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Articles » NINDS Anoxia-Hypoxia Information Page: NINDS

NINDS Anoxia-Hypoxia Information Page: NINDS

Article title: NINDS Anoxia-Hypoxia Information Page: NINDS

Conditions: Anoxia

What is Anoxia/Hypoxia?
Specifically, anoxia is a condition in which there is an absence of oxygen supply to an organ's tissues although there is adequate blood flow to the tissue. Hypoxia is a condition in which there is a decrease of oxygen to the tissue in spite of adequate blood flow to the tissue. Anoxia and hypoxia, however, are often used interchangeably—without regard to their specific meanings—to describe a condition that occurs in an organ when there is a diminished supply of oxygen to the organ's tissues. Anoxia and hypoxia may be caused by a number of events, such as heart attack, severe asthma, smoke or carbon monoxide inhalation, high altitude exposure, strangulation, anesthetic accidents, or poisoning. In severe cases of anoxia and hypoxia, from any cause, the patient is often stuperous or comatose (in a state of unconsciousness) for periods ranging from hours to days, weeks, or months. Seizures, myoclonic jerks (muscle spasms or twitches), and neck stiffness may occur.

Is there any treatment?
Treatment of anoxia and hypoxia consists of establishing an adequate airway as soon as possible, using enough oxygen to saturate the blood, supporting the cardiovascular system as needed, and preventing or treating pneumonia. Respiratory assistance may be necessary.

What is the prognosis?
If the patient's respiratory and cardiovascular systems can be supported properly, recovery may occur, but depends upon the severity of injury. As recovery proceeds, a variety of psychological and neurological abnormalities may appear, persist for a time, and may improve. Mental confusion, personality regression, parietal lobe syndromes, amnesia, hallucinations, memory loss, and persistent myoclonus may also occur.

What research is being done?
The NINDS supports and conducts studies aimed at understanding neurological conditions that can damage the brain such as anoxia and hypoxia. The goals of these studies are to find ways to prevent and treat these conditions.

Selected references

Nyakas, C, Buwalda, B, and Luiten, P.
Hypoxia and Brain Development Progress in Neurobiology, 49:1; 1-51 (May 1996).


Brain Injury Association
105 North Alfred Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
Tel: 703-236-6000 800-444-6443
Fax: 703-236-6001

National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC)
1010 Wayne Avenue
Suite 800
Silver Spring, MD 20910-5633
Tel: 301-562-2400 800-346-2742
Fax: 301-562-2401

Head Injury Hotline
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Seattle, WA 98104-2221
Tel: 206-621-8558
Fax: 206-624-4961

This fact sheet is in the public domain. You may copy it.Provided by:
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD 20892


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