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Glossary for Womens health conditions

  • 46,XY Gonadal Dysgenesis, Complete, SRY-Related: A rare disorder where a female has all the normal external femal characteristics but has non-functioning gonads. This means that no sex hormones needed for puberty are produced. This particular type is the result of a defect in the SRY gene located on chromosome Yp11.3.
  • 47,XXX syndrome: A genetic condition where females have an extra X chromosome in each of their cells. Normally female cells have two X chromosomes. This is not usually an inherited condition but a defect that occurs during cell division. Often the condition is asymptomatic.
  • 49,XXXXX syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder that affects only females and involves body cells having five copies of the X chromosome instead of the normal two.
  • Abruptio Placentae: Placental bleeding usually late in a pregnancy.
  • Achard-Thiers Syndrome: A hormonal disorder that occurs in diabetic postmenopausal women. It is characterized by diabetes mellitus and hirsuitism.
  • Acromegaly due to growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma: Pituitary adenomas are benign monoclonal neoplasms of the anterior pituitary gland, accounting for approximately 15% of intracranial tumors.
  • Acroparesthesia syndrome: A condition involving episodes of paresthesia (tingling, numbness and stiffness) mainly in the lower arms and hands. It most often occurs in middle-aged women.
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: A rare complication of pregnancy that can occur in the second half of the pregnancy. It is characterized by excessive fatty deposits in the liver which can be fatal without prompt diagnosis and treatment which involves delivering the baby as soon as possible.
  • Adenomyosis: A rare disorder where the endometrium (lining of the uterus) grows inside the muscle walls of the uterus. The condition is generally harmless but can be very painful.
  • Adenosarcoma of the uterus: A tumor that develops from the glands that line the uterus.
  • Adiposis Dolorosa: A condition which mainly affects women and causes painful fatty swellings
  • Ahumada-Del Castillo Syndrome: A rare endocrine disorder characterized by dysfunction of the pituitary and hypothalamus glands in women.
  • Allen-Masters syndrome: Damage to muscle layers in the pelvis which allows the abnormally increased movement of the cervix. It often occurs after a traumatic surgical birth, induced abortion or excessive vaginal packing.
  • Allergic seminal vulvovaginitis: Vaginal inflammation following contact with semen after ejaculation.
  • Amenorrhea: Absence of menstrual periods due to many possible causes.
  • Amniotic fluid syndrome: A rare disorder where large amounts of amniotic fluid suddenly enters the blood stream. The amniotic fluid contains debris which can block blood vessels and dilutes the blood which affects coagulation. This can occur when there is an opening in a blood vessel wall and can occur if the birth involves difficult labor, older women, dead fetus syndrome or large babies. The condition can result in rapid death of the mother.
  • Anemia: Reduced ability of blood to carry oxygen from various possible causes.
  • Anemia of pregnancy: Anemia of pregnancy is anemia that occurs during pregnancy. Women's bodies have a greater demand for iron during pregnancy and if intake is not sufficient, anemia can result. Anemia in pregnant women can lead to infant problems such as premature birth, fetal death, retarded growth and other problems.
  • Anetoderma, perifollicular: The development of discolored spots on the inside thighs of older women. The condition generally causes no problems. It is believed to be the result of minor destruction of elastic tissue around hair follicles. Causes include endocrine anomalies, certain drugs or bacterial infections that produce enzymes that destroy elastic tissue.
  • Angiectasis pregnancy: A rare condition that occurs during the final trimester of pregnancy and involves the development of small painful areas of raised blood vessel clusters that occur on the back of the legs.
  • Anovulation: Failure to ovulate
  • Antepartum Eclampsia: Antepartum eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Antepartum means that it occurs before delivery. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure. The blood pressure can return to normal after delivery or may persist for a period of time.
  • Asherman Syndrome: Amenorrhoea due to intrauterine adhesions often secondary to curette.
  • Asthma in pregnancy: Asthma in pregnancy refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is occurs during pregnancy. Women who are pregnancy may decide to stop taking their asthma medication in order to reduce the perceived risk of side effects to the developing fetus. The reality is that the potential harmful effects on the fetus are very small compared to the problems caused to mother and fetus if a severe asthma attack develops. Furthermore, uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy may also cause problems such as small birth weight or premature birth. Pregnant women should consult their physician in order to determine the optimal management of their condition. During pregnancy, asthma symptoms may become worse, improve or stay the same.
  • Atrophic vaginitis: Type of vaginitis usually related to aging and menopause
  • Autoimmune Endometriosis: An endometriosis that is caused by an autoimmune reaction
  • Autoimmune oophoritis: An autoimmune condition where the body's own immune system attacks the ovaries and causes them to become inflamed. It can lead to ovarian function stopping prematurely.
  • Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: A skin rash that appears to be a result of the body's immune reaction to progesterone. As progesterone production is linked to menstrual cycles, the rash occurs usually in the week before menstruation until a few days after menstruation starts.
  • Bacterial vaginosis: Bacterial vaginal infection
  • Ballantyne's triad: The association of fetal hydrops, maternal edema and an enlarged placenta.
  • Ballantyne-Runge syndrome: A pregnancy that goes over the normal gestation term of 42 weeks. The greatest problem with prolonged gestation is the fact that the placenta may shrink and be unable to supply the fetus with sufficient oxygen and nutrients. In extreme cases, the fetus may lose weight or suffer problems from chronic oxygen shortage.
  • Bar's syndrome: A rare type of bacterial infection that tends to occur in pregnant women. It manifests as pain in the gallbladder, ureter or appendix area as well as fever and bacteria in the urine.
