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Article title: Handout on Health Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: NIAMS
This booklet is for people who have systemic lupus erythematosus, commonly called SLE or lupus, as well as for their family and friends and others who want to better understand the disease. The booklet describes the disease and its symptoms and contains information about diagnosis and treatment as well as current research efforts supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It also discusses issues such as health care, pregnancy, and quality of life for people with lupus. If you have further questions after reading this booklet, you may wish to discuss them with your doctor.
Lupus is a disorder of the immune system known as an autoimmune disease. In autoimmune diseases, the body harms its own healthy cells and tissues. This leads to inflammation and damage to various body tissues. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Although people with the disease may have many different symptoms, some of the most common ones include extreme fatigue, painful or swollen joints (arthritis), unexplained fever, skin rashes, and kidney problems.
At present, there is no cure for lupus. However, lupus can be very successfully treated with appropriate drugs, and most people with the disease can lead active, healthy lives. Lupus is characterized by periods of illness, called flares, and periods of wellness, or remission. Understanding how to prevent flares and how to treat them when they do occur helps people with lupus maintain better health. Intense research is underway and scientists funded by the NIH are continuing to make great strides in understanding the disease, which may ultimately lead to a cure.
Two of the questions researchers are studying are who gets lupus and why. We know that many more women than men have lupus. Lupus is three times more common in African American women than in Caucasian women and is also more common in women of Hispanic, Asian, and Native American descent. In addition, lupus can run in families, but the risk that a child or a brother or sister of a patient will also have lupus is still quite low. It is difficult to estimate how many people in the United States have the disease because its symptoms vary widely and its onset is often hard to pinpoint.
Although "lupus" is used as a broad term, there actually are several kinds of lupus:
Lupus is a complex disease whose cause is unknown. It is likely that there is no single cause but rather a combination of genetic, environmental, and possibly hormonal factors that work together to cause the disease. The exact cause may differ from one person to another. Scientists are making progress in understanding the processes leading to lupus, as described here and in the Current Research section. Research suggests that genetics plays an important role; however, no specific "lupus gene" has been identified. Instead, it appears that several genes may increase a person's susceptibility to the disease.
The fact that lupus can run in families indicates that its development has a genetic basis. In addition, studies of identical twins have shown that lupus is much more likely to affect both members of a pair of identical twins, who share the exact same set of genes, than two nonidentical twins or other siblings. However, scientists think that genes alone cannot account for who gets lupus. Other factors must also play a role. Some of the factors that scientists are studying include sunlight, stress, certain drugs, and infectious agents such as viruses. Even though a virus might trigger the disease in susceptible individuals, a person cannot "catch" lupus from someone else.
In lupus, the body's immune system does not work as it should. A healthy immune system produces substances called antibodies that help fight and destroy viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances that invade the body. In lupus, the immune system produces antibodies against the bodyís healthy cells and tissues. These antibodies, called autoantibodies ("auto" means self), contribute to the inflammation of various parts of the body, causing damage and altering the function of target organs and tissues. In addition, some autoantibodies join with substances from the bodyís own cells or tissues to form molecules called immune complexes. A buildup of these immune complexes in the body also contributes to inflammation and tissue injury in people with lupus. Researchers do not yet understand all of the factors that cause inflammation and tissue damage in lupus, and this is an active area of research.
Each personís experience with lupus is different, although there are patterns that permit accurate diagnosis. Symptoms can range from mild to severe and may come and go over time. Common symptoms of lupus include painful or swollen joints, unexplained fever, and skin rashes, along with extreme fatigue. A characteristic skin rash may appear across the nose and cheeks--the so-called butterfly or malar rash. Other rashes occur elsewhere on the face and ears, upper arms, shoulders, chest, and hands.
Other symptoms of lupus include chest pain, hair loss, sensitivity to the sun, anemia (a decrease in red blood cells), and pale or purple fingers and toes from cold and stress. Some people also experience headaches, dizziness, depression, or seizures. New symptoms may continue to appear years after the initial diagnosis, and different symptoms can occur at different times.
Common Symptoms of Lupus
In some people with lupus, only one system of the body such as the skin or joints is affected. Other people experience symptoms in many parts of their body. Just how seriously a body system is affected also varies from person to person. Most commonly, joints and muscles are affected, causing arthritis and muscle pain. Skin rashes are quite common. The following systems in the body also can be affected by lupus.
