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Diseases » Throat disorder » Glossary
 

Glossary for Throat disorder

  • Achalasia: A rare motor disorder of the esophagus characterized by inability of the lower esophageal sphincter and esophageal muscle to relax as well as dilation of the esophagus.
  • Achalasia -- Addisonianism -- Alacrimia syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by achalasia, alacrimia (absent tears) and Addison's disease. Addison's disease involves adrenal insufficiency due to a resistance to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Only about 70 cases reported worldwide.
  • Achalasia -- addisonianism -- alacrima syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by achalasia, alacrimia (absent tears) and Addison's disease. Addison's disease involves adrenal insufficiency due to a resistance to adrenocorticotropic hormone. Only about 70 cases reported worldwide.
  • Achalasia -- adrenal -- alacrima syndrome: A familial disorder characterized by adrenal gland-related hormonal problems, swallowing difficulty (achalasia) and a lack of tears (alacrima). Neurological impairment and motor and sensory neuropathy is progressive. The adrenal glands in patients are resistant to the ACTH hormone and hence fails to operate normally.
  • Achalasia -- alacrimia syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by the association of achalasia (lack of peristaltic motion) and alacrimia (absent tears).
  • Achalasia microcephaly: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by a small head and achalasia which involves esophageal problems such as enlargement.
  • Achalasia, familial esophageal: A rare familial disorder where the esophagus lacks the normal peristaltic motions that help food move through the digestive system.
  • Achalasia, primary: A rare motor disorder of the esophagus characterized by inability of the lower esophageal sphincter and esophageal muscle to relax as well as dilation of the esophagus. The disorder is not associated with any other disease or disorder.
  • Acute pharyngitis: A condition which is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction of the pharynx
  • Aggressive fibromatosis -- parapharyngeal space: A type of tumor that occur near in the space around the pharynx and is locally invasive but not malignant. They tend to occur mainly in the head and neck region and symptoms depend on the exact location and aggressiveness of the tumor. Tumors often reoccur after surgical removal which then requires further treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Aksu von Stockhausen syndrome: A rare condition observed in a Turkish family and characterized by various head and neck malformations that have resulted from abnormal development of the branchial arches.
  • Arnold Stickler Bourne syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by muscle problems in hands, mouth and pharynx, kidney anomalies and corneal crystals.
  • Avellis's syndrome: Damage to a part of the brain stem (nucleus ambiguous) which affects signals being sent to the vagus nerve which controls the pharynx and larynx. Paralysis occurs on one side of the palate and vocal cord and loss of sensation in the other side of the body. The damage may be due to such things as trauma, cancer or toxicity.
  • Bilateral abductor vocal cord paralysis syndrome: A complication that can occur following the removal of the thyroid gland.
  • Boerhaave syndrome: A rare spontaneous rupture of the esophagus which can occur during violent vomiting or retching.
  • Bogart-Bacall syndrome: A voice disorder caused by vocal cord abuse or overuse. It most often occurs in singers or people who regularly speak outside their normal vocal range.
  • Boltshauser Syndrome: Boltshauser Syndrome is a rare condition reported in a few generations in one family. The condition is characterized by paralysis of the vocal cords, deafness and movement problems.
  • Chorditis: Inflammation of a cord, usually the vocal or spermatic cord. The inflammation is most often caused by overuse or abuse of the voice but may also be caused by cancer.
  • Chronic laryngotracheitis: It is inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the larynx, which is located in the upper part of the respiratory tract and the trachea which may cause respiratory obstruction.
  • Chronic pharyngitis: Chronic inflammation of the pharynx.
  • Congenital tracheal stenosis: A rare birth defect where a portion of the trachea is narrowed due to the cartilage rings that make up the trachea forming a complete or almost complete ring.
  • Deafness, vitiligo, achalasia: A rare disorder characterized by deafness, achalasia (difficulty swallowing) and patches of reduced pigmentation in the skin (vitiligo).
  • Distal myopathy with vocal cord weakness: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by muscle weakness in the end portion of the arms and legs as well as the vocal cord and pharynx.
  • Dysmorphism -- abnormal vocalization -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, facial abnormalities and an abnormal voice.
  • Dysphonia, chronic spasmodic: A speech disorder which sounds like stuttering and is caused by abnormal vocal cord movement.
  • Enslin syndrome: A rare disorder characterized mainly by the presence of a tower skull, adenoid hypertrophy and bulging eyes.
  • Flaccid dysarthria: A neurological voice disorder caused by damage or malfunction of the cranial or spinal nerves. May be caused by trauma, surgery, stroke, tumor, infection, degenerative diseases and muscle diseases.
  • Fraser-Jequier-Chen syndrome: A very rare disorder characterized by a cleft epiglottis and larynx, extra fingers and toes and kidney, pancreatic and bone abnormalities. The internal organs are also located on the opposite side of the body to normal (situs inversus totalis).
  • Functional aphonia: The absence of a voice. Causes include severe vocal fold stress and laryngeal diseases.
  • Gay-Feinmesser-Cohen syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, congenital heart disease and an abnormal membrane of tissue across the larynx.
  • Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A condition which is characterized by sever pain that originates on the side of the throat and extends to the ear
  • HIV like Severe sore throat: Involvement of the upper respiratory tract.
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer: Cancer of the bottom part of the throat (hypopharynx).
  • Infantile dysphagia: Swallowing problems in infants.
  • Juvenile angiofibroma: A condition characterized by a benign tumour of the nasopharynx
  • Laryngeal carcinoma: Cancer of the laryngeal area. Smoking and alcohol increase the risk of this cancer.
  • Laryngeal cleft: A rare birth defect where there is an abnormal opening between the larynx and esophagus which allows food to get into the airways and even the lungs. The severity of the condition is determined by the size of the opening.
  • Laryngeal papillomatosis: A rare disease characterized by the development of tumors in the larynx, vocal cords or respiratory tract. The disease is caused by the human papilloma virus. Symptoms will vary according to the size, location and aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • Laryngeal web congenital heart disease short stature: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, congenital heart disease and an abnormal membrane of tissue across the larynx.
  • Laryngeal webbing: Tissue that develops over the glottis and between the vocal folds. May result from vocal fold injury (trauma or infection) or may be present at birth. The severity of symptoms depends on the size of the webbing.
  • Laryngitis: Laryngitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the larynx which is located in the upper part of the respiratory tract.
  • Laryngocele: A rare condition where an air-filled sac associated with the larynx becomes dilated.
  • Laryngomalacia: A defect where the larynx is abnormally soft which affects voice quality and can cause breathing problems. The larynx is so soft that when inhalation occurs, the larynx collapses and obstructs the breathing passage.
  • Laryngomalacia, dominant congenital: A dominantly inherited birth defect where the larynx is abnormally soft which affects voice quality and can cause breathing problems. The larynx is so soft that when inhalation occurs, the larynx collapses and obstructs the breathing passage.
  • Laryngopharyngeal reflux: A gastrointestinal disorder where acid reflux affects the throat and causes irritation.
  • Larynx Cancer: Cancer of the voice box or nearby areas.
  • Larynx atresia: A very rare birth disorder where a thin membrane obstructs the laryngeal opening.
  • Larynx conditions: Any condition that affects that larynx
  • Larynx, congenital partial atresia of: A birth defect where the larynx is obstructed. Usually a tracheostomy is required to permit normal breathing and prevent death.
  • Loeys-Dietz syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a bulge in the aorta (aneurysm), wide set eyes, cleft palate, divided uvula and twisted arteries.
  • Mallory-Weiss syndrome: A laceration of the lining of the gastroesophageal junction or just above it - often caused by severe vomiting.
  • Nasopharyngeal teratoma with Dandy-Walker -- diaphragmatic hernia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a nasopharyngeal tumor, diaphragmatic hernia and the Dandy-Walker anomaly (brain cyst).
  • Nasopharyngitis: Nasopharyngitis is a contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily.It is the most common infectious disease in humans
  • Nasopharynx cancer: A condition which is characterized a malignancy located in the nasopharynx
  • Novak syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly underdeveloped lungs and by an abnormal opening in the area of the larynx, trachea and esophagus.
  • Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy: A group of genetic muscle-wasting diseases which affects mainly the eyes and throat. Weakness in limb and facial muscles can occur in later stages.
  • Odontoma -- dysphagia syndrome: A rare disorder characterized mainly by overgrowth of muscle tissue in the esophagus and a benign tumor that usually forms at the root of a tooth.
  • Opitz syndrome , X-linked: A congenital disorder characterized by distinctive facial features, genital abnormalities, esophageal defect and difficulty swallowing. Males are more severely affected than females.
  • Oral pharyngeal disorders: Disorders involving the mouth and back of throat area including the pharynx. The disorder may include cancers, structural abnormalities, fungal disease, infections and inflammation. The type and severity of symptoms varies greatly depending on the type of disorder.
  • Oropharyngeal cancer: Oropharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the oropharynx. The oropharynx is the middle part of the pharynx (throat) behind the mouth, and includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils.
  • Oropharyngeal cancer, adult: Cancer of the back of the mouth which forms part of the throat including the back of the tongue, tonsils, part of the throat wall and soft palate (oropharynx).
  • Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mouth ulcers, periodic fevers, pharyngeal inflammation and infection of neck lymph nodes.
  • Perisylvian syndrome: A very rare nerve disorder characterized by weakness or paralysis of face, jaw tongue and throat muscles. Other symptoms include seizures, delayed development and mental retardation.
  • Pharyngitis: Inflammation or infection of the larynx in the throat
  • Pharyngoconjunctival fever: An infectious disease usually caused by adenovirus type 3. The infection may be acute, epidemic or sporadic and is more common in children. Infection can be transmitted through swimming pools. The incubation period is 5-9 days.
  • Pharynx cancer: A condition that is characterised by a malignant lesion located in the pharynx
  • Plummer-Vinson syndrome: A rare condition characterized by iron-deficiency anemia, nail abnormalities and dysphagia.
  • Polypoid degeneration: Vocal cord swelling due to a build up of fluid. Causes include Gastroesophageal reflux, smoking, hormonal problems and chronic voice abuse. The condition is most common in middle-aged or post-menopausal women who have a long history of smoking.
