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Glossary for Bites, stings and other animal-related conditions

  • Abalone poisoning: Abalone are a shellfish that are commonly eaten by humans. The internal organs of the abalone sometimes contain toxins which can cause various symptoms. The toxins are believed to originate from toxic components in the abalones diet.
  • Amnesic shellfish poisoning: Rare shellfish poisoning sometimes causing amnesia.
  • Anchovy poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some anchovies contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the anchovy does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The anchovies are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Animal allergy: An animal allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to animals such as cats. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of the animal. Animals frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to animals will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the animal. Frequent washing of the animal may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Animal bite: The physical bite from any animal
  • Arachnidism: Poisoning from a spider bite.
  • Arctic bearded seal poisoning: The Arctic Bearded seal is often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver and kidneys of the arctic bearded seal can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases. It is believed that eating more than 100-250 grams of the seal liver can result in human death.
  • Arizona Bark Scorpion poisoning: A bite from the Arizona Bark scorpion contains chemicals toxic to the nerve system and can cause serious, life-threatening symptoms.
  • Asian Dendorlimus pini caterpillar poisoning: A chronic illness caused by contact with certain a poisonous caterpillar called Dendorlimus pini. Contact with the cocoon can also cause symptoms. These caterpillars can be found in Asia, north Africa and eastern Europe.
  • Asiatic porpoise poisoning: The Asiatic porpoise is eaten mainly in China. Eating the liver, internal organs and muscle tissue of the Asiatic porpoise can cause poisoning symptoms in humans if sufficient quantities are consumed. The nature of the toxin is unknown but it is believed that some cases result from very high levels of vitamin A in the liver.
  • Atlantic Poison oak poisoning: Atlantic Poison oak is a tall shrub which has a distinctive leaf shape. It is often found growing in the wild. The leaves have small clumps of hairs on the underside. The plant contains a chemical called urushiol which can cause severe skin irritation in some people.
  • Australian Sea Lion poisoning: The Australian Sea Lion is sometimes used as a food source and is found in the South-Southwest waters of Australia. Eating the liver of the Australian Sea Lion can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Beeswax poisoning: Beeswax can cause a gastrointestinal blockage if excessive quantities are eaten.
  • Bird allergy: A bird allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to birds. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement of the bird. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Black widow spider envenomation: The black widow spider bite is toxic to the nerves and can cause serious symptoms. The black widow spider is most commonly found in North America.
  • Blue-ringed octopus poisoning: The blue-ringed octopus is found in shallow Australian ocean water and can deliver venomous, potentially fatal bite. The poison is present in the saliva of the octopus. The venom affects the neuromuscular system.
  • Bonefish poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some bonefish contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the bonefish does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The bonefish are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Bothriocephalosis: Infection with an intestinal parasite. The parasite is a fish tapeworm called Diphyllobothrium latum. Human infection is caused by eating undercooked contaminated fish.
  • Box Jellyfish poisoning: A sting from the Box jellyfish contains a chemical which is toxic to the nerves, heart and skin. This jellyfish is mainly found in the waters of Northern Queensland in Australia. The tentacles should not be removed from the patient as it can cause further injection of poison.
  • Bristleworm poisoning: Bristleworms are a type of marine worm covered in bristles which they can use to sting. The bristles are strong enough to break human skin and cause symptoms.
  • Brown snake poisoning: The Brown snake is a poisonous Australian snake. They are considered one of the most venomous snakes in the world and their bite can result in death without prompt medical attention. The snake venom contains toxins which affect the blood and nerve systems. Children tend to suffer more severe symptoms due to their smaller body size.
  • Browntail moth caterpillar poisoning: A hairy, bright-colored caterpillar which can cause skin symptoms on contact with the hair. Inhalation of the hairs can cause respiratory symptoms and eye exposure can also result in symptoms. Patients with pre-existing asthma or atopic allergies may suffer more severe symptoms.