Diagnosing lupus can be difficult. It may take months or even years for doctors to piece together the symptoms to diagnose this complex disease accurately. Making a correct diagnosis of lupus requires knowledge and awareness on the part of the doctor and good communication on the part of the patient. Giving the doctor a complete, accurate medical history (for example, what health problems you have had and for how long) is critical to the process of diagnosis. This information, along with a physical examination and the results of laboratory tests, helps the doctor consider other diseases that may mimic lupus, or determine if the patient truly has the disease. Reaching a diagnosis may take time and occur gradually as new symptoms appear.
No single test can determine whether a person has lupus, but several laboratory tests may help the doctor to make a diagnosis. The most useful tests identify certain autoantibodies often present in the blood of people with lupus. For example, the antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is commonly used to look for autoantibodies that react against components of the nucleus, or "command center," of the patientís own cells. Most people with lupus test positive for ANA; however, there are a number of other causes of a positive ANA besides lupus, including infections, other rheumatic or immune diseases, and occasionally as a finding in normal healthy adults. The ANA test simply provides another clue for the doctor to consider in making a diagnosis. In addition, there are blood tests for individual types of autoantibodies that are more specific to people with lupus, although not all people with lupus test positive for these and not all people with these antibodies have lupus. These antibodies include anti-DNA, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Ro (SSA), and anti-La (SSB). The doctor may use these antibody tests to help make a diagnosis of lupus.
Some tests are used less frequently but may be helpful if the cause of a personís symptoms remains unclear. The doctor may order a biopsy of the skin or kidneys if those body systems are affected. Some doctors may order a syphilis test or a test for anticardiolipin antibody. A positive test does not mean that a patient has syphilis; however, the presence of this antibody may increase the risk of blood clotting and can increase the risk of miscarriages in pregnant women with lupus. Again, all these tests merely serve as tools to give the doctor clues and information in making a diagnosis. The doctor will look at the entire picture--medical history, symptoms, and test results--to determine if a person has lupus.
Other laboratory tests are used to monitor the progress of
the disease once it has been diagnosed. A complete blood count,
urinalysis, blood chemistries, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
test can provide valuable information. Another common test measures the
blood level of a group of substances called complement. People with
lupus often have increased ESRs and low complement levels, especially
during flares of the disease.
Diagnostic Tools for Lupus
Diagnosing and treating lupus is often a team effort between the patient and several types of health care professionals. A person with lupus can go to his or her family doctor or internist, or can visit a rheumatologist. A rheumatologist is a doctor who specializes in rheumatic diseases (arthritis and other diseases of the joints, bones, and muscles). Clinical immunologists (doctors specializing in immune system disorders) may also treat people with lupus. As treatment progresses, other professionals often help. These may include nurses, psychologists, social workers, and specialists such as nephrologists (doctors who treat kidney disease), hematologists (doctors specializing in blood disorders), dermatologists (doctors who treat skin disease), and neurologists (doctors specializing in disorders of the nervous system).
The range and effectiveness of treatments for lupus have increased dramatically, giving doctors more choices in how to treat the disease. It is important for the patient to work closely with the doctor and take an active role in treatment. Once lupus has been diagnosed, the doctor will develop a treatment plan based on the patientís age, sex, health, symptoms, and lifestyle. Treatment plans are tailored to the individualís needs and may change over time. In developing a treatment plan, the doctor has several goals: to prevent flares, to treat them when they do occur, and to minimize organ damage and complications. The doctor and patient should reevaluate the plan regularly to ensure that it is as effective as possible.
Several types of drugs are used to treat lupus. The
treatment the doctor chooses is based on the patientís individual
symptoms and needs. For people with joint or chest pain or fever, drugs
that decrease inflammation, referred to as nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are often used. While some NSAIDs are
available over the counter, a doctorís prescription is necessary for
others. NSAIDs may be used alone or in combination with other types of
drugs to control pain, swelling, and fever. Even though some NSAIDs may
be purchased without a prescription, it is important that they be taken
under a doctorís direction. Common side effects of NSAIDs, including
those available over the counter, can include stomach upset, heartburn,
diarrhea, and fluid retention. Some patients with lupus also develop
liver and kidney inflammation while taking NSAIDs, making it especially
important to stay in close contact with the doctor while taking these
A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs called COX-2 inhibitors (celecoxib [Celebrex]; rofecoxib [Vioxx]; mobic [Meloxicam]) have all of the same effects as NSAIDs on pain and inflammation but have a much lower risk of significant gastrointestinal side effects. These agents have not been extensively studied in patients with lupus and have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use specifically in lupus. However, they might provide benefits similar to NSAIDs.