  • Bartholin's abscess: Abscess in a small vaginal gland
  • Bartholin's cyst: Cyst in a small vaginal gland
  • Basal type breast cancer: Most of these cancers are of the so-called "triple negative" type -- that is, they lack estrogen or progesterone receptors and have normal amounts of HER2. T
  • Birth Injury: An injury to the mother caused by childbirth
  • Birth asphyxia: Hypoxia during passage of birth.
  • Bladder Incontinence (Pregnancy): Bladder incontinence that occurs during pregnancy
  • Bladder immaturity syndrome: Urinary incontinence that occurs in young girls. Urine leakage can occur during the day or night and can sometimes be due to urinary tract infection.
  • Blepharophimosis, Ptosis, Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by inner canthal folds, lateral displacement of inner canthi and drooping upper eyelid. The severity of symptoms is variable. There are two subtypes of the condition: Type 2 involves eye anomalies as well as female fertility problems whereas type 1 only involves the eye anomalies.
  • Breast Cancer: Cancer of the breast.
  • Breast cancer stages: 0, I, II, III, IV: Cancer stage is based on the size of the tumor, whether the cancer is invasive or non-invasive, whether lymph nodes are involved, and whether the cancer has spread beyond the breast.

    Stage 0- is used to describe non-invasive breast cancers, such as DCIS and LCIS. In stage 0, there is no evidence of cancer cells or non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which they started, or of getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue.

    Stage 1- describes invasive breast cancer (cancer cells are breaking through to or invading neighboring normal tissue) in which the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters and no lymph nodes are involved.

    Stage 2- Stage 2 is divided into subcategories known as 2A and 2B.

    Stage 2A- No tumor can be found in the breast, but cancer cells are found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm).

    Stage 2B- the tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

    Stage 3- Stage III is divided into subcategories known as IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC.

    Stage 3A- no tumor is found in the breast. Cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.

    Stage 3B- the tumor may be any size and has spread to the chest wall and/or skin of the breast

    Stage 3C- there may be no sign of cancer in the breast or, if there is a tumor, it may be any size and may have spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast, and the cancer has spread to lymph nodes above or below the collarbone.

    Stage 4- the cancer has spread to other organs of the body -- usually the lungs, liver, bone, or brain.

  • Breast carcinoma: Carcinoma occurring in breast tissue.
  • Breast fibroadenoma: Benign tumour of the breast characterized by glandular and stromal elements.
  • Breech pregnancy: Pregnancy with fetus reversed with head up.
  • Breisky disease: A progressive wasting disease of the vulva that occurs in postmenopausal women and is probably caused by hormonal imbalance.
  • Brenner tumor: A benign ovarian tumor
  • Brenner tumor of the vagina: A Brenner tumour usually occurs in the ovaries but can sometimes occur in the vagina. The tumor is generally benign.
  • CIN: A premalignant condition of the cervix that can progress into cervical cancer.
  • Caesarian Section: Surgery to deliver a fetus from the uterus.
  • Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is malignant cancer of the cervix uteri or cervical area
  • Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Dysplasia of the cervical epithelium often premalignant.
  • Cervical polyps: Benign polyps on the cervix of the uterus
  • Cervix conditions: Conditions of the cervix (entrance) of the female uterus.
  • Chiari-Frommel syndrome: A rare condition where galactorrhea and amenorrhea continues for an abnormal length of time (generally longer than 6 months) after giving birth.
  • Childbirth: Delivery of a fetus by a pregnant woman.
  • Chloasma: Red facial marks in women related to hormones
  • Cholestasis disease of pregnancy: A liver condition that can occur usually in the last stage of pregnancy. The flow of bile in the gallbladder or liver is impaired by the high levels of pregnancy hormones. The bile acids build up in the organs and then enter the bloodstream. The main symptom is usually itching. Symptoms usually resolve after delivering the baby. Risk factors includes existing liver condition, multiple pregnancy and a family history of the condition.
  • Cholestasis, intrahepatic of pregnancy: A rare liver disorder (impaired flow of bile) that occurs during third trimester of pregnancy with symptoms usually disappearing after delivery.
  • Choriocarcinoma: Rare cancer of the placenta
  • Choriocarcinoma, infantile: A rare malignant cancer that originates in the placenta. It is an aggressive cancer which generally results in infant death.
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia -- simple virilizing form in females: A group of disorder that occur when a deficiency of 21-hydroxylase impairs the normal process of making adrenal corticosteroids. The simple virilizing form involves a moderate deficiency of 21-hydroxylase and differs in its effects on males and females.
  • Cyclical edema syndrome: Periodic swelling or bloating that occurs in women while they are standing but disappears when they lie down. Excessive aldosterone hormone may cause the problem which tends do become worse in the period leading up to menstruation.
  • Cystocele: Bladder falls down into the vagina.
  • D-minus hemolytic uremic syndrome (D-HUS) -- pregnancy related: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. This type is not associated with diarrhea and is triggered by pregnancy.
  • De Quervains' disease: Inflammation of the tendons in the thumb which can be very painful. It can be caused by overuse of the thumb or wrist which can occur in activities such as knitting, skiing and lifting heavy objects. The condition primarily occurs in females aged 30 to 50 years.
  • Decreased menses: oligomenorrhea is the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a woman with previously normal periods
  • Double uterus-hemivagina-renal agenesis: A very rare malformation of the uterus and vagina.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ: Ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) is a noninvasive condition. DCIS can progress to become invasive cancer, but estimates of the likelihood of this vary widely.
  • Ductal ectasia: Dilation and inflammation of the mammary duct.
  • Dysesthetic Vulvodynia: Generalized pain in the vulvar region which can occur intermittently or constantly and has no obvious cause. The pain may be triggered by activities that put pressure on the area such as bike riding, tight clothes or even intercourse.
  • Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Uterus bleeding unrelated to periods
  • Dysgerminoma: A rare form of cancer of the germ cells in the ovary. It is generally asymptomatic in the early stages. Prognosis with treatment is generally quite good.
  • Dysmenorrhea: Pain, cramping, or discomfort due to menstruation
  • Dyspareunia: Vaginal pain after sexual intercourse
  • Eclampsia: Eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure. The blood pressure can return to normal after delivery or may persist for a period of time.
  • Ectopic pregnancy: A condition where a fertilized egg embeds itself outside the uterus.
  • Endometrial Cancer: Cancer of the endometrium (uterus lining).
  • Endometrial conditions: Conditions that affect the female endometrium that is located in the uterus
  • Endometrial hyperplasia: Thickening of the endometrium (lining of the uterus)
  • Endometrial stromal sarcoma: A rare type of cancer that develops from the endometrial layer of the uterus. The cancer may be slow-growing or aggressive and may metastasize.
  • Endometriosis: Misplaced uterus tissue causing scar tissue.
  • Endometritis: Inflammation of the endometrium (uterine lining)
  • Enterocele: Prolapse of the small bowel into the wall of the vagina, usually caused by past damage to the pelvic floor muscles.
  • FSH-resistant ovaries (FSH-RO): A recessively inherited disorder where the ovaries are unable to respond to the follicle stimulating hormone which results in symptoms such as lack of menstruation and infertility.
  • Fallopian tube cancer: A cancer that originates in the fallopian tubes which form part of the female reproductive organs. This type of cancer is relatively uncommon.
  • Fallopian tube conditions: Conditions that affect the fallopian tubes of a woman
  • False labor: Labor-like symptoms not actually due to labor
  • False labour: The presence of pain that is similar to contraction pain in childbirth without uterine contraction
  • Female arousal and orgasmic disorders:
  • Female conditions: Conditions that affect the female only
  • Female genital disorders: Any condition affecting the female genital organs.
  • Female infertility: Infertility that affects the female
  • Female reproductive toxicity: There is mounting evidence which indicates that exposure to certain agents may produce adverse reproductive or fetal developmental effects. The possible range of effects includes reduced fertility, low birth weight, childhood cancer, spontaneous abortion and birth defects. Agents which may be implicated in these adverse effects includes anticancer drugs, carbon disulfide, carbon monoxide, lead, pesticides, organic solvents and tobacco smoke.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Acetaminophen: Taking excessive doses of acetaminophen during pregnancy can result in kidney and liver problems in the baby. Pregnant women should avoid taking more than the recommended amount of the drug.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Alcohol: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to alcohol may suffer adverse effects as a result. Possible adverse effects due to chronic maternal alcohol exposure includes irregular menstrual cycle, fetal alcohol syndrome and physical and behavioral problems. Scientists have been unable to establish the quantity of alcohol required to cause reproductive toxicity.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Aminopterin: Exposure to Aminopterin, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Aminopterin is used as an anticancer drug. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Arsenic: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to inorganic arsenic may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion and low birth weight are possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Aspirin: Exposure to aspirin, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Aspirin is a drug used as a pain reliever. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical as well as stage of pregnancy. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Cadmium: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to cadmium may suffer adverse effects as a result. Low birth weight is a possible adverse effect.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Carbon Monoxide: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to carbon monoxide may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion and low birth weight are possible adverse effects. Adverse effects are generally only likely to occur in cases involving chronic exposure to carbon monoxide.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Chlorination by-products: There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to chlorination by-products may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion, menstrual disorders and low birth weight are possible adverse effects. Adverse effects are generally only considered possible at higher concentrations or with chronic exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Clobetasol Propionate: Exposure to Clobetasol Propionate, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Clobetasol Propionate is a corticosteroid used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Cocaine: Exposure to Cocaine, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Cocaine is used mainly as a recreational drug. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion and menstrual disorders, premature birth and neurodevelopmental disorders are the possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Diflunisal: Exposure to Diflunisal, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Diflunisal is a drug used mainly to treat inflammation associated with arthritis. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Dioxins: There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to dioxins may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion and menstrual disorders and birth defects are the possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Electromagnetic Fields: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to electromagnetic fields may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion and childhood cancer are the possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Ethylene Glycol ethers: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to Ethylene Glycol ethers may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion can occur in some women as a result of the exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Ethylene Oxide: Exposure to Ethylene Oxide, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Ethylene Oxide is used in pesticides as well as disinfectants. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Etodolac: Exposure to Etodolac, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Etodolac is a drug used mainly to treat arthritic pain and inflammation. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Flunisolide: Exposure to Flunisolide, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Flunisolide is a corticosteroid drug used to treat such things as allergic rhinitis. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Flurbiprofen: Exposure to Flurbiprofen, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Flurbiprofen is a drug used mainly to treat inflammation associated with arthritis. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Goserelin Acetate: Exposure to Goserelin Acetate, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Goserelin Acetate is a drug often used to treat late-stage prostate cancer, endometriosis or symptoms of advanced breast cancer. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Haloperidol: Exposure to Haloperidol, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug used to treat various psychotic disorders. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Ionizing radiation: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to Ionizing radiation may suffer adverse effects as a result. Infertility, menstrual disorders, birth defects, spontaneous abortion and childhood cancer are possible adverse effects and are generally only considered possible in cases of chronic exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Lead: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to lead may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion, infertility, premature birth, delayed puberty and neurobehavioral problems are possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Leuprolide Acetate: Exposure to Leuprolide Acetate, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Leuprolide Acetate is a drug used mainly to treat advanced prostate cancer and breast cancer and endometriosis. