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Sources and References

In addition to our own original materials, the information on this web site comes from numerous sources. Certain content used in this site has been written by third-party medically qualified organizations and is used with permission. The source of this medical information has been indicated with its use.

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Original Material

This website maintains a huge knowledge base of medical information including compilations of medical facts, and medical articles. Such medical information is created and updated by our Editorial Team. Our Editorial Team consists of physicians (with clinical experience), professional researchers, medical writers, and freelance writers.

Full Text Book Excerpt Sources

This website provides free access to excerpts from the following books, used with permission:

  1. Algorithmic Diagnosis of Symptoms and Signs: A Cost Effective Approach, Second Edition, R. Douglas Collins, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, ISBN 0-7817-3805-9 (Copyright © 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  2. In a Page Signs and Symptoms, Scott Kahan, Ellen G. Smith, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004, ISBN 1-4051-0368-X. (Copyright © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  3. In a Page Pediatric Signs and Symptoms, Jonathan E. Teitelbaum, Kathleen O. Deantonis, Scott Kahan, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, ISBN 1-4051-0427-9. (Copyright © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  4. Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care, R. Douglas Collins, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, 0-7817-6812-8. (Copyright © 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  5. Handbook of Signs and Symptoms, Third Edition, Springhouse, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, ISBN 1-58255-402-1. (Copyright © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  6. A Pocket Manual of Differential Diagnosis, Fourth Edition, Stephen N. Adler, Dianne B. Gasbarra, Debra Adler-Klein (editors), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000, ISBN 0-78171-943-7. (Copyright © 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  7. Professional Guide to Diseases, Eighth Edition, Springhouse, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, ISBN 1-58255-370-X (Copyright © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  8. Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms, Fifth Edition, Springhouse, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, ISBN 1-58255-510-9 (Copyright © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  9. The 10-Minute Diagnosis Manual: Symptoms and Signs in the Time-Limited Encounter, Robert B. Taylor (editor), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000, ISBN 0-78172-094-X. (Copyright © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  10. Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis, Second Edition, David S. Smith, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, ISBN 0-78178-165-5. (Copyright © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  11. Handbook of Diseases, Third Edition, Springhouse, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, ISBN 1-58255-266-5. (Copyright © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  12. Alarming Signs and Symptoms: Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice Series, Springhouse, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, ISBN 1-58255-624-5. (Copyright © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  13. Signs & Symptoms: A 2-in-1 Reference for Nurses, Springhouse, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, ISBN 1-58255-318-1. (Copyright © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  14. The Diagnostic Approach to Symptoms and Signs in Pediatrics, Paul S. Bellet, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, ISBN 0-78172-899-1. (Copyright © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  15. Nursing Journal Series, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007, ISBN: 1-58255-668-7 (Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  16. Pocket Guide of 50 Unusual Symptoms, Mark Marinella, Blackwell Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1-4051-0431-7. (Copyright © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  17. A Clinical Guide to Pediatric Infectious Disease, Donald Janner MD, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, September 2004, ISBN 0-7817-5584-0 (Copyright © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  18. The 5-Minute Pediatric Consult, Fifth Edition, M. William Schwartz MD; Louis M Bell Jr., MD; Peter M Bingham MD; Esther K Chung MD, MPH; David F Friedman MD; Kathleen M Loomes MD; Petra Mamula MD; Maria Mascarenhas MD; Ronn E Tanel MD; Charles I Schwartz MD; Cheryl Polchenko, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, March 2008, ISBN 0-7817-7577-9 (Copyright © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  19. Avoiding Common Pediatric Errors, Anthony D Slonim MD, DrPH; Lisa Marcucci MD, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, March 2008, ISBN 0-7817-7489-6 (Copyright © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  20. Pediatric Complaints and Diagnostic Dilemmas: A Case-Based Approach, Samir S Shah MD; Stephen Ludwig MD, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, December 2003, ISBN 0-7817-4188-2 (Copyright © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
  21. Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care (Fourth Edition), R. Douglas Collins MD, FACP, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, August 2007, ISBN 0-7817-6812-8 (Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)

Other Professional Sources

Sources of Government Materials

The use of government produced medical material is usually indicated as a bracketed abbreviation or a detailed footnote at the end of the content. The following is a list of some of the commonly used abbreviations for source materials:

  • CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA
    • CDC-OC: CDC Office of Communication
    • NCHS: National Center for Health Statistics (CDC)
    • DSTD: Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (CDC)
    • DBMD: Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases (CDC)
    • DVRD: Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases (CDC)
    • NIP: National Immunization Program
    • DPD: Division of Parasitic Diseases (CDC)
    • DVBID: Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases (CDC)
    • NCID: National Center for Infectious Diseases (CDC)
    • NCHSTP: National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHSTP)
    • NCCDPHP: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP)
    • NCEH: National Center for Environmental Health
    • NIOSHL: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    • NCIPC: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC)
    • EPO: Epidemiology Program Office (EPO)
    • CDC-OD: Office of the Director (CDC/OD)
    • PHPPO: Public Health Practice Program Office (PHPPO)
    • NCBDDD: National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
  • NIH: National Institute of Health, in the USA, and has numerous divisions and related institutes:
    • NIDDK: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH
    • NHLBI: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
    • NIAID: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
    • NIAMS: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
    • NIA: National Institute on Aging
    • NIMH: National Institute of Mental Health
    • NEI: National Eye Institude (NIH)
    • DBID: Division of Microbial and Infectious Diseases (part of NIAID)
    • NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    • NIAAA: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
    • NIDCD: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
    • NICHD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
    • NIDCR: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
    • NCI: National Cancer Institute (NIH)
    • NHGRI: National Human Genome Research Institute
    • NIBIB: National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering
    • NIDA: National Institute on Drug Abuse
    • NIEHS: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
    • NIGMS: National Institute of General Medical Sciences
    • NINDS: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
    • NINR: National Institute of Nursing Research
    • NLM: National Library of Medicine (NLM)
    • NCMHD: National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD)
    • NCRR: National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
    • OD or NIH-OD: Office of the Director (OD)
    • OAR: Office of AIDS Research, NIH-OD
  • FDA: Food and Drug Administration (USA)
  • DHHS (or HHS): United States Department of Health and Human Services
    • ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
    • AHRQ: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
    • AoA: Administration on Aging (AoA)
    • ACF: Administration for Children and Families (ACF)
    • CMS: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
    • HRSA: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
    • IHS: Indian Health Service (IHS)
    • SAMHSA: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
    • PSC: Program Support Center (PSC)
    • OWH: Office on Women's Health
    • NWHIC (or The National Women's Health Information Center (NWHIC)
  • USSG: United States Surgeon General

The following abbreviations are used to cite commonly used reports and information sources:

  • MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)
  • NVSR: National Vital Statistics Report
  • NHIS: National Health Interview Survery
  • NHIS95: National Health Interview Survery, 1995.
  • WOH: Word on Health, NIH publication.
  • DHS-VIC: Victorian state study (Australia)
  • SEER: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER), part of the National Cancer Institute


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Citation Processes

Note: This website has an ongoing process of documenting the citations and dates for all sources and annotations of referenced materials.

Other Reference Sites

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