  • Presbylarynx: Loss of vocal fold tone and elasticity due to aging which affects voice quality.
  • Puberphonia: A voice disorder where a person has a high-pitched adolescent voice even though they are past the age of puberty. The exact cause is difficult to determine.
  • Reflux laryngitis: A voice disorder caused by the backflow of stomach contents into the voice box area which causes swelling and irritation.
  • Retropharyngeal abscess: An abscess (pus-filled cavity) in the back of the throat. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid obstruction of airways and other complications including death.
  • Retropharyngeal abscess like odynophagia: The high mortality rate of retropharyngeal abscess owes its association with airway obstruction.
  • Riedel syndrome: A rare condition that occurs when fibrous tissue forms in the thyroid area and progressively destroys the thyroid gland.
  • Satoyoshi syndrome 2: An inherited muscle disease involving the eye, pharyngeal muscles and distal limb muscles.
  • Scarlet fever: A complication of infection from strep bacteria such as strep throat.
  • Schatzki ring: Ring-like constriction of the lower part of the esophagus which can cause swallowing problems.
  • Smokers throat: Irritation or inflammation of the throat caused due to excessive smoking.
  • Spasmodic dysphonia: A psychogenic voice disorder which has neurological origins. The vocal fold muscles spasm involuntarily during speech. May be caused by psychological factors as well as other conditions.
  • Spastic dysphonia: A rare speech disorder caused by stiffness of the muscles in the throat that control speech.
  • Strep throat: Streptococcal bacterial throat infection.
  • Supraglottic laryngeal cancer: Cancer that arises in the tissue above the vocal cords.
  • Thoracopelvic dysostosis: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by abnormalities involving the chest, larynx and pelvis. The small chest cavity affects breathing and can affect survival, especially during infancy.
  • Throat cancer: A malignancy in the throat
  • Tracheal agenesis syndrome: A rare birth condition where the trachea is absent or closed off.
  • Traumatic laryngitis: Temporary hoarseness caused by inflammation of the larynx due to such things as bacteria, viral infection, allergies, overuse of voice, tumors and hormonal problems.
  • Tucker syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by vocal cord paralysis and droopy eyelids.
  • Turpin syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by abnormalities involving the trachea, esophagus, vertebrae and ribs.
  • Varix: A prominent blood vessel on the vocal fold due to the such things as extreme voice abuse.
  • Velopharyngeal incompetence: A condition which is characterised by the incompetence of the velopharyngeal to close due to any cause
  • Ventricular dysphonia: A voice disorder where the ventricular bands close abnormally above the vocal folds which affects speech quality. The cause is often unknown but vocal fold disease may be involved in some cases.
  • Vocal Cord Paralysis: A voice disorder caused by the impaired ability of the vocal cords to close and open. The condition may be caused by trauma, accidental injury during surgery, tumor, viral infections. One or both vocal cords may be affected.
  • Vocal cord dysfunction familial: A rare inherited disorder where the vocal cord closes while breathing in which causes breathing difficulty which can be severe in some cases. Mental retardation is also associated.
  • Vocal cord hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vocal fold due to the rupture of a blood vessel. May be caused by such things as extreme voice abuse, overuse of anticoagulants or steroid inhalants.
  • Vocal cord hyperkeratosis: Thickened lesion which develops on vocal fold. Causes include smoking, pollution and alcohol.
  • Vocal cord thickening: Thickening of the vocal cords. Causes not readily determinable but factors may include alcohol, smoking and Gastroesophageal reflux.
  • Vocal fold cyst: The development of fluid-filled sacs on the vocal folds.
  • Vocal fold paralysis: Paralysis of the vocal folds due to impaired nerve signals. Causes include surgery, birth trauma, disease of the central nervous system, neuritis and neck tumors.
  • Vocal fold scarring: Scarring of the focal folds due to such things as surgery, aging, voice misuse, overuse or abuse. The condition is particularly common in people who use their voice for a livelihood such as teachers and singers.
  • Vocal granuloma: A thickened, irregular lesion that develops on the vocal folds due to irritation caused by factors such as Gastroesophageal reflux and intubation.
  • Vocal hyperkeratosis: Thickened lesion which develops on the inner border of the glottal margins. Causes include smoking, pollution and alcohol.
  • Vocal nodules: A harmless growth that develops in the vocal chords usually as a result of vocal abuse or overuse.
  • Vocal papilloma: A common harmless bump that develops near the glottal closure and affects voice quality. The bump or tumor is caused by a papovavirus infection of the throat.
  • Vocal pitch breaks: A voice disorder where the pitch of the voice changes suddenly. The change may be an increased or decreased pitch. It is most often associated with males going through puberty.
  • Vocal polyps: A fluid-filled bulge that develops in the vocal chords usually as a result of vocal abuse or overuse.
  • Whispering dysphonia, hereditary: A rare inherited disorder where an individual is able to talk normally when they’re asleep, drunk or emotional but for the most part are only able to whisper. The condition may be progressive and leaves the person unable to make a single sound. Sufferers also exhibited involuntary movements (torsion dystonia).

 

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