  • Bufotenine poisoning: The skin glands of certain toads (Cane toad and Colorado river toad) contain a poison called bufotoxin.
  • Bullrout. poisoning: Bullrout are a fish that tends to live in rocky, weeded area of coastal streams and estuaries. They have spines which can deliver a painful sting. People are most often stung when they accidentally step on the fish.
  • Callistin shellfish poisoning: The Callistin shellfish (Japanese Callista) is found primarily in Japan. Eating the whole shellfish can cause poisoning symptoms in humans. It is believed that the ovaries contain high levels of choline during spawning season which makes them toxic to humans. The symptoms that manifest are similar to a severe allergic reaction. Avoiding eating the ovaries is the best way to prevent poisoning - cooking does not destroy the toxin.
  • Canary allergy: A canary allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to canaries. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement from the canary. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Capillaria philippiensis infection: A fish borne parasite that can infect humans. Transmission most often occurs through ingestion of contaminated fish. Severity of symptoms tend to increase as the number of worms multiply in the intestines. Death can occur if the condition is left untreated.
  • Carukia barnesi sting: The Irukandji jellyfish is a very small type of box jellyfish found mainly in the northern tropical waters of Australia. Their sting is not particularly painful by the ensuing symptoms can be severe and life-threatening.
  • Cat allergy: A cat allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to cats. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of cats. Cats frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to cats will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the animal. Frequent washing of the cat may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Cat bite: Bite from a cat.
  • Caterpillar complication poisoning: The spines on certain caterpillars can cause a skin reaction as well as systemic symptoms if ingested. The nature of the symptoms vary depending on the species of caterpillar involved. Some only produce skin reactions whereas others can produce systemic symptoms.
  • Caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome: Caterpillars from the Lonomia genus have spines along their body which can penetrate human skin and cause blood coagulation problems. The severity of the symptoms vary depending on the degree of envenomation but serious cases can result in death.
  • Caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome -- Lonomia achelous: Lonomia achelous caterpillars are native to Northern Brazil and Venezuela. They have spines along their body which can penetrate human skin and cause blood coagulation problems. The severity of the symptoms vary depending on the degree of envenomation but serious cases can result in death.
  • Caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome -- Lonomia obliqua: Lonomia obliqua caterpillars are native to Southern Brazil and have spines along their body which can penetrate human skin and cause blood coagulation problems. The severity of the symptoms vary depending on the degree of envenomation but serious cases can result in death.
  • Chicken allergy: A chicken allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to chickens. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement from the chicken. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Chirodropidae poisoning: Chirodropidae are jellyfish-like marine organisms found mainly in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They can deliver a painful sting which can be life-threatening in some cases. The box jellyfish, Irukundji jellyfish and some sea wasps are all members of this class.
  • Ciguatera poisoning: Rare toxic food poisoning from eating contaminated fish
  • Clupeotoxism: A potentially fatal condition caused by eating fish such as herrings and anchovies from the Clupeidae family of fish. Severe poisoning can result in death within half an hour of ingestion. Outbreaks have been reported in the Caribbean Sea and the Indian-Pacific area.
  • Cobra poisoning: The Cobra is a poisonous snake which can be found in Africa, Asia and other parts of the world. Some cobras are able to spit venom into the victims eye and cause serious symptoms.
  • Cocky Apple stinging caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Cocky Apple stinging caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Coconut crab poisoning: The coconut crab is commonly found and eaten as a delicacy in the Indo-Pacific region. These crabs can contain toxic chemicals which can cause severe poisoning in humans if eaten. The toxicity of these crabs is believed to be derived from the ingestion of certain toxic ocean plants. The best way to avoid poisoning is to not eat these crabs at all.
  • Common Woolly Bear moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Common Woolly Bear moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Cone shell poisoning: A number of species of cone shells are capable of envenomating humans. The toxin is a neurotoxin and thus primarily affects the nervous system. Cone shells are found mainly in shallow waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans. The toxicity varies amongst species with some delivering a benign stink whereas others are capable of causing death. The cone snails a proboscis on the end of which is a poison-filled barb.
