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Diseases » Apnea » Glossary
 

Glossary for Apnea

  • Aberrant subclavian artery abnormality: A rare defect where one the subclavian artery arises from an abnormal location on the aortic arch. The defect may cause compression of organs such as the airway and the voice box.
  • Acid reflux / heartburn:
  • Acute meningitis: Acute meningitis is an inflammation of the brain that presents in an acute fashion. The inflammation may be the result of infective agents such as bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as non-infective agents such as certain drugs. Acute forms of meningitis can develop in within hours or days whereas chronic meningitis develops over weeks or months.
  • Amobarbital -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amobarbital during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Anemia, Neonatal: Insufficient red blood cells that can carry oxygen around the body. It is common in premature births or can occur as a result of blood loss before, during or just after the birth.
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 3: An extremely rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. Type 3 involves the herniation of brain or brain stem tissue out of the back of the neck or head. The condition generally has a poor prognosis.
  • Auriculo-condylar syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by variable ear and jaw abnormalities.
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by macroglossia, omphalocele, macrosomia and ear creases.
  • Brun's syndrome: Various neurological symptoms caused by an obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid with certain head postures. The obstruction is often due to some sort of brain tumor or cyst. Symptoms come and go depending on the position of the head.
  • Campomelic Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by dwarfism due to bowed shin and thigh bones as well as various craniofacial and other skeletal anomalies.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ammonium Chloride: Ammonium Chloride is a chemical used as a medical agent for conditions such as metabolic acidosis, in deodorizer cleaners and also used in industry in fertilizers, electroplating, galvanizing, soldering and in deodorizer cleaners. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Barium: Barium is an element used in fireworks, glassmaking, contrast X-rays and in the electronics industry . The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Camphor: Camphor is a chemical used mainly in moth repellents, pharmaceuticals (preservative) cosmetics, explosives, varnishes and various therapeutic applications. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Pepper Spray: Pepper Spray is a chemical used mainly in riot control. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Pyrimidifen: Pyrimidifen is a chemical used mainly as an insecticide and acaricide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Strychnine: Strychnine is used as a rodenticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide: Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide is a chemical used mainly in the production of a variety of electronic components. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Vinyl Choride: Vinyl Choride is an intermediate chemical used in the manufacturing process of a variety of products: polyvinyl chloride, pipes, wire coverings, vehicle plastics, rubber, paper, furniture and glass. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Child health conditions: Any medical conditions typically afflicting children.
  • Chromosome 13 trisomy syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of chromosome 13 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. Most die within months and there are few survivors after 10 years.
  • Chromosome 22 trisomy mosaic: A rare chromosomal disorder where three copies of chromosome 22 are present in some of the body's cells instead of the normal two. Severity of symptoms is determined by how many cells have the extra chromosomal material.
  • Chromosome 4, Monosomy 4q: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1F: Congenital disorders of glycosylation is a group of very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type IF is caused by a defect on chromosome 17p13.1-p12 and involves a defect on the MPDU1 gene.
  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2B: A very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type 2B has glucosidase I enzyme defect.
  • Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 1: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters.
  • Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 3: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q23-q24.3.
  • Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 4: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.12-p35.1.
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Decreased oxygen saturation: decreased amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium
  • Deletion 5p: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of the genetic material from the short arm (p) of chromosome 5 which results in various abnormalities. The resulting condition is often called Cri-du-Chat Syndrome and features may vary somewhat depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Disopyramide toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Eucalyptus Oil poisoning: Eucalyptus oil can be used for medicinal purposes but excessive ingestion can cause problems. Likewise, eating the leaves of the eucalyptus plant (very unlikely) can also cause poisoning symptoms.
  • Fatigue conditions: Medical conditions causing or characterized by fatigue (extreme tiredness or weakness).
  • Funnel Web spider poisoning: The funnel web spider is a poisonous spider found mainly in Australia and America. The venom is toxic to the nervous system. There are two phases of poisoning - the first phase starts soon after envenomation and may result in death in severe cases. The second phase occurs one or two hours after envenomation where patients may recover somewhat but symptoms such as apnea and low blood pressure may develop.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Repeated reflux of stomach acid into the throat.
  • Gaucher disease -- perinatal lethal form: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of abnormally tight skin and Gaucher disease which is a lipid storage disease. This is the most severe form of Gaucher disease.
  • Hyperglycinemia: Increased blood levels of glycine. There are two types of hyperglycinemia (ketotic and nonketotic) with different symptoms.
  • Hypertension in children under one year: Hypertension in children under one year is a condition in which a child under the age of one year has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Idiopathic alveolar hypoventilation syndrome: A rare condition characterized by a reduced breathing rate despite no respiratory system abnormalities. The cause of the condition is unknown.
  • Inborn amino acid metabolism disorder: A group of inherited disorders where the body is not able to metabolize amino acids consumed in the diet. Amino acids are a part of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and are metabolized in order to provide energy or to make other needed compounds. There are many steps involved in metabolism and the severity can be greatly variable depending on the exact nature of the disorder.
  • Infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis, familial: A very rare inherited syndrome characterized mainly by convulsions during infancy and choreoathetosis which can occur randomly or be triggered by certain stimuli such as exercise.
  • Joubert Syndrome: A rare neurological disorder where there is a defect in the part of the brain that controls coordination and balance.
  • Leukoencephalopathy, arthritis, colitis, and hypogammaglobulinema: A rare condition characterized by the association of arthritis, colitis, low blood gammaglobulin levels and brain anomalies.
  • Leukomalacia: Softening or destruction of the white matter of the brain. Brain tissue that surrounds fluid-filled parts of the brain (ventricles) is destroyed. It tends to occur mainly in premature or newborn babies who have been deprived of oxygen or have poor blood flow to parts of the brain. Intrauterine infections and premature membrane rupture tend to predispose infants to this condition. This type of brain destruction can cause cerebral palsy. Severity of symptoms varies according to the degree of injury to the brain.
  • Malformations in neuronal migration: A rare disorder where the brain fails to develop normally - usually the cerebral cortex is involved. Various parts of the brain can be affected to various degrees depending on what stage of development the defect occurs. Mental retardation is one of the most common symptoms associated with brain malformations.
  • Metabolic disorders: Disorders that affect the metabolic system in human
  • Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism types 1 and 3: Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism types 1 and 3 were originally regarded as separate conditions but it was recently concluded that they were different expressions of the same condition. The main differences between the two forms is a difference in the radiological bone anomalies. The condition is characterized mainly by bone abnormalities, short stature and a small head.
  • Multiple pterygium syndrome: A very rare disorder characterized by webbing of various parts of the body, contractures, short stature, fusion of neck vertebrae and facial anomalies.
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis: A rare disease that is tends to occur in premature infants and involves inflammation and destruction of gastrointestinal tissue. It usually occurs within weeks of birth - often after the start of milk feeding. The condition can be extremely serious and even fatal.
  • Neonatal bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis that occurs in an infant under 3 months of age. Bacterial meningitis is a bacterial brain infection.
  • Neonatal sepsis: Bacterial blood infection in an infant under 3 months of age.
  • Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia: A rare disorder of amino acid metabolism where glycine and proline are unable to be metabolized properly due to defects in the glycine cleavage system.
  • Organic acidemia: High blood levels of organic acids which is caused by abnormal protein metabolism. Maple syrup urine disease and propionic academia are examples of organic acidemias. Deficiency of certain metabolic enzymes one of the main causes of organic academia.
  • Paleness: Whitening or pallor of the skin
  • Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease: A disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. The foetal form is one of several forms of Gaucher disease and is the rarest. The fetal form causes death before birth or soon after.
  • Pierre Robin's sequence: A rare genetic disorder characterized by an underdeveloped jaw, cleft soft palate and abnormal tongue location.
  • Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 6: A rare inherited condition where the brainstem and part of the brain (cerebellum) is abnormally small.
  • Pseudoadrenoleukodystrophy: A rare disorder where an enzyme deficiency (Acyl-CoA Oxidase) results in symptoms such as seizures, apnea, delayed psychomotor retardation and neurological deterioration.
  • Rett's syndrome: Autism-like behavioral syndrome in infant girls
  • Septo-Optic Dysplasia: A rare birth defect characterized by impaired vision and pituitary deficiency.
  • Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal bone development and brain and skin abnormalities.
  • Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects ones sleep
  • Streptococcal Group B invasive disease: Infection with bacteria called Group B Streptococcus which can cause severe symptoms or even death. The bacteria occur in the stomach and the urogenital tract of females and are normally harmless and cause no symptoms. However, it can cause a range of diseases in newborns, the elderly and people with poor immune systems.
  • Stuve-Wiedemann dysplasia: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, bowed long bones and permanent flexion of fingers.
  • Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, bowed long bones and permanent flexion of fingers.
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: SIDS is a syndrome marked by the symptoms of sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year.
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by servere breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgent between the lungs and the blood supply.
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 1: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 1 involves a defect in the pulmonary associated surfactant protein B (SFTPB) and due to a genetic anomaly located on chromosome 2p12-11.2.
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 2: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxygen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 2 involves a defect in the pulmonary associated surfactant protein C (SFTPC) and due to a genetic anomaly located on chromosome 8p21.
  • Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 3: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 3 involves a defect on chromosome 16p13.3 which is believed to affect the secretion of surfactant.
  • Tonic seizure: Abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain which results mainly in muscle stiffness and rigidity. Tonic seizures are considered relatively uncommon. They can occur at any age but are more common in childhood. Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or multiple sclerosis are particularly susceptible to this type of seizure. Episodes usually only last for a matter of minutes and recovery can vary from minutes to hours.
  • Trisomy 13 mosaicism: A very rare chromosomal disorder where there is an extra copy of chromosome 13 in some of the body's cells. Some cases with this chromosomal abnormality have no clinical symptoms. The presence of abnormalities in some cases is dependent on which body cells contain the chromosomal defect. There appears to be a direct correlation between the number of cells in the body containing the chromosomal defect and severity of symptoms and survival.
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis
  • Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by an enlarged tongue, omphalocele, excessive birth weight and ear creases.
  • Zanoli-Vecchi syndrome: A complication of spinal surgery where bleeding in the spine causes blood to move into the brain ventricles and results in apnea, convulsions and loss of consciousness.

 

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