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Diseases » Thyroid disorders » Glossary
 

Glossary for Thyroid disorders

  • Acquired hypothyroidism: Acquired hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland makes too little or no thyroid hormone. Acquired hypothyroidism can be caused by both thyroid disease (primary hypothyroidism) and hypothalamic-pituitary disease (central hypothyroidism)
  • Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: A type of cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • Akesson syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by excessive skin folds and furrows on the scalp, mental retardation the failure of the thyroid to develop.
  • All Disease Categories: All major disease categories
  • Alzheimer's Disease: Dementia-causing brain disease mostly in seniors and the elderly.
  • Anterior pituitary hyperhormonotrophic syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the excessive production of various hormones (gonadotrophic, thyrotrophic, lactotrophic and pancreatrophic hormone).
  • Antithyroid drugs -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the use of Antithyroid drugs during pregnancy may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ataxia -- diabetes -- goiter -- gonadal insufficiency: A rare disorder characterized by diabetes, goiter, insufficient hormone production by the gonads and progressive ataxia.
  • Athyrotic hypothyroidism sequence: A rare congenital disorder characterized by a thyroid gland defect.
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease associated Celiac Disease: Patients with autoimmune thyroid disease are more susceptible to developing celiac disease than the average population. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by intolerance to gluten by the small intestine. The type and severity of symptoms varies amongst people - some people have severe gastrointestinal symptoms from infancy whereas other have no symptoms other than fatigue or anemia during adulthood.
  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases: Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
  • Bamforth syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of an abnormal opening in the roof of the mouth and reduced thyroid functioning.
  • Bangstad syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by diabetes, goiter, insufficient hormone production by the gonads and progressive ataxia.
  • Basedow's coma: A coma that occurs prior to death from severe hyperthyroidism.
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Bird-headed dwarfism with progressive ataxia, Insulin-resistant diabetes, goiter and primary gonadal insufficiency: A rare disorder characterized by diabetes, goiter, insufficient hormone production by the gonads and progressive ataxia.
  • Candidiasis familial chronic mucocutaneous, autosomal dominant, with thyroid disease: A dominantly inherited condition characterized by poor immunity to fungal infections (particularly those caused by Candida albicans) as will as thyroid disease. Persistent fungal infections tend to affect the nails, skin or mucous membranes. The degree of severity is variable with some cases leading to fugal infection of the brain which is usually fatal.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Hexachlorobenzene: Hexachlorobenzene is a chemical used mainly in seed treatments. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Cleft palate, bilateral choanal atresia, curly hair and congenital hypothyroidism: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of curly, choanal atresia, cleft palate and congenital hypothyroidism.
  • Congenital craniosynostosis maternal hyperthyroiditis: The association of maternal thyroid disease with premature fusion of skull bones in infants. Studies have shown and increased risk of craniosynostosis in infants born to mothers with hyperthyroidism.
  • Congenital hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of thyroid hormones that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or hypothyroidism in infants of mothers treated with thiouracil during pregnancy.
  • Congenital hypothyroidsim:
  • Cretinism athyreotic: A rare form of congenital hypothyroidism that causes mental and physical growth retardation in infants or children. Prompt thyroid hormone therapy is essential in order to prevent progressive neurological and motor deterioration.
  • Cushing's disease: A condition of hyperadrenocorticism which is secondary to excessive pituitary secretion of ACTH. Cushing's disease is different to Cushing's syndrome which refers to the effects of glucocorticoid excess from any cause.
  • Cushing's disease-like hirsutism: Increased in the amount of body hair is known as hirsutism.
  • Cushing's syndrome-induced hypertension: Cushing's syndrome-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by a condition caused Cushing's syndrome where the adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of cortisol.
  • Cutler Syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by multisystem disorders including muscle wasting, ataxia, epilepsy, anemia and kidney disease. The kidney disease is most likely present at birth.
  • Cutler-Bass-Romshe syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by kidney, neurological and thyroid problems.
  • Deafness -- goiter -- stippled epiphyses: A congenital metabolic disorder where the body fails to respond to thyroid hormone even though there is sufficient quantities of the hormone.
