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Diseases » Anxiety disorders » Glossary

Glossary for Anxiety disorders

  • ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. The related description Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a more modern description of the disease.

    Misdiagnosis of ADD is a well-known controversy in the sense that cases of hyperactivity in children may be over-diagnosed. There is a tendency for parents to seek and doctors to prescribe the drug Ritalin even in cases where the diagnosis of ADD or ADHD may be incorrect. Alternative diagnoses include normal child behavior (i.e. just an active child), food intolerances, or other behavioral disorders (see misdiagnosis of ADD).

    On the other hand, ADD is under-diagnosed in adults, with a large number of adults having ADD without knowing it; see misdiagnosis of Adult ADD.

  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Adjustment Disorder: This is a maladaptive reaction to identifiable stress
  • Adolescent conditions: Symptoms that are evident due to puberty
  • Adult ADHD: Adult ADHD, (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder with an onset in childhood that continues into adulthood. Children do not simply grow out of ADHD, as is often believed. Just the opposite is commonly true - the symptoms of ADHD often get worse as a child grows into adulthood. The predominant behaviors of adult ADHD are the same as in children and include:
    • Inattentiveness
    • Hyperactivity
    • Impulsivity

    These behaviors result in difficulties with:

    • Concentration
    • Remaining focused on a task or activity
    • Controlling behavior
    • Hyperactivity or over-activity

    The symptoms of adult ADHD can be treated, but there currently is no cure for the disorder. Most people with ADHD can be successfully treated and lead normal, productive lives at home, work, school and with friends and family. The cause or causes of ADHD are not yet known, although researchers believe that genes may be one factor in the development of the disease. It is most likely that the disorder is the result of a combination of elements, including environmental factors, traumatic head injuries, nutrition, and social influences.

  • Alcohol Withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when alcohol consumption is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The symptoms are variable depending on the disorder involved. Some of the disorders are: alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, alcohol intoxication delirium, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol-induced persisting dementia, alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder, alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, alcohol-induced mood disorder, alcohol-induced anxiety disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, alcohol-induced sleep disorder, liver damage, liver cancer and esophageal cancer.
  • Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension, and fear without apparent stimulus that is associated sometime with somatic responses
  • Anxiety attack: Sudden onset of extreme anxiety
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral disorder with hyperactivity and/or inattention.
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Bipolar disorder/cyclothymic disorder/hypomania:
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Mental condition with behavioral and emotional problems.
  • Chest pain: Pain in the chest area.
  • Chronic pain: Ongoing pain of any type
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Dry mouth: A condition characterized by the sensation of a dry mouth
  • Dysthymia/seasonal depression disorder, PND:
  • Emotional disorders: A disorder of emotions
  • Gulf War syndrome: Syndrome in military veterans of the Gulf war
  • Headache: In medicine a headache or cephalalgia is a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and sometimes neck. Some of the causes are benign while others are medical emergencies. It ranks among the most common pain complaints
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hyperventilation: Excessively rapid breathing causing blood gas imbalances
  • Hypochondriasis: A disorder characterised by a preoccupation with normal bodily functions as abnormalities
  • Injury: Any damage inflicted in the body
  • Irritable bowel syndrome: Spasms in the colon wall
  • Mental illness: Any psychological syndrome
  • Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Mild brain injury caused by trauma, accident or injury
  • Nausea: The queasy feeling of nausea and often also vomiting.
  • Neurosis: Variety of mental disorders with self-awareness
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Behavioral disorder with obsessive thoughts and compulsive acts.
  • Over-diagnosed conditions: Any condition that is diagnosed to excess even though the patient may not have the condition
  • Pain Disorder: Somatoform disorder causing pain
  • Palpitations: The subjective sensation of the beating of the heart at a rapid or irregular rate
  • Panic disorder: It is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood.
  • Parkinson disease 7, autosomal recessive, early-onset: A recessively inherited form of Parkinson's disease caused by a mutation in the DJ1 gene on chromosome 1p36. Disease progression tends to be slow.
  • Personality disorders: A group of psychiatric disorders that are characterised but abnormal dysfunctional personalities
  • Premenstrual syndrome: Condition with cyclic symptoms related to menstruation.
  • Psychiatric disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychological disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Shortness of breath: The feeling of being short of breath
  • Somatoform Disorders: A disorder that is characterised by multiple somatic complaints
  • Stress: Emotional stress (sometimes refers to physical stress)
  • Undifferentiated Somatoform disorder: A disorder which is characterised by one or more physical complaints that are not intentionally produced or feigned
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome: A genetic disorder which can present with a wide range of phenotypic manifestations which has lead to a number of different names being assigned to the various presentations e.g. DiGeorge Syndrome and Cayler Anomaly Face Syndrome. There are nearly 200 different symptoms that can occur and the severity of the condition is also highly variable depending on the nature and severity of the symptoms that are present.
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • White coat hypertension: White coat hypertension is a term used to describe a condition where patients have increased blood pressure readings when measured in a clinical setting such as a doctor's office. Blood pressure readings taken in the home environment while the patient is relaxed are normal. The underlying cause is believed to be tension and anxiety associated with visiting health professionals such as general practitioners. A significant number of patients with this condition eventually develop true hypertension.
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.


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