathy, pericardial effusions, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death
  • Vancomycin resistant enterococcal bacteremia: A condition which is characterised by bacteremia caused by an enterococci that is resistant to vancomycin.
  • Vascular malposition: A condition which is characterised by malposition of the great vessels
  • Vein of Galen aneurysm: A rare condition which is characterised by an aneurysm resulting from a intracranial vascular malformation
  • Ventricular septal defect: An abnormal connection between the 2 lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
  • Ventriculo-arterial discordance, isolated: A rare birth disorder where the right atrium is connected to the left ventricle and vice versa. The position of the heart ventricles is also inverted which allows normal blood oxygenation. Symptoms generally only occur later in life or if other heart defects are present which is usually the case.
  • Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency -- Early onset: Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency is a rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form. The early-onset form is the most severe and can readily lead to death if undiagnosed.
  • Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency -- adult-onset: Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency is a rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form. The adult-onset form is relatively mild and tends to be characterized mainly by muscle problems.
  • Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency -- intermediate: Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency is a rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form. The intermediate form is relatively mild and tends to be characterized by periods of low blood sugar - symptoms tend to develop during childhood.
  • Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A rare inherited genetic condition where the body is unable to convert certain fats to energy i.e. there is not enough of a certain enzyme which is needed to metabolize a type of fat called long-chain fatty acids. The build-up of these fatty acids in the body causes damage. There are three subtypes of the disorder each with varying severity: severe early-onset form, an intermediate form and an adult-onset form.
  • Virus-induced asthma: Virus-induced asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is triggered by a viral respiratory infection. This form of asthma usually has a sudden onset and is relatively severe. Viral respiratory infections can also exacerbate existing asthma symptoms.
  • Volume depletion: When an individual does not have enough fluid volume in there circulation
  • Weinstein Kliman Scully syndrome: A syndrome that is characterised by cardiomyopathy, hypogonadism and metablic anomalies
  • Wheezing: A whistling like continuous sound that is caused by the respiratory system
  • White Chameleon poisoning: The white chameleon is a type of thistle found mainly in dry areas of the Mediterranean. The rhizomes contains chemicals which can cause poisoning symptoms if eaten. The plant is often mistaken for a wild artichoke. The root extract is sometimes used in alternative medicine and excessive doses can also result in poisoning.
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: An inherited immune system disorder that affects only males and is characterized by recurring infections, eczema and reduced level of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia).

 

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