  • Copperhead snake poisoning: The Copperhead snake is a poisonous snake found mainly in parts of North America. The toxicity of the poison varies among species but some species are extremely poisonous and readily result in death if the patient is not treated.
  • Coral snake poisoning: The Coral snake is a usually brightly colored, poisonous snake found mainly in America and Africa. The toxicity amongst species is variable. They are considered a shy snake and bites are usually the result of deliberate handling. Coral snakes have to bite for long enough to release the toxin through the fangs so envenomation tends to be rarer than for other snakes who can strike and envenomate rapidly. The snake venom contains toxins which mainly affect the nerve systems. Children tend to suffer more severe symptoms due to their smaller body size.
  • Cyanea sting: Cyanea is a common jellyfish found in most oceans. The sting is usually quite painful but systemic symptoms are rare.
  • Dendrolimiasis: A chronic illness caused by contact with certain poisonous caterpillar spines or urticating hairs.
  • Diseases contagious from animals: Diseases that can be contracted from animals
  • Diseases contagious from birds: Diseases that are contracted from birds
  • Diseases contagious from cats: Diseases that can be contracted from cats
  • Diseases contagious from dogs: Diseases that can be contracted from dogs
  • Diseases contagious from pigs: Diseases that can be contracted from pigs
  • Diseases contagious from rodents: Diseases that can be contracted from rodents
  • Dog allergy: A dog allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to dogs. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of dogs. Dogs frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to dogs will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the dog. Frequent washing of the dog may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Dog bite: A bite that is caused by a dog
  • Duck allergy: A duck allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to ducks. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement from the duck. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Elapid poisoning: Sea snakes, Kraits and cobras are from the Elapid group of snakes. The toxicity of the venom varies depending on the species. The venom is usually toxic to the nerves or heart. Early symptoms such as drowsiness can occur within 30 minutes with more severe symptoms developing over the next few hours. Severe envenomation can result in death within hours.
  • Envenomization by the Martinique lancehead viper: Posionous bite by a snake called the Lancehead Viper. It is a very venomous pit viper found in Martinique. Death is not common as the bite usually only causes a localized reaction rather than a systemic one. 10-20% of untreated cases result in death.
  • Erucism: Erucism is a skin reaction to envenomation from certain poisonous caterpillar spines. The reaction can be cause by contact with the spines or hairs of the caterpillar. Even airborne caterpillar hair can cause symptoms as can spines or hair on dead caterpillars.
  • Filefish poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some filefish from the Philippines and Singapore region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated filefish.
  • Fire Ant bite: The fire ant is found mainly in South America and parts of North America but is also found in other countries such as Australia. The fire ant is red and can deliver a venomous bite. Fire ant venom can elicit and allergic reaction or even anaphylaxis in susceptible people.
  • Fire Coral poisoning: The Fire Coral is a type of jellyfish with a seaweed-like appearance, found in warmer oceans around the world. The fire coral has stinging cells which can deliver a sting to humans. The fire coral has a hard skeletal portion which can also deliver cuts to the skin if it is brushed up against.
  • Fire coral larvae envenomation: The tiny stinging larvae of fire coral can release a toxin if they are put under pressure. Thus, any larvae trapped under swimming bathers or caps can cause toxins to be released. The skin develops an allergic response to the toxin and a rash forms. Swimming clothes contaminated by the stinging cells can produce a reaction even weeks after they have been washed and dried as the toxins are still able to be released from trapped stinging cells. Rubbing, showering in fresh water and wearing contaminated bathing suits for a long time after getting out of the water tend make the rash worse. Symptoms other than those involving the skin may occur occasionally. The condition most often occurs in places such as Japan and Eastern Russia.
