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Diseases » Aphasia » Glossary

Glossary for Aphasia

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy: A rare disorder which has characteristic symptoms of Addison disease (adrenocortical insufficiency) and Schilder disease (cerebral sclerosis). Bronze skin, brain sclerosis and demyelination are the main symptoms.
  • Alzheimer's Disease: Dementia-causing brain disease mostly in seniors and the elderly.
  • Aphasia, Broca: A language disorder that originates from damage or maldevelopment to the part of the brain known as Broca's area. Other parts of the brain may also be affected.
  • Aphasia-epilepsy, acquired: A rare childhood neurological disorder characterized by aphasia, epileptic seizures and inability to recognize sounds. The symptoms may develop quickly or gradually.
  • Apraxia: A neurological disorder where the sufferer is unable to perform familiar actions such as tying shoelaces even though they understand the action required.
  • Benign astrocytoma: Benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity depends on the location and size of the tumors.
  • Bleeding in the brain: A condition which is characterized by the abnormal loss of blood from blood vessels located in the brain
  • Brain abscess: Pus accumulating into an abscess on the brain
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Brain damage: Damage to the brain from various causes
  • Brain infection: Infection of the brain including encephalitis
  • California encephalitis: An uncommon mosquito born virus (California encephalitis virus) which can cause brain inflammation in humans. The severity of symptoms is variable. The incubation period can last from a few days to a week. Infants and children tend to be more severely affected than adults who sometimes have no obvious symptoms.
  • Cerebral Aneurysm: Dangerous swelling of a brain blood vessel that may rupture.
  • Cerebrovascular accident: Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted and results in cell injury and death.
  • Chronic Alcoholism -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that chronic alcoholism during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cognitive impairment: General loss of mental or cognitive ability
  • Continuous spike-wave during slow sleep syndrome: A rare form of epilepsy that occurs between the ages of 3 and 7 and is diagnosed by the observation through an EEG of continuous spike and wave discharges during the slow sleep phase which is detected. The seizures often occur during sleep. Children outgrow the condition before adulthood but some of the effects of the disorder may continue longer.
  • Dementia: Various mental impairment conditions.
  • Difficulty speaking: Where one has a problem with communicating through speech
  • Dysphasia: Dysphasia refers to difficulty swallowing.
  • Epilepsy: Brain condition causing seizures or spasms.
  • Flunitrazepam -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Flunitrazepam during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Gerstmann Syndrome: A rare neurological disorder involving symptoms such as inability to distinguish between right and left, inability to put thoughts to paper and inability to calculate simple math problems. The condition may be a developmental problem or a brain injury.
  • Gerstmann's Syndrome: Brain defect causing various cognitive problems.
  • Granulomatous Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The condition tends to recur.
  • Guam disease: A nerve degeneration disorder that occurs particularly in Guam and involves progressive dementia and parkinsonism which ultimately leads to death.
  • Head injury: An injury to the head
  • Hemiplegic migraine, familial type 2: A rare inherited form of migraine that characteristically causes temporary paralysis on one side of the body and involves the presence of an aura. A migraine episode may be triggered by minimal trauma to the head. The severity of the disorder is variable with some patients experiencing problems for days. Triggers include tiredness, heat, stress and head injury.
  • Hemoglobin S/hemoglobin Lepore, Boston: A blood disorder that mainly causes hemolytic anemia with great variability of symptoms.
  • Hemoglobin S/hemoglobin O, Arab: A genetic blood anomaly which causes severe hemolytic anemia, fever, pain, cramping and excessive bleeding.
  • Hemoglobin SC: A genetic blood disorder where the patient inherits a gene for hemoglobin S from one parent and hemoglobin C from another. Severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Sassafras Oil: Sassafras Oil can be used as a herbal agent to treat skin irritation such as insect bites. The herbal agent contains a chemical called safrole which can cause harmful effects if ingested .
  • Katayama fever: An acute disease due to infection with Schistosoma parasites. Transmission can occur through contact with infected waters.
  • Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: A neurological disorder which results in aphasia, epileptic seizures and inability to recognize sounds.
  • Language problems: Symptoms affecting language processing.
  • Lissauer paralysis: Diffuse degeneration of one side of the cerebral cortex which causes dementia, weakness and seizures.