NSAIDs Used To Treat Lupus*
* Brand names included in this publication are provided as examples only and their inclusion does not mean that these products are endorsed by the National Institutes of Health or any other Government agency. Also, if a particular brand name is not mentioned, this does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.
Antimalarials are another type of drug commonly used to treat lupus. These drugs were originally used to treat malaria, but doctors have found that they also are useful for lupus. Exactly how antimalarials work in lupus is unclear, but scientists think that they may work by suppressing parts of the immune response. A common antimalarial used to treat lupus is hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil). It may be used alone or in combination with other drugs and generally is used to treat fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes, and inflammation of the lungs.
Clinical studies have found that continuous treatment with antimalarials may prevent flares from recurring. Side effects of antimalarials can include stomach upset and, extremely rarely, damage to the retina of the eye.
The mainstay of lupus treatment involves the use of corticosteroid hormones, such as prednisone (Deltasone), hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), and dexamethasone (Decadron, Hexadrol). Corticosteroids are related to cortisol, which is a natural anti-inflammatory hormone. They work by rapidly suppressing inflammation. Corticosteroids can be given by mouth, in creams applied to the skin, or by injection. Because they are potent drugs, the doctor will seek the lowest dose with the greatest benefit. Short-term side effects of corticosteroids include swelling, increased appetite, weight gain, and emotional ups and downs. These side effects generally stop when the drug is stopped. It can be dangerous to stop taking corticosteroids suddenly, so it is very important that the doctor and patient work together in changing the corticosteroid dose. Sometimes doctors give very large amounts of corticosteroid by vein over a brief period of time (days) ("bolus" or "pulse" therapy). With this treatment, the typical side effects are less likely and slow withdrawal is unnecessary.
Long-term side effects of corticosteroids can include stretch marks on the skin, excessive hair growth, weakened or damaged bones (osteoporosis and osteonecrosis), high blood pressure, damage to the arteries, high blood sugar, infections, and cataracts. Typically, the higher the dose of prolonged corticosteroids, the more severe the side effects. Also, the longer they are taken, the greater the risk of side effects. Researchers are working to develop alternative strategies to limit or offset the use of corticosteroids. For example, corticosteroids may be used in combination with other, less potent drugs, or the doctor may try to slowly decrease the dose once the disease is under control. People with lupus who are using corticosteroids should talk to their doctors about taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D or other drugs to reduce the risk of osteoporosis (weakened, fragile bones).
In special circumstances, patients may require stronger drugs to combat lupus symptoms. In some patients, methotrexate (Folex, Mexate, Rheumatrex) may be used to help control the disease. Patients who have many body systems affected by the disease may receive intravenous gamma globulin (Gammagard S/D), a blood protein that increases immunity and helps fight infection. Gamma globulin also may be used to control acute bleeding in patients with thrombocytopenia or to prepare a person with lupus for surgery.
For patients whose kidneys or central nervous systems are affected by lupus, a type of drug called an immunosuppressive may be used. Immunosuppressives, such as azathioprine (Imuran) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), restrain the overactive immune system by blocking the production of some immune cells and curbing the action of others. These drugs may be given by mouth or by infusion (dripping the drug into the vein through a small tube). Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, bladder problems, decreased fertility, and increased risk of cancer and infection. The risk for side effects increases with the length of treatment. As with other treatments for lupus, there is a risk of relapse after the immunosuppressives have been stopped.
Working closely with the doctor helps ensure that treatments for lupus are as successful as possible. Because some treatments may cause harmful side effects, it is important to report any new symptoms to the doctor promptly. It is also important not to stop or change treatments without talking to the doctor first.
Because of the nature and cost of the medications used to treat lupus, their potentially serious side effects, and the lack of a cure, many patients seek other ways of treating the disease. Some alternative approaches that have been suggested include special diets, nutritional supplements, fish oils, ointments and creams, chiropractic treatment, and homeopathy. Although these methods may not be harmful in and of themselves, and they may be associated with symptomatic or psychosocial benefit, no research to date shows that they affect the disease process or prevent organ damage. Some alternative or complementary approaches may help the patient cope or reduce some of the stress associated with living with a chronic illness. If the doctor feels the approach has value and will not be harmful, it can be incorporated into the patientís treatment plan. However, it is important not to neglect regular health care or treatment of serious symptoms. An open dialogue between the patient and the physician about the relative values of complementary and alternative and more traditional therapy is essential in permitting the patient to make an informed choice about treatment options.