  • Deafness -- thyroid hormone resistance: An inherited disorder where the body fails to respond to thyroid hormone even though there is sufficient quantities of the hormone.
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Depressive disorders: Depression or its various related conditions.
  • Diabetes, neonatal -- congenital hypothyroidism -- congenital glaucoma -- hepatic fibrosis -- polycystic kidneys: A rare syndrome characterized by the presence of diabetes, hypothyroidism, liver fibrosis, polycystic kidneys and glaucoma in infants.
  • Ectodermal dysplasia -- hypohidrotic -- hypothyroidism -- ciliary dyskinesia: A rare syndrome characterized by alopecia (A), nail problems (N), eye problems (O - ophthalmic), thyroid dysfunction (T), reduced sweating (H - hypohidrosis), freckles (E-ephelides), intestinal disease (E - enteropathy) and respiratory tract infections (R).
  • Endocrine disorders: Any disorder that affects the endocrine system
  • Endocrine system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the endocrine systems, such as the related hormones or glands.
  • Escamilla-Lisser syndrome: Hypothyroidism in adults where external signs may be few or absent but serious problems can occur internally. Some of the problems includes weakened muscles in the heart, intestines and bladder.
  • Falta syndrome: The reduced function of more than one type of gland. The pituitary and thyroid gland are most often involved. Symptoms may numerous and varied depending on the glands involved.
  • Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia: An inherited characteristic involving increased levels of thyroxine in the blood and abnormal serum blood despite normal thyroid gland functioning. The condition may be mistaken for hyperthyroidism.
  • Familial hypothyroidism: Impaired thyroid activity that tends to run in families.
  • Fibromyalgia: A difficult to diagnose condition affecting the muscles and/or joints
  • Generalized anxiety disorder: Excessive anxiety and worrying.
  • Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone: An inherited disorder where the body fails to respond to thyroid hormone even though there is sufficient quantities of the hormone.
  • Goiter: Swollen neck thyroid gland
  • Graves Disease: is an autoimmune disease characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs) bind to and activate thyrotropin receptors, causing the thyroid gland to grow and the thyroid follicles to increase synthesis of thyroid hormone.
  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Hashimoto's encephalitis: A rare but serious condition that can occur when thyroid antibodies, such as those present in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, involve the brain tissue and cause neurological symptoms.
  • Hashimoto-Pritzker syndrome: A rare harmless skin disorder characterized by the accumulation of histiocytes (infection-fighting cells) in the skin which forms nodules. The condition occurs at birth or soon after and resolves spontaneously within a month.
  • Heat sensitivity: Feeling warm or sensitivity to the heat
  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder where too much iron is absorbed from food and it is stored in various parts of the body which can cause damage. There are 4 types of hemochromatosis and they are distinguished by age of onset, genetic cause and type of inheritance. Some sufferers may be asymptomatic.
  • Hereditary hypothyroidism: Hereditary hypothyroidism is a condition in which there is a defect in the thyroid gland which leads to increased production of TSH reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • High T4 syndrome: A disorder involving transient increases in thyroxine levels for no apparent reason.
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands.
  • Hypersecretion of growth hormone: increased production of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • Hyperthyroid osteoporosis: Osteoporosis or thinning of the bone occurring in hyperthyroid patients.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypoparathyroidism, autoimmune: A rare autoimmune condition characterized by the inflammation of the parathyroid glands and resulting in a deficiency of parathyroid hormones (parathormone). Parathormone helps controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. Symptoms become progressively worse as calcium and phosphorus levels become increasingly imbalanced.
  • Hypothyroid goitre: Goitre is the enlargement of the thyroid gland and hypothyroid state is characterized by increased TSH levels and decreased T3 and T4 levels circulating in the body.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypothyroidism -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of hypothyroidism during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hypothyroidism -- cleft palate: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of an abnormal opening in the roof of the mouth and reduced thyroid functioning.
  • Hypothyroidism -- dermoid cyst -- cleft palate: A rare syndrome characterized by primary hypothyroidism, dermoid cyst, cleft palate and other abnormalities.
  • Hypothyroidism due to iodide transport defect: Low thyroid hormone levels in infants due to abnormal iodide transport in the body caused by a genetic defect. The severity of the condition varies depending on the extent of the defect and the length of time taken to diagnose the condition. Symptoms tend to become worse, the longer the condition is undiagnosed.