  • Fire-Bellied Toad poisoning: The Fire-Bellied toads are often kept as aquarium pets. These toads contain a poisonous chemical called bombesin and bominine which can various symptoms if accidentally ingested or comes into contact with the eyes, mouth or skin. Eye symptoms usually resolve within a day. The toads are native to Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
  • Flea-borne diseases: Diseases that are carried by fleas
  • Food Allergy -- tuna: A tuna allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to tuna or food containing tuna. This type of allergy is rare and serious reactions are very rare. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin, respiratory and behavioral symptoms.
  • Food Allergy -- turtle: A turtle allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to the ingestion of turtle meat. This type of allergy is rare and serious reactions are very rare. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin, respiratory and behavioral symptoms.
  • Fowl Paralysis: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Fowl paralyses: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Gempylotoxism: A form of food poisoning caused by eating gempylotoxic fish such as pelagic mackerals from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. The oil in the fish can cause diarrhea. Symptoms are generally harmless as the diarrhea tends not to be severe.
  • Giant silkworm poisoning: A pale, yellow-green caterpillar with red legs which has poisonous green spines on parts of its back. It is commonly found in North America.
  • Gila Lizard poisoning: Gila lizards are one of the few venomous species of lizard. They are found in parts of America such as Arizona, California, Nevada and Mexico. Envenomation by lizards is very uncommon but these venomous lizards can cause life-threatening symptoms. Gila lizards tend to hold on with their jaws while biting and the longer the jaws remain attached to the skin, the more severe the poisoning may be.
  • Gonionemus poisoning: Gonionemus is a type of hydrozoan jellyfish which can deliver a venomous sting. The sting can cause various combinations of skin, respiratory and joint and pain symptoms. In mild cases, only the skin is affected. Stings most often occur in the Northern hemisphere - especially Japanese and Russian waters.
  • Goose allergy: A goose allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to geese. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement of the goose. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Grapeleaf skeletonizer caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the grapeleaf skeletonizer caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Grass spider poisoning: The grass spider is a type of funnel web spider native the western parts of the US.
  • Green dragon poisoning: The green dragon is a herbaceous plant which bears inconspicuous flowers. The plant contains calcium oxalate crystals which can cause various symptoms if eaten. Severe mouth pain is usually associated with eating parts of the plant which usually prevents further ingestion.
  • Greenhead ant sting: The Greenhead ant is found in parts of Australia and can cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. Some people have a relatively minor allergic response whereas other develop anaphylaxis which is a life-threatening allergic response which requires urgent medical attention. The ants have a venom gland attached to a stinger located in their tail region. Ants can sting more than once.
  • Greenland Shark poisoning: Some species of shark are toxic to humans due to the presence of trimethylamine oxide. Poisoning causes mainly neurological symptoms.
  • Gypsy moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Gypsy moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Hag moth poisoning: The hag moth resembles a dried leaf and has stinging hairs on its back . It is found mainly in the United states. It is often found feeding on trees and shrubs such as oak, chestnut, dogwood and ash. Contact with the poisonous spines can result in various symptoms.
  • Hair jellyfish poisoning: Hair jellyfish are marine organisms found mainly in the colder oceans of the world. They usually deliver a painful sting which tends to resolve quite rapidly. Systemic symptoms are uncommon.
  • Horseshoe Crab poisoning: The Asiatic horseshoe crab is eaten mainly in parts of Asia. Various parts of the crab become toxic during the reproductive season - flesh, unlaid green eggs and viscera. Poisoning most often occurs in Thailand. Eating the crabs should be avoided during reproductive season as poisoning can readily result in death.
  • Human bite: Bite from a human
  • Human carcinogen -- Chinese-style salted fish: Exposure to Chinese-style salted fish is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the amount of exposure.
  • Hydroid poisoning: Hydroids are a type of jellyfish commonly found in the warmer oceans of the world.
  • Hypersensitivity to pollen: Plants produce the microscopic round or oval grains called pollen which lead to allergy in a few individuals
  • Ichthyocrinotoxication: Poisoning that occurs through ingestion of toxic glandular skin secretions of certain fish (moray eel, toadfish, lamprey, hagfish, pufferfish, trunkfish and porcupine fish).
