Associated Conditions for Tuberculosis
Excerpts on associated medical conditions for Tuberculosis:
WHO estimates that 4.4 million people worldwide are coinfected
with TB and HIV. By the year 2000, TB will claim 1 million lives
annually among the HIV-infected, WHO projects, making TB the
leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. In the United
States, an estimated 100,000 HIV-infected people also carry M.
, according to CDC.
TB frequently occurs early in the course of HIV infection,
often months to years before other opportunistic infections such
as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. TB may be the first
indication that a person is HIV-infected, and often occurs in
areas outside the lungs, particularly in the later stages of HIV
In the United States, people coinfected with TB and HIV develop
active TB at a rate of about 8 percent each year. By
comparison, otherwise healthy individuals infected with M.
tuberculosis have a 10 percent lifetime risk of
developing active TB. People with HIV also are at greater risk of
having a new infection progress directly to active disease.
MDR-TB in people coinfected with HIV appears to have a more
rapid and deadly disease course than seen in patients with MDR-TB
who are otherwise healthy.
Diagnosing TB in HIV-infected people is often difficult. These
patients frequently have conditions that produce symptoms similar
to those of TB, and may not react to the standard tuberculin skin
test because their immune systems are suppressed. Although
investigators have hypothesized that a two-stage TB skin test
might be more reliable than a single-stage test in HIV-infected
individuals, a recently completed NIAID study found this not to be
X-rays, sputum smears, and physical exams may also fail to
provide an indication of TB infection in HIV-infected individuals.
As a consequence, doctors must often decide to begin anti-TB
therapy in HIV-infected people suspected of having active TB while
waiting for the results of cultures of sputum or other specimens. (Source: excerpt from Tuberculosis, NIAID Fact Sheet: NIAID)
List of associated medical conditions for Tuberculosis:
The list of conditions mentioned by various sources
as associated with Tuberculosis includes:
Tuberculosis as a risk factor:
Another type of associated condition is one for which Tuberculosis
is itself a risk factor. The conditions for which Tuberculosis is listed as a risk
About associated conditions for Tuberculosis:
Associated conditions are those which appear
statistically related, but do not have
a clear cause or effect relationship.
Whereas the complications
are caused by Tuberculosis,
and underlying causes
may be causes of Tuberculosis,
the following list shows associated conditions
that simply appear with higher frequency in people
who have Tuberculosis.
In some cases, there may be overlap
between this list and risk factors
People with Tuberculosis may be more likely to
get a condition on the list of associated conditions,
or the reverse may be true, or both.
Whether they are causes of, caused by, or simply
coincidentally related to Tuberculosis
is not always clear.
For general information,
see Associated Condition Misdiagnosis.