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Diseases » Bipolar disorder » Glossary

Glossary for Bipolar disorder

  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by the absence of a small portion of genetic material. A small section of chromosome 22 is missing at a location called q11.2. Chromosome 22 is one of 23 pairs of chromosomes that exist in humans.
  • ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. The related description Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a more modern description of the disease.

    Misdiagnosis of ADD is a well-known controversy in the sense that cases of hyperactivity in children may be over-diagnosed. There is a tendency for parents to seek and doctors to prescribe the drug Ritalin even in cases where the diagnosis of ADD or ADHD may be incorrect. Alternative diagnoses include normal child behavior (i.e. just an active child), food intolerances, or other behavioral disorders (see misdiagnosis of ADD).

    On the other hand, ADD is under-diagnosed in adults, with a large number of adults having ADD without knowing it; see misdiagnosis of Adult ADD.

  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Addiction: Any of various addictions to substances or activities.
  • Adult ADHD: Adult ADHD, (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder with an onset in childhood that continues into adulthood. Children do not simply grow out of ADHD, as is often believed. Just the opposite is commonly true - the symptoms of ADHD often get worse as a child grows into adulthood. The predominant behaviors of adult ADHD are the same as in children and include:
    • Inattentiveness
    • Hyperactivity
    • Impulsivity

    These behaviors result in difficulties with:

    • Concentration
    • Remaining focused on a task or activity
    • Controlling behavior
    • Hyperactivity or over-activity

    The symptoms of adult ADHD can be treated, but there currently is no cure for the disorder. Most people with ADHD can be successfully treated and lead normal, productive lives at home, work, school and with friends and family. The cause or causes of ADHD are not yet known, although researchers believe that genes may be one factor in the development of the disease. It is most likely that the disorder is the result of a combination of elements, including environmental factors, traumatic head injuries, nutrition, and social influences.

  • Alcohol abuse: Excessive use of alcohol ranging from binge drinking to severe alcoholism
  • Anti-Social Personality Disorder: A psychiatric condition characterized by chronic behavioral and social problems which often involves criminal behaviour.
  • Anxiety disorders: Anxiety disorders are persistent and excessive feelings of fear, worry or uneasiness that are significant enough to have an impact on day-to-day life. Excessive anxiety can have repercussions on physical and mental health. There are a number of different subtypes of anxiety disorders such as General anxiety, Social anxiety, Phobias, Hypochondria and Obsessive compulsive disorder.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral disorder with hyperactivity and/or inattention.
  • Behavioral disorders: Disorders affecting behavior and emotional wellbeing
  • Benzodiazepine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Benzodiazepine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Bizarre medical conditions: Various unusual and unexpected medical disorders
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Mental condition with behavioral and emotional problems.
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Chemical addiction: Addiction to and abuse of various substances.
  • Chromosome 22 Ring: A rare chromosomal disorder where genetic material from one or both ends of chromosome 22 is missing and the two broken ends have rejoined to form a ring. The resulting type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount and location of genetic material missing.
  • Chromosome 22q deletion: A rare genetic disorder where a portion of the genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 22 is missing. The symptoms or severity may vary somewhat between patients.
  • Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by the absence of a small portion of genetic material. A small section of chromosome 22 is missing at a location called q11.2. Chromosome 22 is one of 23 pairs of chromosomes that exist in humans.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Severe chronic fatigue disorder often following infection.
  • Chronic pelvic pain:
  • Conduct Disorder: Behavioral disorder with antisocial behaviors
  • Cyclothymic disorder: This disorder is a mild form of bipolar II disorder consisting of recurrent mood disturbances between hypomania and dysthymic mood.
  • Delirium: Severe state of mental confusion
  • Depression: Various syndromes with excessive anxiety, phobias, or fear.
  • Depressive disorders: Depression or its various related conditions.
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder: A neurotic mental disorder where a person's field of consciousness is limited in order to fulfill an unconscious goal. Often selective amnesia is involved and the person develops what is called multiple personalities.
  • Drug abuse: Addiction to any of various illicit drugs.
  • Dysthymia: Mild form of depression
  • Dysthymia/seasonal depression disorder, PND:
  • Huntington's Disease: Inherited disease causing progressive mental deterioration.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypomania: Hypomania is described as a mood state characterized by persistent and pervasive elevated or irritable mood, and thoughts and behaviors that are consistent with such a mood state. It is distinguished from mania by the absence of psychotic symptoms and by its lower degree of impact on functioning.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Inattention: Lack of attention or reduced attention span.
  • Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.
  • Mania: Inappropriate euphoric mood
  • Mc Leod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by neuromuscular, blood and central nervous system symptoms. The disease is slowly progressive.
  • Mental health conditions: Medical conditions related to mental health, emotions, behavior, personality, psychology, psychiatry, and so on.
  • Mental illness: Any psychological syndrome
  • Mood disorders: Disorders that affect a persons mood
  • Mood swings: Excessive and exaggerated alterations in mood.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Neurosyphilis: A complication of untreated syphilis where the infection invades the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and causes a range of neurological symptoms. The condition can be life-threatening but some cases are asymptomatic. There are four forms of the condition: asymptomatic, meningovascular, tabes dorsalis and general paresis.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Behavioral disorder with obsessive thoughts and compulsive acts.
  • Paraphilias: A psychiatric disorder that is characterised by sexual urges and inappropriate sexual behaviour
  • Personality disorders: A group of psychiatric disorders that are characterised but abnormal dysfunctional personalities
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder: Stress following a traumatic event.
  • Postpartum depression: The occurrence of depression in a woman that occurs after the birth of a child
  • Psychiatric disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychological disorders: Any condition that affects ones mind
  • Psychosis: Mental loss of connection with reality
  • Psychotic disorders: Psychiatric disorders with mental detachment from reality
  • Schizoaffective disorder: A psychiatric condition in which symptoms of a mood disorder occur with prominent psychotic symptoms
  • Schizophrenia: A psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusional beliefs where a person is unable to distinguish between reality and imagination. The condition tends to have a chronic nature and can be severely debilitating if treatment isn't sought.
  • Sleep disturbance: Sleeping difficulty, called insomnia, can involve difficulty falling asleep when you first go to bed at night, waking up too early in the morning, and waking up often during the night.
  • Social phobia: Excessive anxiety in social situations.
  • Substance induced mood disorder: A substance induced mood disorder is characterized by depressions or manic episodes which develop during either a time when the person is taking a medication which causes the depression or the manic symptoms, a time when the person is intoxicated by a drug ,a time when the person is withdrawing from an intoxicating drug.
  • Suicide: Taking one's own life or attempting to do so.
  • Thyroid disorders: Any disorder of the thyroid gland.
  • Under-diagnosed conditions: Any medical condition that is undiagnosed
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome: A genetic disorder which can present with a wide range of phenotypic manifestations which has lead to a number of different names being assigned to the various presentations e.g. DiGeorge Syndrome and Cayler Anomaly Face Syndrome. There are nearly 200 different symptoms that can occur and the severity of the condition is also highly variable depending on the nature and severity of the symptoms that are present.


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