Despite the symptoms of lupus and the potential side effects of treatment, people with lupus can maintain a high quality of life overall. One key to managing lupus is to understand the disease and its impact. Learning to recognize the warning signs of a flare can help the patient take steps to ward it off or reduce its intensity. Many people with lupus experience increased fatigue, pain, a rash, fever, abdominal discomfort, headache, or dizziness just before a flare. Developing strategies to prevent flares can also be helpful, such as learning to recognize your warning signals and maintaining good communication with your doctor.
It is also important for people with lupus to receive
regular health care, instead of seeking help only when symptoms worsen.
Having a medical exam and laboratory work on a regular basis allows the
doctor to note any changes and may help predict flares. The treatment
plan, which is tailored to the individual's specific needs and
circumstances, can be adjusted accordingly. If new symptoms are
identified early, treatments may be more effective. Other concerns also
can be addressed at regular checkups. The doctor can provide guidance
about such issues as the use of sunscreens, stress reduction, and the
importance of structured exercise and rest, as well as birth control and
family planning. Because people with lupus can be more susceptible to
infections, the doctor may recommend yearly influenza vaccinations or
pneumococcal vaccination for some patients.
Warning Signs of a Flare
Preventing a Flare
People with lupus should receive regular preventive health care, such as gynecological and breast examinations. Regular dental care will help avoid potentially dangerous infections. If a person is taking corticosteroids or antimalarial medications, a yearly eye exam should be done to screen for and treat eye problems.
Staying healthy requires extra effort and care for people with lupus, so it becomes especially important to develop strategies for maintaining wellness. Wellness involves close attention to the body, mind, and spirit. One of the primary goals of wellness for people with lupus is coping with the stress of having a chronic disorder. Effective stress management varies from person to person. Some approaches that may help include exercise, relaxation techniques such as meditation, and setting priorities for spending time and energy.
Developing and maintaining a good support system is also important. A support system may include family, friends, medical professionals, community organizations, and organized support groups. Participating in a support group can provide emotional help, boost self-esteem and morale, and help develop or improve coping skills. (For more information on support groups, see the Additional Resources section).
Learning more about lupus may also help. Studies have
shown that patients who are well informed and participate actively in
their own care experience less pain, make fewer visits to the doctor,
build self-confidence, and remain more active.
Tips for Working With Your
Although a lupus pregnancy is considered high risk, most women with lupus carry their babies safely to the end of their pregnancy. Experts disagree on the exact numbers, but 20 to 25 percent of lupus pregnancies end in miscarriage, compared to 10 to 15 percent of pregnancies in women without the disease. Pregnancy counseling and planning before pregnancy are important. Ideally, a woman should have no signs or symptoms of lupus and be taking no medications for at least 6 months before she becomes pregnant.
Some women may experience a mild to moderate flare during or after their pregnancy; others do not. Pregnant women with lupus, especially those taking corticosteroids, also are more likely to develop high blood pressure, diabetes, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), and kidney complications, so regular care and good nutrition during pregnancy are essential. It is also advisable to have access to a neonatal (newborn) intensive care unit at the time of delivery in case the baby requires special medical attention. About 25 percent (one in four) of babies of women with lupus are born prematurely, but do not suffer from birth defects.
Lupus is the focus of intense research as scientists try to determine what causes the disease and how it can best be treated. Some of the questions they are working to answer include: Exactly who gets lupus, and why? Why are women more likely than men to have the disease? Why are there more cases of lupus in some racial and ethnic groups? What goes wrong in the immune system, and why? How can we correct the way the immune system functions once something goes wrong? What treatment approaches will work best to lessen or cure lupus symptoms?
To help answer these questions, scientists are developing new and better ways to study the disease. They are doing laboratory studies that compare various aspects of the immune systems of people with lupus with those of other people both with and without lupus. They also use mice with disorders resembling lupus to better understand the abnormalities of the immune system that occur in lupus and to identify possible new therapies.