  • Hypothyroidism postaxial polydactyly mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized by abnormally low thyroid levels, extra digits, mental retardation and unusually facial appearance.
  • Inborn errors of thyroid hormone synthesis related to hypothyroidism: Congenital hypothyroidism is inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. This can occur because of an anatomic defect in the gland, an inborn error of thyroid metabolism, or iodine deficiency.
  • Increased sweating: A condition which is characterized by an abnormal excess of sweating
  • Infantile hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of thyroid hormones that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or hypothyroidism in infants of mothers treated with thiouracil during pregnancy.
  • Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.
  • Iodine deficiency: Dietary deficiency of iodine affecting the thyroid.
  • Irritability: Excessive feelings of annoyance or frustration.
  • Kocher-Debre-Semelaigne syndrome: A rare condition characterized by pseudohypertrophy of muscles that occurs in patients with hypothyroidism.
  • Levothyroxine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Levothyroxine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Lymphomatous thyroiditis: Progressive thyroid gland enlargement due to autoimmune disease.
  • Medication related hypothyroidism: Drug-induced hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland due to a reaction from medication.
  • Medullary carcionoma: Medullary carcinoma of the breast is a variant of breast cancer. These tumors have a similar presentation to other breast cancers but are distinguished by a characteristic histologic appearance.
  • Mood disorders: Disorders that affect a persons mood
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia: A group of conditions that is characterised by the hyperplasia and hyperfunction of two or more glands of the endocrine system
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Myxedema: Skin and tissue disorder usually due to hypothyroidism
  • Myxedema coma: Myxedema coma is a rare, life-threatening condition, occurs late in the progression of hypothyroidism. The condition is seen typically in elderly women and is often precipitated by infection, medication, environmental exposure, or other metabolic-related stresses.
  • Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy is characterized by the classic tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
  • Nervousness: Nervous or overly anxious mental state
  • Obesity -- colitis -- hypothyroidism -- cardiac hypertrophy -- developmental delay: A rare syndrome characterized by obesity, colitis, hypothyroidism, enlarged heart and developmental delay. The two reported cases involved maternal HELLP syndrome during pregnancy. Both infants died within months of birth.
  • Obesity, hypothyroidism, craniosynostosis, cardial hypertrophy, colitis and intellectual deficiency: A rare syndrome characterized by a variety of features including obesity, hypothyroidism, premature fusion of skull bones, enlarged heart, colitis and mental retardation. The two reported cases both involved the development of HELLP syndrome during the mother's pregnancy.
  • Personality disorders: A group of psychiatric disorders that are characterised but abnormal dysfunctional personalities
  • Postpartum hyperthyroidism: Postpartum thyroiditis is a postpartum condition that results in temporary hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism.
  • Postpartum hypothyroidism: Postpartum hypothyroidism is a relatively common disorder that has previously been unrecognized and untreated. Although symptoms are temporary and usually mild, most women are relieved to learn that their symptoms are not all in their heads, that they are not "losing their minds," that they don't have a life-threatening disease, and that there are inexpensive, effective treatments to relieve their discomfort.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the thyroid after a pregnancy
  • Pretibial Myxedema: Condition causing redness and thickening of soft tissues under skin and pink nodules on shins and front of lower legs; a manifestation of the autoimmune disease Graves' Disease
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis: Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic and progressive cholestatic disease of the liver.
  • Primary hypothyroidism: Primary hypothyroidism is a condition in which a defect in the thyroid gland leads to reduced production of thyroid hormone.
  • Progeroid syndrome, Penttinen type: A rare form of premature aging.
  • Psychiatric disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychological disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Renon-Delille syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by reduced function of the thyroid and ovaries and enlarged hands and feet.
  • Resistance to thyroid stimulating hormone: A very rare disorder where the body is unable to respond to thyroid stimulating hormone even though it is present in sufficient quantities. The problem lies in defective thyroid stimulating hormone receptors.
  • Retinohepatoendocrinologic syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by eye, liver and endocrine function abnormalities.