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as sex, level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Levonorgestrel Implants: Exposure to Levonorgestrel Implants, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Levonorgestrel Implants are used mainly as contraceptive. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Mercury: There is strong evidence which indicates that some women exposed to mercury may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion, infertility, premature birth, delayed puberty and neurobehavioral problems are possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Nifedipine: Exposure to Nifedipine, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Nifedipine is used mainly to treat angina and high blood pressure. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Organic solvents: There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to Organic solvents may suffer adverse effects as a result. Menstrual disorders, fertility problems, spontaneous abortion and birth defects are possible adverse effects and are generally only considered possible in cases of chronic exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Pesticides: There is limited evidence which indicates that some women exposed to pesticides may suffer adverse effects as a result. Spontaneous abortion, infertility, menstrual disorders and birth defects are possible adverse effects. Generally, adverse effects are only likely to occur with chronic exposure such as occurs in occupational settings e.g. farm workers.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Phthalates: There is conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to phthalates may suffer adverse effects as a result. Premature birth, structural defects and premature breast development are possible adverse effects. No firm link has been proven and adverse effects are only considered likely in cases of chronic exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Physical stress: There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to physical stress may suffer adverse effects as a result. Premature birth, low birth weight and spontaneous abortion are possible adverse effects.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Pimozide: Exposure to Pimozide, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Pimozide is used mainly as an antipsychotic drug. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to polyaromatic hydrocarbons may suffer adverse effects as a result. Low birth weight and small birth size are possible adverse effects and are generally only considered possible in cases of chronic exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): There is limited conflicting evidence which indicates that some women exposed to Polychlorinated biphenyls may suffer adverse effects as a result. Low birth weight, hyperpigmentation and menstrual disorders are possible adverse effects and are generally only considered possible in cases of chronic exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Streptozotocin: Exposure to Streptozotocin, a recognized reproductive toxicant, can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Streptozotocin is a drug used to treat pancreatic islet cell cancer. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Sulindac: Exposure to Sulindac can negatively affect the female reproductive system. Sulindac is a drug used mainly to treat pain and inflammation associated with arthritis. The severity and nature of the adverse effect is variable and can be influenced by factors such as level of exposure and individual sensitivity to the chemical. Effects on the female reproductive systems can include such things as menstrual problems, altered sexual behavior, infertility, altered puberty onset, altered length of pregnancy, lactation problems, altered menopause onset and pregnancy outcome.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Tobacco smoke: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to tobacco smoke may suffer adverse effects as a result. Fertility problems, fetal death, low birth weight and SIDS are possible adverse effects and are generally only considered possible in cases of chronic exposure.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- Video display Terminals (VDT): Despite persistent concerns there is no evidence that links female exposure to video display terminals with reproductive problems. Various studies have found no link between the two exists.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- anesthetic gases: There is some evidence which indicates that women exposed to excessive levels of anesthetic gases may suffer adverse reproductive or fetal developmental effects. Such effects are unlikely to occur except in cases where high occupational exposure results from sub-standard controls in occupational settings.
  • Female reproductive toxicity -- antineoplastic drugs: There is some evidence which indicates that some women exposed to anticancer drugs may suffer adverse effects as a result. The exposure may occur through the obvious route of having to take the drug to treat cancer but may also inadvertently occur in workplace environments which involves handling the anticancer drugs - e.g. pharmacists who mix the drugs or nursing staff who administer the drug. Spills and improper handling of the substance are the most likely scenarios for inadvertent exposure. The dental, medical and veterinary occupational settings are most common sources of exposure. Spontaneous abortion and birth defects are some of the possible adverse effects.
  • Female sexual conditions: Sexual conditions that affect the female
  • Female-only conditions: Conditions that only affect the female
  • Fibroadenoma: Benign tumor containing fibrous tissues and glands (common in breasts)
  • Fibrocystic breasts: The development of benign fluid-filled cysts in the breasts as well as scar-like tissue. The cysts can make breast cancer examinations more difficult.
  • Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: A rare condition where the thin layer around the liver becomes infected as a result of a spread of infection from gonococcal or chlamydial infections in females.
  • Florid cystic endosalpingiosis of the uterus: Benign tumor-like uterine cysts.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency, isolated: A genetic disorder characterized by the deficiency of follicle-stimulating hormone which primarily affects fertility.
  • Fowler-Christmas-Chapple syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of polycystic ovaries with the abnormal functioning of the urinary valve.
  • Galactocele: A milk filled cyst caused by a blocked mammary duct.
  • Generalized pustular psoriasis of pregnancy: A form of psoriasis that occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy and is characterized by pustules rather the skin bumps. The skin under and around the pustules is red and variable areas of skin may be involved. The pustules tends to occur in localized areas and then spreads to other parts of the body. It usually tends to recur during following pregnancies or with subsequent use of oral contraceptives.
  • Gestational diabetes: Diabetes that occurs in pregnant women, usually resolving after birth.
  • Gestational hypertension: Hypertension that occurs to a mother during pregnancy
  • Gestational pemphigoid: A rare autoimmune skin blistering disorder that occurs during pregnancy onset during second trimester with severe form recurring after delivery during menstruation.
  • Gestational trophoblastic tumor: A rare tumor that develops in the uterus from cells formed after an abnormal conception (abnormal union of sperm and egg cell). Gestational trophoblastic tumors can also develop from a normal placenta. There are two type of gestational trophoblastic tumors: choriocarcinoma and hydatidiform mole.
  • Glassy cell carcinoma of the cervix: A rare type of cervical cancer.
  • Gonadal dysgenesis, XX type: A rare genetic condition involving non-functional ovaries causing a failure of puberty due to the lack of production of sex hormones by the ovaries.
  • Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: A rare type of ovarian tumor which can cause excess estrogen hormone production. The tumor is a low grade malignant tumor.
  • Gynaecological conditions: Any condition the affects the female reproductive organs
  • Gynandroblastoma: A type of ovarian tumor that causes feminizing and masculinizing effects of estrogen and androgen.
  • HAIR-AN Syndrome: A very rare syndrome that affects females only and is characterized mainly by insulin resistance, dark velvety patches of skin and increased male hormone production in females.
  • HELLP syndrome: A rare potentially fatal condition that occurs in pregnant women and is frequently associated with pre-eclampsia.
  • Habitual abortion: The occurrence of two or more spontaneous abortions in a row. The condition may result from severe fetal abnormality, endocrine disorders, severe kidney problems, structural defects of the cervix or uterus or immune problems.
  • Hand-foot-uterus syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by hand, foot and uterus abnormalities.
  • Hot flashes: Facial flushing and other symptoms
  • Hydatidiform mole: A rare condition where an abnormal union between an egg and a sperm results in the formation of grape-like cysts instead of a baby. The growth is not malignant.
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Rare condition of excessive vomiting during pregnancy
  • Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure: Premature onset of menopause - occurs before the fourth decade -average age of onset of menopause is about 50 years of age. The condition can occur sporadically or may be inherited in a familial manner.
  • Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure, familial or sporadic: A rare disorder where the ovaries fail to function prematurely. Ovarian failure can occur in the 20's or 30's. Normal ovarian failure occurs during menopause. Premature ovarian failure can be caused by a genetic mutation and can occur sporadically or in a familial pattern.
  • Hypertension of pregnancy: Pregnancy hypertension is the development of high blood pressure during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The increased blood pressure can cause complications in pregnancy women e.g. eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Hypomelia -- mullerian duct anomalies: A rare genetic disorder characterized by severely underdeveloped arms and uterine and vaginal abnormalities.
  • Hypoplastic thumb -- mullerian aplasia: A rare disorder characterized by an underdeveloped thumb, vertebral abnormalities and abnormal development or lack of a part of the female reproductive system (uterus, cervix and upper vagina). The external genitalia appear normal and the ovaries usually function normally.
  • Hypothalamic amenorrhea: A condition which is characterized by amenorrhea caused by a an abnormality of the hypothalamus
  • Hypothyroid goitre: Goitre is the enlargement of the thyroid gland and hypothyroid state is characterized by increased TSH levels and decreased T3 and T4 levels circulating in the body.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Hysterectomy: The surgical removal of the female uterus
  • IBS associated with endometriosis: IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the presence of endometriosiis which is characterised by the ectopic presence of endometrial tissue in various parts of the body.
  • Imperforate hymen: Lack of opening in the vaginal hymen
  • Inflammatory breast cancer: Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and aggressive form of invasive breast cancer, where the skin of the breast becomes red, inflamed and pitted in appearance.
  • Intrapartum Eclampsia: Intrapartum eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Intrapartum means that it occurs during the delivery of the baby. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure. The blood pressure can return to normal after delivery or may persist for a period of time.
  • Intrauterine infections: Infection of the fetus while still inside the womb. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the type of infection and at what stage of pregnancy it occurs. Some cases are mild enough to be asymptomatic and others are severe enough to cause a miscarriage.
  • Invasive breast cancer: Invasive breast cancers usually are epithelial tumors of ductal or lobular origin. Features such as size, status of surgical margin, estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), nuclear and histologic grade, DNA content, S-phase fraction, vascular invasion, tumor necrosis, and quantity of intraductal component are all important in deciding on a course of treatment for any breast tumor.
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), sometimes called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is the most common type of breast cancer. About 80% of all breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma: Invasive lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and then invades surrounding tissues.
  • Klippel Feil deformity conductive deafness absent vagina: A rare developmental disorder occurring only in females and characterized by skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities and small stature.
  • Klotz syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by absent menstruation, infantile genitals and other sexual organ abnormalities in females who are genetically male.
  • Krukenberg carcinoma: A form of ovarian cancer.
  • Labor Pain: Pain that occurs during active childbirth.
  • Labor, Premature: Labor that occurs before the pregnancy has reached full term i.e. before the 37th week of pregnancy. The degree of prematurity will determine the outcome of the infant.
  • Lactotroph adenoma: A benign pituitary tumor that secretes excessive prolactin which can affect the functioning of the reproductive system - testes and ovaries. The tumor may also grow large enough to compress adjacent structures such as the eye nerves.
  • Leiomyomatosis, Esophagogastric and Vulvar: A rare condition where a tumor develops in the esophagus and vulva. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
  • Listeriosis of pregnancy: Listeria monocytogenes infection in pregnant women.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ: The hollow glands or lobules where milk accumulates in the breast sometimes fill with abnormal ("atypical") cells. This is a precancerous condition and does not directly lead to breast cancer.
  • Locally advanced breast cancer:
  • MRKH syndrome: A syndrome characterized mainly by the failure of the uterus and most of the upper vagina to develop during the fetal stage. Females tend to develop secondary sexual characteristics with functioning ovaries but don't menstruate.
  • Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor: A rare malignant cancer that develops in the uterus, ovary or fallopian tubes. The tumor contains epithelial and stromal cells. The cancer may be slow-growing or aggressive and may metastasize.
  • Malouf syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart disease as well as abnormal ovaries.
  • Mammary polyadenomatosis: A breast condition characterized by multiple benign breast lumps (fibroadenomas).
  • Masculinisation: Increased male physical appearance in females
  • Mastitis: Infected breast common in nursing mothers
  • Maternal death: The death of a mother
  • Maternal hyperphenylalaninemia: A rare disorder where a mother suffering from phenylketonuria during pregnancy can result in various birth abnormalities.
  • Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser, syndrome, type 2 (MRKH type 2): A rare developmental disorder occurring only in females and characterized by skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities and small stature.
  • Menarche: The beginning of a females menstrual function
  • Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Menorrhagia: Excessive menstrual bleeding
  • Menstrual conditions: Any condition that is associated with the female menstrual cycle
  • Menstrual cramps: A condition caused by menstruation in females which results in a cramp like pain
  • Menstruation: The passage of blood and uterine tissue through the vagina cyclically
  • Metastatic breast cancer: Metastatic breast cancer is the term used to describe cancer that has spread from the original site in the breast to other organs or tissues in the body.
  • Metrorrhagia: Uterine bleeding that does not occur during the normal menstrual cycle. It can be caused by such things as hormonal abnormalities and tumors.
  • Miscarriage: Loss of fetus without human interference
  • Mittelschmerz: Mid-cycle abdominal pain due to ovulation
  • Morning sickness: Pregnancy-related nausea or vomiting, usually in mornings.
  • Mullerian Aplasia -- Renal Aplasia -- Cervicothoracic Somite Dysplasia: A rare developmental disorder occurring only in females and characterized by skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities and small stature.
  • Mullerian aplasia: A birth defect involving the absence of the uterus, cervix and top part of the vagina but normal external genitals and ovarian function. Secondary sexual characteristics generally develop normally but menstruation is absent.
  • Myoma (fibroid): A benign tumour of the muscle in the wall of the uterus.
  • Neonatal ovarian cyst: A rare cyst that develops in the lower abdomen of a female fetus.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: A rare form of cervical cancer which tends to be quite aggressive.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, during pregnancy: A cancer that originates in the lymphatic system and occurs during pregnancy. The greatest problem is the fact that the cancer is usually quite aggressive and delays in delivery often results in delayed treatment and a poor prognosis.
  • OHSS: Excessive stimulation of the ovaries that usually occurs as a complication of in vitro fertilization but may also occur spontaneously. The degree of excessive ovarian stimulation may vary from mild to severe.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder -- Postpartum: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a behavioural disorder involving obsessive thoughts and compulsive acts. Postpartum OCD represents one form of manifestation of OCD and involves the development compulsive and/or obsessive thoughts or behaviors. For example, a new mother may fear contamination of the baby and spend excessive amounts of time cleaning items associated with the infant. Stress is a significant trigger for OCD and the postpartum period is often overwhelming, especially if the mother has insufficient support or coping strategies in place. Hormones are also believed to play a part in the development of postpartum OCD. Patients who already suffer OCD may suffer an exacerbation of symptoms in the postpartum period.
  • Obstetrical conditions: Any condition that occurs during the process of being pregnant or delivering a baby
  • Oligodontia and polycystic ovarian syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of missing teeth and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  • Oligohydramnios: A deficiency in the amount of amniotic fluid in the gestational sac during pregnancy
  • Oligomenorrhea: A medical term that refers to light or infrequent menstrual periods. The condition can be caused by a number of disorders including Graves disease, thyrotoxicosis or a pituitary tumor.
  • Oophoritis: Ovary inflammation
  • Osteoporosis: Bone thinning and weakening from bone calcium depletion.
  • Osteosclerosis -- ichthyosis -- premature ovarian failure: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by increased bone density, scaly skin and premature menopause.
  • Osteosclerosis with ichthyosis and premature ovarian failure: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by increased bone density, scaly skin and premature menopause.
  • Osteosclerosis with ichtyhosis and premature ovarian failure:
  • Ovarian Cancer: Cancer of the ovaries.
  • Ovarian carcinosarcoma: A type of ovarian cancer.
  • Ovarian cysts: Cysts occurring in the ovaries.
  • Ovarian epithelial cancer: Development of cancer in the tissue of the outer covering of the ovaries.
  • Ovarian germ cell malignant tumor: Development of cancer in the tissue of the eggs (germ cells) in the ovaries.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumor: Development of cancer in the tissue of the eggs (germ cells) in the ovaries.
  • Ovarian insufficiency due to FSH resistance: A rare disorder where the ovaries fail to function normally as they are unable to respond to follicle stimulating hormones.
  • Ovarian insufficiency, familial: A rare inherited disorder where the ovaries fail to function normally despite normal levels of hormones that stimulate ovarian activity. Ovarian failure is a normal phase of aging and is associated with menopause but it is termed ovarian insufficiency when it occurs in a female under the age of 40.
  • Ovarian low malignant potential tumor: An ovarian tumor that may or may not become malignant.
  • Ovarian remnant syndrome: A rare condition where ovarian tissue is left in the pelvic cavity following the removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes causes pelvic pain. The tissue that is left behind can form cysts which can enlarge and pull on nearby adhesions causing pain. Pain can also occur when remaining ovarian tissue produces hormones that stimulate endometriosis.
  • Ovarioleukodystrophy: A rare syndrome characterized by ovarian failure and degeneration of the brain white matter which causes mental and motor problems.
  • Ovary conditions: Any condition that affects a female ovary
  • PID-like dyspareunia: Pain during sexual intercourse.
  • PUPPPS: Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Infection of the womb and fallopian tubes.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease like abdominal pain: it is a lower central abdominal pain.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease like symptoms: The main symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease include diarrhoea, fever and abdominal pain.
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease-like abdominal symptoms: The main abdominal symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease include diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain.
  • Perimenopause: The start of onset of menopause
  • Persistent sexual arousal syndrome: A sexual disorder where genital arousal in females continues even though there is no real interest in sex. Patients can find the condition very traumatic as even orgasm does nothing to alleviate the symptoms.