The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has a major program of lupus research in its intramural program in Bethesda, Maryland, and funds many individual researchers across the United States who are studying lupus. To help scientists gain new knowledge, the NIAMS also has established Specialized Centers of Research devoted specifically to lupus research. In addition, the NIAMS is funding several lupus registries that will gather medical information as well as blood and tissue samples from patients and their relatives. This will give researchers across the country access to information and materials they can use to help identify genes that determine susceptibility to the disease.
Identifying genes that play a role in the development of lupus is an active area of research. For example, researchers suspect a genetic defect in a cellular process called apoptosis, or "programmed cell death," in people with lupus. Apoptosis is similar to the process that causes leaves to turn color in autumn and fall from trees; it allows the body to eliminate cells that have fulfilled their function and typically need to be replaced. If there is a problem in the apoptosis process, harmful cells may stay around and do damage to the bodyís own tissues. For example, in a mutant mouse strain that develops a lupus-like illness, one of the genes that controls apoptosis is defective. When it is replaced by a normal gene, the mice no longer develop signs of the disease. Scientists are studying what role genes involved in apoptosis may play in human disease development.
Studying genes for complement, a series of proteins in the blood that play an important part in the immune system, is another active area of lupus research. Complement acts as a backup for antibodies, helping them destroy foreign substances that invade the body. If there is a decrease in complement, the body is less able to fight or destroy foreign substances. If these substances are not removed from the body, the immune system may become overactive and begin to make autoantibodies.
Recent large studies of families with lupus have identified a number of genetic regions that appear to confer risk of SLE. Although the specific genes and their function remain unknown, intensive work in delineating the entire human genome offers promise that these genes will be identified in the near future. This should provide knowledge of the fundamental nature of the risk factors that can lead to lupus and new insights into how these risks can be modified.
It is thought that autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, occur when a genetically susceptible individual encounters an unknown environmental agent or trigger. In this circumstance, an abnormal immune response can be initiated that leads to the signs and symptoms of lupus. Research has focused on both the genetic susceptibility and the environmental trigger. Although the environmental trigger remains unknown, microbial agents such as Epstein-Barr virus and others have been considered. Researchers also are studying other factors that may affect a personís susceptibility to lupus. For example, because lupus is more common in women than in men, some researchers are investigating the role of hormones and other male-female differences in the development and course of the disease.
A current study funded by the NIH is focusing on the safety and effectiveness of oral contraceptives (birth-control pills) and hormone replacement therapy in women with lupus. Doctors have worried about the wisdom of prescribing oral contraceptives or estrogen replacement therapy for women with lupus because of a widely held view that estrogens can make the disease worse. However, recent limited data suggest these drugs may be safe for some women with lupus. Researchers hope this study will yield options for safe, effective methods of birth control for young women with lupus and enable postmenopausal women with lupus to benefit from estrogen replacement therapy.
Promising Areas of Research
Researchers are also focusing on finding better treatments for lupus. A primary goal of this research is to develop treatments that can effectively minimize the use of corticosteroids. Scientists are trying to identify combination therapies that may be more effective than single-treatment approaches. Researchers are also interested in using male hormones, called androgens, as a possible treatment for the disease. Another goal is to improve the treatment and management of lupus in the kidneys and central nervous system. For example, a 20-year study supported by the NIAMS and the NIH found that combining cyclophosphamide with prednisone helped delay or prevent kidney failure, a serious complication of lupus.
On the basis of new information about the disease process, scientists are using novel "biologic agents" to selectively block parts of the immune system. Development and testing of these new drugs, which are based on compounds that occur naturally in the body, comprise an exciting and promising new area of lupus research. The hope is that these treatments not only will be effective, but also will have fewer side effects. Other treatment options currently being explored include reconstructing the immune system by bone marrow transplantation. In the future, gene therapy also may play an important role in lupus treatment.
With research advances and a better understanding of lupus, the prognosis for people with lupus today is far brighter than it was even 20 years ago. It is possible to have lupus and remain active and involved with life, family, and work. As current research efforts unfold, there is continued hope for new treatments; improvements in quality of life; and, ultimately, a way to prevent or cure the disease. The research efforts of today may yield the answers of tomorrow, as scientists continue to unravel the mysteries of lupus.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and
Skin Diseases Information Clearinghouse
NIAMS/National Institutes of Health
1 AMS Circle
Bethesda, MD 20892-3675
(301) 495-4484 or (877) 22-NIAMS (toll free)
TTY: (301) 565-2966
Fax: (301) 718-6366
World Wide Web address: https://www.niams.nih.gov/index.htm
The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Information Clearinghouse is a public service sponsored by the NIAMS that provides health information and information sources. The clearinghouse provides information on lupus. Fact sheets, additional information, and research updates can also be found on the NIAMS Web site at https://www.niams.nih.gov/index.htm.
Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals,
American College of Rheumatology
1800 Century Place, Suite 250
Atlanta, GA 30345
Fax: (404) 633-1870
World Wide Web address: https://www.rheumatology.org/
The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) is an organization of doctors and associated health professionals who specialize in arthritis and related diseases of the bones, joints, and muscles. The Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals, a division of ACR, aims to enhance the knowledge and skills of rheumatology health professionals and to promote their involvement in rheumatology research, education, and quality patient care. The association also works to advance and promote basic and continuing education in rheumatology for health professionals who provide care to people with rheumatic diseases.
Lupus Foundation of America (LFA), Inc.
1300 Piccard Drive, Suite 200
Rockville, MD 20850
or your local chapter, listed in the telephone directory
Web address: https://www.lupus.org/
This is the main voluntary organization devoted to lupus. The LFA assists local chapters in providing services to people with lupus, works to educate the public about lupus, and supports lupus research. Through a network of more than 500 branches and support groups, the chapters provide education through information and referral services, health fairs, newsletters, publications, and seminars. Chapters provide support to people with lupus, their families, and friends through support group meetings, hospital visits, and telephone help lines.
SLE Foundation, Inc.
149 Madison Avenue, Suite 205
New York, NY 10016
World Wide Web address: https://www.lupusny.org/
The foundation supports and encourages medical research to find the cause and cure of lupus and improve its diagnosis and treatment. It also provides a wide variety of services to help patients with lupus and their families. In addition, this voluntary organization conducts a broad-based public education program to raise awareness of lupus and increase understanding of this serious, chronic, autoimmune disease.
1330 West Peachtree Street
Atlanta, GA 30309
(800) 283-7800, or call your local chapter (listed in the telephone directory)
World Wide Web address: https://www.arthritis.org/
The Arthritis Foundation is the major voluntary organization devoted to supporting arthritis research and providing educational and other services to individuals with arthritis. It publishes free pamphlets and a magazine for members on all types of arthritis. It also provides up-to-date information on research and treatment, nutrition, alternative therapies, and self-management strategies. Chapters nationwide offer exercise programs, classes, support groups, physician referral services, and free literature. For more information, call your local chapter, listed in the white pages of the phone book, or contact the Arthritis Foundation at the above address.
Alliance for Lupus Research, Inc.
1270 Avenue of the Americas, Suite 609
New York, NY 10020
The Alliance for Lupus Research, Inc. (ALR), is a nonprofit organization devoted exclusively to the support of promising research for the prevention, treatment, and cure of lupus. Through accelerated, focused, goal-oriented research programs, the ALR aims to promote basic and clinical sciences to achieve major advances leading to a better understanding of the cause of lupus.
The NIAMS gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Patricia A. Fraser, M.D., Brigham and Womenís Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; John H. Klippel, M.D., Susana Serrate-Sztein, M.D., and Peter F. Lipsky, M.D., NIAMS, NIH; Michael D. Lockshin, M.D., Barbara Volcker Center for Women and Rheumatic Disease, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York; and Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, M.D., Dr.P.H., Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois, in the preparation and review of this publication. Special thanks also go to the many patients who reviewed this publication and provided valuable input. This booklet was written by Debbie Novak of Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc.
The NIAMS, a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), leads the Federal medical research effort in arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases. The NIAMS supports research and research training throughout the United States, as well as on the NIH campus in Bethesda, MD, and disseminates health and research information. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Information Clearinghouse is a public service sponsored by the NIAMS that provides health information and information sources. Additional information and research updates can be found on the NIAMS Web site at https://www.niams.nih.gov/index.htm.
This is a publication of the
National Institutes of Health
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal
and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
This booklet is not copyrighted. Readers are encouraged to duplicate and distribute as many copies as needed.
Additional copies of this booklet are available from
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal
and Skin Diseases Information Clearinghouse
NIAMS/National Institutes of Health
1 AMS Circle
Bethesda, MD 20892-3675
and on the NIAMS Web site at
NIH Publication No. 97-4178
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