  • Ichthyohepatotoxication: Ichthyohepatotoxication is a condition caused by eating the liver of certain fish. It is believed that the high vitamin A content of the liver leads to vitamin A overdose and the resulting symptoms. Tropical shark livers are associated with this condition.
  • Inch ant sting: The Inch ant is found in parts of Australia and can cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. Some people have a relatively minor allergic response whereas other develop anaphylaxis which is a life-threatening allergic response which requires urgent medical attention. The ants have a venom gland attached to a stinger located in their tail region. Ants can sting more than once.
  • Insect allergy: An allergic response to a wasp sting.
  • Insect bite allergy: An insect bite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a bite by an insect such as an ant. Multiple bites increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Insect bites and stings: Any bites or stings caused by insects
  • Insect sting allergies: When a person has an allergic reaction at the site of an insect sting
  • Insect sting allergy: An insect sting allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a sting by an insect such as an ant. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Insect-borne diseases: Any disease that is carried by insects and transmitted to humans
  • Jack jumper ant sting: The jack jumper ant is commonly found in many parts of Australia and can cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. Some people have a relatively minor allergic response whereas other develop anaphylaxis which is a life-threatening allergic response which requires urgent medical attention. Jack jumpers deliver their venom by grabbing skin in its jaws and then using a stinger located in their tail region to inject the venom.
  • Jack-in-the-pulpit poisoning: Jack-in-the-pulpit is a herbaceous plant with small inconspicuous flowers and bright red berries. It is found throughout the world, both in the wild and in gardens. The plant contains calcium oxalate crystals which can cause irritating symptoms if eaten. The roots are edible if they are dried or cooked but eating raw roots will cause symptoms.
  • King Cobra poisoning: The King Cobra is a large venomous snake usually found in southeast Asia and India. Most bites from this snake results in envenomation due to the ferocity of their bite. The poison primarily affects the neuromuscular system but can also affect blood clotting.
  • Lepidopterism: A systemic illness caused by contact with certain poisonous caterpillar spines or urticating hairs.
  • Lion's mane jellyfish poisoning: The Lion's mane jellyfish is a large stinging jellyfish found in the colder waters of the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific Oceans. The jellyfish can deliver a painful sting with skin burning and blistering. Prolonged skin exposure can result in breathing problems, muscle cramps and even death.
  • Lionfish poisoning: The Lionfish is a venomous bottom-dwelling fish which is found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Symptoms tend to abate after 8 to 12 hours.
  • Lizard poisoning: A few lizard species are venomous e.g. Gila monster and Mexican beaded lizard. Envenomation by lizards is very uncommon but these venomous lizards can cause life-threatening symptoms. Gila lizards tend to hold on with their jaws while biting and the longer the jaws remain attached to the skin, the more severe the poisoning may be.
  • Lobelia poisoning: Lobelia is a herbaceous plant which bears elongated shafts of small blue, white or red flowers. The plant contains alkaloids such as lobeline which can result in similar effects to nicotine. The plant is sometimes used in herbal preparations which is usually how poisoning occurs.
  • Louse-borne diseases: Diseases that are carried by the louse and contracted by humans
  • Mareck's disease -- nervous system: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Mareck's disease -- visceral: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Marek disease: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects poultry - it is very contagious and is a herpes virus. The virus tends to affect the nerves and cause tumors in internal organs. Poultry may be unable to lay eggs or may even die. Young birds are more susceptible than older birds with death most common between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. The virus may attack the nervous system and result in paralysis or it may attack the visceral system and cause tumors in the internal organs. Some birds may die without any obvious symptoms.
  • Marine toxins: Toxins produced by marine animals
  • Marine turtle poisoning: Marine turtles are found and eaten in the rivers and coastal waters of Southeast Asia. It is believed that sometimes these turtles become poisonous when the eat toxic algae which occur at certain times of the year. Symptoms vary in nature and severity amongst patients - obviously the more that is eaten, the more severe the symptoms are.
