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Diseases » Tetany » Glossary
 

Glossary for Tetany

  • Abnormal sensations: altered sensations due to involvement of the posterior column
  • Acid-Base Imbalance: A disruption to the normal acid-base equilibrium in the body. There are four main groups of disorder involving an acid-base imbalance: respiratory acidosis or alkalosis and metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Obviously the severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Acute Pancreatitis: Sudden severe inflammation of the pancreas causing digestive complaints.
  • Alkalosis: Blood alkalinity levels too high (opposite of acidosis)
  • Bartter Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder of kidney metabolism characterized by reduced blood acidity and low potassium levels.
  • Blood conditions: Conditions that affect the blood
  • Breast Feeding: Nursing an infant with breast milk.
  • Breathing symptoms: Symptoms affecting the breathing systems.
  • Chronic Alcoholism -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that chronic alcoholism during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn's syndrome: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adenoma, carcinoma or enlargement of the adrenal gland or glands. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
  • DiGeorge syndrome: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder which can result in a vast array of symptoms. Various names have been used to describe different manifestations of the syndrome. Di George Syndrome primarily involves an underdeveloped thymus and parathyroid glands which results in lowered immunity low blood calcium levels respectively. Another primary feature is heart defects. Various other variable features are also present. It is not uncommon for patients to have more than one of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome subtypes which can make diagnosis confusing - other subtypes include Sphrintzen syndrome, Caylor cardiofacial syndrome and CATCH 22.
  • Electrocution: Any injury caused by electricity
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Senna: Senna can be used to treat constipation or to prepare the colon for a rectal examination. The herbal agent can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Hyperphosphataemia: An increased level of phosphate in the circulation above that which is considered normal
  • Hyperventilation: Excessively rapid breathing causing blood gas imbalances
  • Hypocalcaemia: Decreased concentration of calcium in the blood.
  • Hypocalcemia: Low levels of calcium in the blood
  • Hypokalemia: Low levels of potassium in the body.
  • Hypomagnesemia caused by selective magnesium malabsorption: A rare genetic disorder which causes low blood magnesium and results in low calcium levels also. Death can occur if left untreated. The condition is believed to results from abnormal intestinal absorption of magnesium rather than the excessive secretion of magnesium via malfunctioning kidneys.
  • Hypoparathyroidism: A condition where the parathyroid glands don't produce enough parathyroid hormone for normal body functioning. The primary function of these hormones is to regulate body calcium levels.
  • Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated: A rare familial condition involving low levels of parathyroid hormone which upsets the body's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate. The severity of symptoms is determined by the how low the parathyroid hormone level is.
  • Hypoparathyroidism, autoimmune: A rare autoimmune condition characterized by the inflammation of the parathyroid glands and resulting in a deficiency of parathyroid hormones (parathormone). Parathormone helps controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. Symptoms become progressively worse as calcium and phosphorus levels become increasingly imbalanced.
  • Kidney disease: Reduced kidney function from various causes.
  • Kidney failure: Total failure of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Magnesium deficiency: A deficiency in the magnesium stores of the body
  • Malabsorption syndrome: is an alteration in the ability of the intestine to absorb nutrients adequately into the bloodstream
  • Metabolic disorders: Disorders that affect the metabolic system in human
  • Muscle conditions: Any condition that affects the muscles of the body
  • Musculoskeletal conditions: Medical conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system of bones, muscles and related structures.
  • Oxalosis: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxalate aminotransferase and type II involves a deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.
  • Oxalosis, Type II: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.
  • Oxalosis, type I: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of alanine-glyoxalate aminotransferase.
  • Potassium deficiency: A deficiency of potassium in the body
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Primary Hyperaldosteronism: A condition characterised by the excessive production and release into the circulation of aldosterone
  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism: An inherited disorder where the body is unable to respond to the parathyroid hormone even though there are normal levels of it. Impaired bone growth is the main feature of this disorder.
  • Respiratory alkalosis: An acid-base imbalance disorder involving the blood gases. It is characterized by decreased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood and is caused by an increase in the breathing rate or volume. The severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Sore tongue: Pain or soreness of the tongue
  • Tetanus: A disease caused by chemicals which are produced by a bacterium (clostridium tetani) and are toxic to the nerves. The infection usually occurs when the bacteria enter the body through a deep wound - these bacteria are anaerobic and hence don't need oxygen to survive.
  • The Primary Hyperoxalurias: An excess of oxalates in the urine
  • Tingling lips: Tingling, pins-and-needles, or abnormal sensations of the lips
  • Tingling tongue: Tingling or odd sensations of the tongue
  • Uremic encephalopathy: Uremic encephalopathy is a consequence of renal failure and occurs due to build up of toxins which are normally cleared by the kidneys.
  • Vitamin D deficiency: Deficiency of vitamin D
  • WDHA syndrome: A syndrome characterized by watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria.

 

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