  • Placenta conditions: Any condition that affects the placenta
  • Placenta previa: Misplaced placenta covering the cervix
  • Placental-site gestational trophoblastic tumor: A rare condition where cancer develops in the uterine muscle and in the site that the placenta was attached. The tumor forms after ectopic pregnancies, abortions or even following a normal delivery.
  • Polycystic ovarian disease, familial: A rare familial condition characterized by menstrual abnormalities, excessive growth of hair, obesity and infertility.
  • Polycystic ovaries urethral sphincter dysfunction: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of polycystic ovaries with the abnormal functioning of the urinary valve.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 5% of all women.
  • Polyhydramnios: Excess amniotic fluid around a fetus in the womb. The condition may occur as a result of gastrointestinal, neurological, lung or other disorders. Mild cases are asymptomatic but more severe cases can result in problems for the mother and the baby.
  • Postmenopausal osteoporosis: Type 1 osteoporosis is caused by a lack of estrogen, the main female hormone.
  • Postpartum Eclampsia: Postpartum eclampsia is the development of seizures or coma in pregnant women suffering from high blood pressure. Postpartum means that it soon after the delivery. Eclampsia is a serious condition which requires urgent medical treatment. Eclampsia may be associated with moderate as well as significant increases in blood pressure.
  • Postpartum haemorrhage: The loss of blood by the mother after delivery of her child
  • Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after childbirth delivery
  • Postpartum hyperthyroidism: Postpartum thyroiditis is a postpartum condition that results in temporary hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism.
  • Postpartum hypothyroidism: Postpartum hypothyroidism is a relatively common disorder that has previously been unrecognized and untreated. Although symptoms are temporary and usually mild, most women are relieved to learn that their symptoms are not all in their heads, that they are not "losing their minds," that they don't have a life-threatening disease, and that there are inexpensive, effective treatments to relieve their discomfort.
  • Pre-invasive breast cancer:
  • Pregnancy: The condition of supporting a fetus from conception till birth.
  • Pregnancy toxemia /hypertension: Preeclampsia is the development of high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine and swelling during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Pregnancy-related conditions: Any condition that is related to or caused by pregnancy
  • Premature Birth: Early delivery of a fetus (before 37th week).
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 1: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 1 is linked to a genetic anomaly on chromosome Xq26-q28.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 2: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 2 is linked to a genetic anomaly on chromosome Xq13.3-q21.1.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 2A: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 2A is linked to a defect in the DIAPH2 gene on chromosome Xq22.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 2B: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 2B is linked to a defect in the POF2B gene on chromosome Xq21.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 3: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 3 is linked to a genetic anomaly on chromosome 3q23.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 4: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 4 is linked to a genetic anomaly on chromosome Xp11.2.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 5: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 5 is linked to a genetic anomaly on chromosome 7q35.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure 6: A condition where menopause occurs earlier than normal due to premature loss of function of the ovaries. Premature menopause refers to menopause occurring before the age of 40 years with the average age of menopause occurring about the age of 50 years. Type 6 is linked to a genetic anomaly on chromosome 2p12.
  • Premature ovarian failure, familial: A familial condition where menopause tends to occur before the fourth decade -average age of onset of menopause is about 50 years of age.
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a diagnosis used to indicate serious premenstrual distress with associated deterioration in functioning.
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Condition with cyclic symptoms related to menstruation.
  • Primary Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation which is not associated with pelvic pathology
  • Primary Fallopian Tube Cancer: A cancer that originates in the fallopian tubes which form part of the female reproductive organs. This type of cancer is relatively uncommon.
  • Primary amenorrhea: Never starting menstruation at puberty
  • Primary osteoporosis: There are two primary kinds of osteoporosis: type I osteoporosis and type II osteoporosis. The determining factor for the actual existence of osteoporosis, whether type I or type II, is the amount of calcium left in the skeleton and whether it places a person at risk for fracture.
  • Proliferating trichilemmal cyst: A rare form of ulcerating, benign tumor that generally occurs on the back of the head in older women and arises from a hair follicle. Rarely, the growth can occur on other parts of the body.
  • Pruritic urticarial papules plaques of pregnancy: A very rare skin disorder that affects women in the later stages of pregnancy. Itchy, bumpy hives and plaques develop usually on the abdominal area.
  • Puerperal disorders: Conditions that affect a woman after the delivery of a child
  • Puerperal fever: Delayed uterine infection after childbirth
  • Puerperal psychosis: An acute mental illness which occurs to a mother following childbirth
  • Renon-Delille syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by reduced function of the thyroid and ovaries and enlarged hands and feet.
  • Retroverted uterus: The tipping back in the position of the uterus in the female pelvis
  • Reynolds syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by scleroderma (hardened skin) and liver cirrhosis.
  • Rh Disease: A disease that can occur when the mother's blood is not compatible with the fetal blood i.e. when an Rh-negative mother had a Rh-positive child. If the baby's blood is exposed to the mother's blood (through placenta, abortion, miscarriage, amniocentesis) the mother's body becomes sensitized and develops antibodies the Rh-positive blood. In future pregnancies, the mother's antibodies can attack the red blood cells of the unborn baby resulting in hemolytic disease. The severity of the disease is variable and can range from mild fetal anemia to severe anemia and even fetal death.
  • Rhesus isoimmunisation: The antibody mediated destruction of red blood cells by those sensitive
  • Rokitansky sequence: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by the absence of various internal reproductive structures.
  • Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: A rare condition characterized by absence of the vagina and uterine abnormalities.
