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Glossary for Acute tubular necrosis

  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder where an enzyme (2, 8-dihydroxyadenine) deficiency results in urinary tract stone formation.
  • Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated disease: A kidney disorder involving varying degrees of kidney impairment. Severe cases lead to kidney failure whereas mild cases have normal kidney function.
  • Bright's Disease: A condition where the parts of the kidneys that are responsible for filtering become inflamed and results in blood and proteins accidentally leaking into the urine. The condition can occur after certain infections and serious kidney dysfunction can result in severe or chronic complications.
  • Dehydration: Loss of fluids in the body
  • Diphtheria: Infectious bacterial respiratory disease
  • Eclampsia: Fits (seizures) from severe high blood pressure in pregnant women.
  • Erythroderma: Condition with thickening and flaking skin
  • Hantavirus: A genus of viruses from the family Bunyaviridae
  • Heatstroke: Heat exhaustion and collapse from heat exposure
  • Hyperkalaemia: Increased concentration of potassium in the blood.
  • Hypernatraemia: increased concentration of sodium in the blood
  • Hyperphosphataemia: An increased level of phosphate in the circulation above that which is considered normal
  • Hypocalcaemia: Decreased concentration of calcium in the blood.
  • Interstitial nephritis: A condition which is characterized by disease of the renal interstitial tissue
  • Leptospirosis: Bacterial infection usually caught from animal urine.
  • Malignant hypertension: A condition which is characterized by a severe hypertensive state with papilledema and vascular hemorrhagic lesions
  • Metabolic Acidosis: Decreased blood pH not due to changes in respiration; due to changes in blood biochemical processes causing increased generation of acid, loss of alkali in diarrhoea, failure to eliminate acid via kidneys or ingestion of acid in poisoning.
  • Parrotfish poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some parrotfish from the Philippines and Singapore region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated parrotfish.
  • Pericarditis: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
  • Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis: Kidney complication (glomerulonephritis) following streptococcal infection
  • Preeclampsia: High blood pressure problems in second half of pregnancy.
  • Renal Artery Stenosis: An abnormal narrowing of the renal artery which is the main artery the supplies the kidney.
  • Rhabdomyolysis: Skeletal muscle injury or death, which releases muscle fibres into the blood.
  • Septic shock: serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis, though the microbe may be systemic or localized to a particular site
  • Shock: Severe condition from reduced blood circulation
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome: Severe immune reaction causing shock
  • Toxic mushrooms - cyclopeptides: Some mushrooms contain a toxic chemical called cyclopeptide which can cause primarily gastrointestinal symptoms if ingested. Most cases of mushroom poisoning in North America involve cyclopeptide-containing mushrooms. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Amanita (bisporigera, ocreata, phalloides, suballiacea, tenufolia, verna, virosa), Galerina and Lepiota. One Amanita mushroom cap may result in death in an adult. Poisoning occurs in three phases: gastrointestinal symptoms (within 24 hours of ingestion); remission (up to 72 hours after ingestion); and liver and kidney symptoms (3 to 6 days after ingestion). Poisoning symptoms are more severe in children due to their smaller body size.
  • Tumor lysis syndrome: Metabolic abnormalities that can occur when chemotherapy drugs rapidly destroy tumor cells.
  • Weight Gain: An increase in weight for any reason.
  • Weight loss: Loss of body weight.


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