  • Riedel syndrome: A rare condition that occurs when fibrous tissue forms in the thyroid area and progressively destroys the thyroid gland.
  • Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis: Secondary biliary cirrhosis is a condition where the bile ducts are unable to transport bile effectively due to a secondary cause which results in blockage, inflammation, scarring or some other damage to the bile ducts. The condition may result from such things as congenital defect of the bile ducts (e.g. biliary atresia), cystic fibrosis, gallstones or a variety of other secondary conditions.
  • Secondary hypothyroidism: Secondary hypothyroidism is a condition in which the activity of the thyroid gland is decreased, due to failure of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus
  • Sjogren's Syndrome: Autoimmune disease damaging the eye tear ducts and other glands.
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects ones sleep
  • Sohval-Soffer syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, hypogonadism and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Sub clinical hypothyroidism: Sub clinical hypothyroidism, also referred to as mild hypothyroidism, is defined as normal serum free T4 levels with slightly high serum TSH concentration.
  • Subacute Thyroiditis: A self-limiting, virally induced inflammation of the thyroid characterised by a febrile illness and swelling of the thyroid, with subsequent damage to the thyroid tissue causing leakage of thyroid hormones into the circulation
  • Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis: Subacute thyroiditis is a self-limited thyroid condition associated with a triphasic clinical course of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and return to normal thyroid function.
  • Subclinical hyperthyroidism: Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterized by a low or undetectable concentration of serum thyrotropin (TSH) with free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels within laboratory reference ranges.
  • Tertiary hypothyroidism: Tertiary hypothyroidism results from a malfunction of the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system.
  • Thyrocerebral-retinal syndrome: A very rare syndrome observed in a brother and sister and characterized by thyroid, kidney and neurological disease.
  • Thyroid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Thyroid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Thyroid agenesis: A rare disorder where the thyroid fails to develop resulting in hypothyroidism from birth.
  • Thyroid cancer: Cancer of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell: A rare form of cancer that originates in the thyroid gland. This cancer is characterized by the abnormal presence of Hurthle cells which may signify benign or malignant thyroid cancer. The cancer usually responds well to treatment if detected in the earlier stages.
  • Thyroid cancer, anaplastic: A thyroid gland cancer that is quite aggressive and metastasizes to other parts of the body.
  • Thyroid cancer, familial medullary: A rare inherited form of thyroid cancer. The familial form of thyroid cancer is more aggressive than other forms.
  • Thyroid cancer, follicular: A usually slow-growing cancer of the thyroid gland which is rarely fatal. The cancer develops from cells in the thyroid that produce iodine-containing hormones. This type of cancer usually responds well to treatment.
  • Thyroid cancer, medullary: Cancer of the thyroid gland. The cancer develops from the parafollicular cells or in the thyroid gland which produced calcitonin. This type of cancer does not respond to treatment as well as papillary or follicular thyroid cancer. This form of thyroid cancer may be inherited.
  • Thyroid cancer, papillary: A usually slow-growing cancer of the thyroid gland which is rarely fatal. The cancer develops from cells in the thyroid that produce iodine-containing hormones. This type of cancer usually responds well to treatment.
  • Thyroid eye disease: Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune eye condition that, while separate from thyroid disease, is often seen in conjunction with Graves' Disease.
  • Thyroid storm: It is an acute, life-threatening, hypermetabolic state induced by excess release of thyroid hormones in individuals with thyrotoxicosis.
  • Thyroiditis: Thyroid gland inflammation
  • Thyrotropin deficiency, isolated: An inherited deficiency of a thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) which causes mental retardation, growth and other problems.
  • Troell-Junet syndrome: A disorder involving enlarged extremities, diabetes, skull abnormalities and excessive thyroid hormone production.
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Vaginal candidiasis: Fungal infection of the vagina, sometimes called thrush.
  • Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome: A condition involving premature menstruation and abnormal milk production in children who suffer from severe hypothyroidism.
  • Vilanova-Canadeli syndrome: A syndrome involving the association of hypothyroidism and a skin disorder caused by vitamin A deficiency.
  • Weight loss: Loss of body weight.
  • Young Simpson syndrome: A condition that is characterised by mainly mental retardation and physical signs of hypothyroidism

 

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