  • Salpingitis: Inflammation of the fallopian tubes
  • Secondary Dysmenorrhea: Menstrual-like cramping (dysmenorrhea) from an underlying condition.
  • Secondary Fallopian Tube Cancer: A cancer that originates in some other part of the body and metastasizes to the fallopian tubes which form part of the female reproductive organs. This type of cancer is relatively uncommon.
  • Semen allergy: An allergic reaction to the semen of a sexual partner. The reaction may be localized or systemic.
  • Separated Rectus Abdominal Muscles: When there is separation of the rectus abdominal muscles
  • Septic abortion: An abortion associated with a uterine infection. The infection can occur during or just before or after an abortion. The infection can result from factors such as Chlamydia, IUD's or attempted abortion using infected tools.
  • Sheehan Syndrome: A rare condition that occurs in women who suffer a severe uterine hemorrhage during childbirth. The resulting blood loss may damage the pituitary gland and result in hypopituitarism.
  • Stampe-Sorensen syndrome: A rare uterine abnormality which affects fertility in women.
  • Stretch marks: Skin marks from skin stretching
  • Supine hypotensive syndrome: Reduced blood pressure that can occur in women who lie down on their back which causes the uterus to compress the vena cava.
  • Thrush: Thrush is a fungal infection which is caused by a fungus from the Candida species. It usually affects the mucus membranes of the mouth and vagina. Occasionally the infection can spread throughout the body and cause severe illness.
  • Transplacental infections: An infection that passes from the mother to the fetus via the placenta. A large variety of infections can occur like this and the type and severity of symptoms can vary greatly depending on the type of infection and the stage of fetal development at which infection occurs. Examples of transplacental infections include cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, hepatitis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis and rubella.
  • Trophoblastic Cancer: A neoplastic disorder that originates in the placenta
  • Tubal ligation syndrome: A complication that can occur after sterilization using tubal ligation in females.
  • Turner Syndrome: Rare chromosome syndrome with one X but no second X or Y chromosome.
  • Unusual facies, renal and Mullerian hypoplasia and severe somatic and mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by underdeveloped kidneys and Mullerian structures, unusual facial appearance and severe somatic and mental retardation.
  • Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the uterus.
  • Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the uterus. Often occurs as a complication of childbirth or fibroids. The severity of the condition depends on the amount and rate of blood loss.
  • Uterine compression syndrome: Compression of blood vessels in the pelvis by the enlarged uterus in women who are in the late stages of pregnancy. Symptoms tend to worse during standing.
  • Uterine fibroids: Benign nodules in the uterus wall.
  • Uterine leiomyoma: A condition which is characterized by a benign tumour of the uterus derived from smooth muscle
  • Uterine prolapse: Prolapse of the uterus into the wrong position
  • Uterine sarcoma: A rare type of cancer that occurs in the uterus or associated tissues. A sarcoma is a cancer that involves soft tissue and connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle and blood vessels.
  • Uterus conditions: Any condition that affects the female uterus
  • Vagina cancer: Cancer of the vagina.
  • Vagina conditions: Any condition that affects the female vagina
  • Vagina, absence of: A condition characterised by the absence of a vagina at birth
  • Vaginal Dryness: Vaginal dryness interfering with sex.
  • Vaginal atresia: A birth defect where the vagina is blocked off to varying degrees. It is often associated with syndromes such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Fraser syndrome and Rokitansky-Mayer-Juster-Hauser syndrome.
  • Vaginal candidiasis: Fungal infection of the vagina, sometimes called thrush.
  • Vaginal fistula: Fistula between vagina and another cavity
  • Vaginismus: Vaginal entrance muscle spasms triggered by sex
  • Vaginitis: Vaginal inflammation or infection of any type.
  • Vaginosis (bacterial vaginosis): A bacterial infection of the vagina causing offensive discharge.
  • Varicose veins: Enlarged blue veins, usually in the legs.
  • Vesicovaginal fistula: A condition which is characterized by the formation of a fistula which communicates from an internal organ to the vagina
  • Virilising ovarian tumour: A tumour that results in the virilization of females due to hormone release
  • Virilism: Masculinization - enhancement of male secondary sexual characteristics in females such as increased hair growth, deeper voice and baldness.
  • Virilizing ovarian tumor: An ovarian tumor made up of hormone secreting cells which results in excessive male hormone (androgen) production.
  • Vulva cancer: Cancer of the skin of the vulval area.
  • Vulvar Diseases: Any disease that involves the vulva which is a part of the female genitalia. Diseases can include cancer or fungal, bacterial or viral infections. Symptoms and prognosis will vary depending on the disease process involved.
  • Vulvar cancer: Cancer (malignant) that develops in the tissue of the vulva.
  • Vulvar lesions: A condition which is characterized lesions which occur on the vulva
  • Vulvar neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the tissue of the vulva.
  • Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: The inflammation of the opening of the vagina.
  • Vulvitis: Vulval skin inflammation
  • Vulvodynia: painful or uncomfortable vulva (external female genitalia) from any cause
  • Vulvovaginal gingival syndrome: A skin disease that affects the mucous membranes as well as the skin. It is a severe form of erosive lichen planus that causes peeling or erosion of the mucous membranes of the vulva, vagina and gums. Not all of these sites are necessarily involved.
  • Vulvovaginitis: Irritation or inflammation of the vulva or vagina. The condition is very common in young girls and can be triggered by moisture, tight clothing, obesity and irritants such as soap.
  • Wolffian tumor: A tumour which arises from the embryonic duct of the mesonephros
  • Women's health symptoms: Symptoms related to women's health.
  • XY female: A person who has a chromosome composition of 46 XY and who is phenotypically female
  • Yusho disease: A condition that affects the menstrual cycle of female as well as having effects on the immune system

 

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