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Glossary for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. The related description Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a more modern description of the disease.

    Misdiagnosis of ADD is a well-known controversy in the sense that cases of hyperactivity in children may be over-diagnosed. There is a tendency for parents to seek and doctors to prescribe the drug Ritalin even in cases where the diagnosis of ADD or ADHD may be incorrect. Alternative diagnoses include normal child behavior (i.e. just an active child), food intolerances, or other behavioral disorders (see misdiagnosis of ADD).

    On the other hand, ADD is under-diagnosed in adults, with a large number of adults having ADD without knowing it; see misdiagnosis of Adult ADD.

  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Aarskog Syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by facial, hand, genital and growth abnormalities.
  • Addiction: Any of various addictions to substances or activities.
  • Adverse reaction: A reaction that is not anticipated and detrimentally affects the patient
  • Allergies: Immune system over-reaction to various substances.
  • Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension, and fear without apparent stimulus that is associated sometime with somatic responses
  • Anxiety disorders: Anxiety disorders are persistent and excessive feelings of fear, worry or uneasiness that are significant enough to have an impact on day-to-day life. Excessive anxiety can have repercussions on physical and mental health. There are a number of different subtypes of anxiety disorders such as General anxiety, Social anxiety, Phobias, Hypochondria and Obsessive compulsive disorder.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral disorder with hyperactivity and/or inattention.
  • Auditory Processing Disorder: Failure of the brain to correctly process sound.
  • Behavioral disorders: Disorders affecting behavior and emotional wellbeing
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Child abuse: Physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect of child.
  • Child health conditions: Any medical conditions typically afflicting children.
  • Chromosome 17, trisomy 17p11.2: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm of chromosome 17 is duplicated.
  • Chromosome 2p16.1-p15 Deletion Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a range of manifestations including mental retardation and skull and facial anomalies.
  • Cognitive impairment: General loss of mental or cognitive ability
  • Conduct Disorder: Behavioral disorder with antisocial behaviors
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Drug abuse: Addiction to any of various illicit drugs.
  • Dyslexia: Dyslexia is a name for a condition where people have difficulty with reading and writing. People with dyslexia have normal intelligence and are not in any way mentally retarded or intellectually challenged. The difficulty with certain tasks is believed to be related to problems with perception capability in certain parts of the brain. Researchers have discovered that there are a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to dyslexia.
  • Emotional disorders: A disorder of emotions
  • Emotional symptoms: Symptoms affecting the emotions.
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome: A pattern of mental and physical birth defects caused by excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. The range and severity of the symptoms may vary greatly.
  • Food intolerances: Any inability to tolerate particular foods.
  • Forgetfulness: Forgetting things or loss of memory ability
  • Hearing symptoms: Problems with the ear's hearing ability
  • Hyperactivity: Excessive action and lack of control.
  • Hyperactivity conditions: Medical conditions causing or characterized by hyperactivity.
  • Impulsivity: Lack of impulse control.
  • Inattention: Lack of attention or reduced attention span.
  • Irritability: Excessive feelings of annoyance or frustration.
  • Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: A neurological disorder which results in aphasia, epileptic seizures and inability to recognize sounds.
  • Learning disabilities: Various developmental problems impairing learning or schooling.
  • Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Mental health conditions: Medical conditions related to mental health, emotions, behavior, personality, psychology, psychiatry, and so on.
  • Mental illness: Any psychological syndrome
  • Middle ear infection: Infection of middle ear also called otitis media.
  • Mood disorders: Disorders that affect a persons mood
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A behavioral problem that occurs in children and involves persistent disobedience, defiance and hostility towards authority figures. The behavioral problem is greater than the normal pattern of child misbehaviors. The severity of the problem affects the child's ability to perform satisfactorily in home, school and community environments.
  • Personality disorders: A group of psychiatric disorders that are characterised but abnormal dysfunctional personalities
  • Petit mal seizures: Brief seizures or changes of awareness
  • Potocki-Lupski syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm of chromosome 17 is duplicated.
  • Psychiatric disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychological disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Restless Legs Syndrome: A neurological disorder where legs develop and crawling, aching skin sensation which is relived by moving the legs.
  • School problems: Difficulty with learning or schooling as a symptom.
  • Social phobia: Excessive anxiety in social situations.
  • Soto's Syndrome: A rare hereditary disorder characterized by excessive growth during the first few years of life as well as various other mental and physical anomalies.
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy: A condition which is characterized by complex partial seizures
  • Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder involving vocal and movement tics where where uncontrollable movements or verbal utterances are made.
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome: A genetic disorder which can present with a wide range of phenotypic manifestations which has lead to a number of different names being assigned to the various presentations e.g. DiGeorge Syndrome and Cayler Anomaly Face Syndrome. There are nearly 200 different symptoms that can occur and the severity of the condition is also highly variable depending on the nature and severity of the symptoms that are present.
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Williams Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by mental retardation, facial abnormalities and emotional instability
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.


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