  • MASA Syndrome: A very rare inherited disorders characterized by mental retardation (M), aphasia (A), shuffling walk (S) and adducted thumbs (A). The symptoms are variable from case to case but mental retardation is a consistent feature.
  • MN1: A rare genetic defect that can cause meningiomas to develop. A meningioma is a tumor of the meninges which is a membrane that encloses the brain and spinal cord The genetic defect occurs on chromosome 22. The tumor is usually slow-growing and benign.
  • Meningioma: A slow-growing tumor of the meninges that is not cancerous. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked syndromic 12: A syndromic form of mental retardation which also involves mutism, retarded growth, seizures and frequent infections. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms. The genetic defect is located on chromosome Xp11.
  • Mental retardation, X-linked, 12: A rare form of mental retardation inherited in a X-linked manner. It occurs as a result of a defect on chromosome Xp11.
  • Migraine: Chronic recurring headaches with or without a preceding aura.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Muscle phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency: An inherited genetic muscle disease where an enzyme deficiency (phosphoglycerate kinase) affects the normal processes that convert carbohydrates from food into energy.
  • Nielsen-Jacobs syndrome: A rare condition where damage to the part of the brain called the cingulated gyri results in agnosia, apraxia and aphasia. The cingulated gyri is responsible for emotions, memory, learning and processing skills.
  • Parkinson's Disease: Degenerative brain condition characterised by tremor.
  • Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: Inflammation of blood vessels that affect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). There are three main types within this category: benign angiitis of the central nervous system (BACNS), granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system (GACNS) and atypical primary angiitis of the central nervous system (atypical ACNS). Symptoms vary depending on which particular type is involved and which part of the central nervous system is involved.
  • Pseudotumoral form of multiple sclerosis: Pseudotumoral form of multiple sclerosis is a very rare form of multiple sclerosis.
  • Psychological disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Radiation induced meningioma: A type of brain tumor caused by exposure of the head region to radiation. Radiation is often used to treat a number of conditions, particularly cancer. The tumor can develop years or even decades after the exposure. Symptoms are determined by the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Rasmussen subacute encephalitis: A very rare progressive brain disease possibly caused by immune system problems. Symptoms become progressively worse and then the condition often stabilizes with a long life possible despite permanent neurological damage.
  • Rasmussen's Encephalitis: Rare possibly-autoimmune brain condition.
  • Red Whelk poisoning: Red Whelk are colorful, carnivorous snail found mainly in Britain and Japan. The salivary gland of some whelks contains tetramine which can cause symptoms in humans if eaten. Raw, cooked or canned whelk can cause poisoning. Red whelk have the highest concentration of toxins in the summer. Whelk is often used as fish bait.
  • Schilder's Disease: Rare nerve myelin condition.
  • Seizures -- intellectual deficit due to hydroxylysinuria: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, seizures and high levels of hydroxylysine in the urine.
  • Speech and communication conditions: Medical conditions affecting speech or the ability to communicate.
  • Speech symptoms: Problems with speech or voice.
  • Stroke: Serious brain event from bleeding or blood clots.
  • Takayasu arteritis: A rare disorder involving inflammation of large elastic arteries including the aorta which impairs blood flow to the upper body.
  • Temazepam -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Temazepam during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain injury from trauma or accident.
  • Tropical Reef Crab poisoning: The tropical reef crab is commonly found and eaten in the Indo-Pacific region. These crabs can contain toxic chemicals which can cause severe poisoning in humans if eaten. The best way to avoid poisoning is to not eat these crabs at all.
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by poliosis and hair, skin, eye and ear abnormalities as well as retinal detachment and neurological involvement.
  • Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
  • Western/Eastern/California encephalitis: A mosquito born virus transmitted to humans and sometimes horses.
  • Wyburn Mason's syndrome: A rare genetic condition mainly involving enlarged brain blood vessels and skin and eye abnormalities.
  • Wyburn-Mason Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by arteriovenous aneurysms on one or both sides of the brain
  • X-linked hydrocephalus spectrum: A rare genetic disorder characterized by hydrocephalus, short flexed thumbs and mental deficiency.


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