  • Marine turtle poisoning -- Green Sea Turtle: Green Sea turtles are found and eaten in the rivers and coastal waters of Southeast Asia. It is believed that sometimes these turtles become poisonous when the eat toxic algae which occur at certain times of the year. Symptoms vary in nature and severity amongst patients - obviously the more that is eaten, the more severe the symptoms are.
  • Marine turtle poisoning -- Hawksbill Turtle: Hawksbill turtles are found and eaten in the rivers and coastal waters of Southeast Asia. It is believed that sometimes these turtles become poisonous when the eat toxic algae which occur at certain times of the year. Symptoms vary in nature and severity amongst patients - obviously the more that is eaten, the more severe the symptoms are.
  • Marine turtle poisoning -- Leatherback Turtle: Leatherback turtles are found and eaten in the rivers and coastal waters of Southeast Asia. It is believed that sometimes these turtles become poisonous when the eat toxic algae which occur at certain times of the year. Symptoms vary in nature and severity amongst patients - obviously the more that is eaten, the more severe the symptoms are.
  • Marine turtle poisoning -- Loggerhead Turtle: Loggerhead turtles are found and eaten in the rivers and coastal waters of Southeast Asia. It is believed that sometimes these turtles become poisonous when the eat toxic algae which occur at certain times of the year. Symptoms vary in nature and severity amongst patients - obviously the more that is eaten, the more severe the symptoms are.
  • Marine turtle poisoning -- Soft-shelled Turtle: Soft-shelled turtles are found and eaten in the rivers and coastal waters of Southeast Asia. It is believed that sometimes these turtles become poisonous when the eat toxic algae which occur at certain times of the year. Symptoms vary in nature and severity amongst patients - obviously the more that is eaten, the more severe the symptoms are.
  • Mesquite Buck moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Mesquite Buck moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Mesquite stinger caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Mesquite stinger caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Mexican Beaded Lizard poisoning: Gila lizards are one of the few venomous species of lizard. They are found in parts of America such as Arizona, California, Nevada and Mexico. Envenomation by lizards is very uncommon but these venomous lizards can cause life-threatening symptoms. Gila lizards tend to hold on with their jaws while biting and the longer the jaws remain attached to the skin, the more severe the poisoning may be.
  • Millipede poisoning: Millipedes are multi-segmented arthropods that have numerous legs. They can secrete poisonous substances from their body and some can squirt the poison at their predator. Death due to millipede poisoning has not been reported though the poison can cause skin symptoms.
  • Moccasin snake poisoning: The Moccasin snake is a poisonous snake found mainly in America and Asia. Moccasin snakes include the copperhead, cottonmouth and the Siberian, Central Asian and Malayan pit vipers. They are considered less venomous than rattlesnakes The snake venom contains toxins which affect the blood and tissues rather than the nervous system. Children tend to suffer more severe symptoms due to their smaller body size. Rapid swelling of the skin around the site of the bite is a sign of a more severe poisoning.
  • Mohave Rattle snake poisoning: The Mohave rattle snake is a poisonous snake found mainly in Mexico and south-western areas of the US. The type of venom in Mohave snakes varies amongst species. Those with Type A venom tend to affect the nervous system whereas those with Type B venom primarily affect the blood and tissues. Type A tends to be more toxic than type B. Children tend to suffer more severe symptoms due to their smaller body size.
  • Moon Jellyfish poisoning: Contact with the Moon Jellyfish can result in various mild to moderate skin symptoms.
  • Mosquito bite: Bite from a mosquito.
  • Mosquito-borne diseases: Diseases that are carried by the mosquito
  • Needlefish bite: The Needlefish is long-beaked surface fish found in tropical and sub-tropical oceans. The needlefish can deliver a serious bite but has no venom. These fish are attracted to bright lights and can propel themselves out of the water towards the light source. Fisherman have reportedly received puncture wounds when fishing at night with a light.
  • Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: Rare food poisoning from eating contaminated shellfish
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Africanized honeybee: An Africanized honeybee allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to an Africanized honeybee sting. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Ant: An ant bite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to an ant bite. Multiple bites increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. Certain ants pose more of an allergy risk than others e.g. red fire ant. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Black fire ant: A black fire ant bite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a black fire ant bite. Multiple bites increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Bumblebee: A Bumblebee allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a Bumblebee sting. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Cockroach: A cockroach allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to cockroaches, in particular their saliva, outer shell, eggs and feces. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Hornet: A hornet allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a hornet sting. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Red fire ant: A red fire ant bite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a red fire ant bite. Multiple bites increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Tropical fire ant: A tropical fire ant bite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a tropical fire ant bite. Multiple bites increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- Yellow jacket Wasp: A yellow jacket allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a yellow jacket wasp sting. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- dust mites: A mite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to dust mites. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- honey bee: A honey bee allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a honey bee sting. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- mosquito: A mosquito allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to mosquito bites. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- scorpion: A scorpion allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a scorpion sting. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- wasp: A wasp allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a wasp sting. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Octopus poisoning: Octopus bites are quite rare but octopus such as the blue-ringed octopus can deliver quite a venomous bite.
  • Oleander caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Oleander caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Oriental Hornet poisoning: The Oriental hornet can deliver a venomous sting which can result in serious and even life-threatening symptoms. Allergies to the venom are also a possible life-threatening consequence. Multiple stings increase the severity of symptoms.
  • Palagia sting: The Mauve stinger is a common jellyfish found in most parts of the world. Stings most often occur in the Mediterranean and Australia. A sting from this jellyfish can cause a variety of skin symptoms that vary from patient to patient.
  • Pale tussock moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Pale tussock moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Palytoxin poisoning: Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in sea anemones and certain crabs and fish (e.g. triggerfish). The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated fish.
  • Paming moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Paming moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Parakeet allergy: A parakeet allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to parakeets. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement of the parakeet. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Paralytic shellfish poisoning: Rare food poisoning from eating contaminated shellfish
  • Parrot allergy: A parrot allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to parrots. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement of the parrot. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Parrotfish poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some parrotfish from the Philippines and Singapore region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated parrotfish.
  • Pet allergy: A pet allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pets such as cats and dogs. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of the animal. Animals frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to animals will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the animal. Frequent washing of the animal may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Pfiesteria piscicida poisoning: Pfiesteria piscicida is an estuarine microorganism (dinoflagellate) that can cause illness in humans as well as fish. The particular toxin involved has not yet been identified. The microorganism may release toxins into the water or it may be aerosolized which can result in skin, eye and respiratory exposure. The condition is not contagious and they symptoms may vary considerably amongst patients.
  • Pfiesteria poisoning: Pfiesteria is an estuarine microorganism (dinoflagellate) that can cause illness in humans as well as fish. The particular toxin involved has not yet been identified. The microorganism may release toxins into the water or it may be aerosolized which can result in skin, eye and respiratory exposure. The condition is not contagious and they symptoms may vary considerably amongst patients.
  • Pfiesteria shumwayae poisoning: Pfiesteria shumwayae is an estuarine microorganism (dinoflagellate) that can cause illness in humans as well as fish. The particular toxin involved has not yet been identified. The microorganism may release toxins into the water or it may be aerosolized which can result in skin, eye and respiratory exposure. The condition is not contagious and they symptoms may vary considerably amongst patients.
  • Pigeon allergy: A pigeon allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pigeons. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement of the pigeon. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Poisonous snakebite: A snakebite which is poisonous to humans
  • Poisonous snakebites: Multiple snakebites which are poisonous
  • Polar bear poisoning: Polar bears are often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver and kidneys of the polar bear is believed to result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases. Eating more than 200 grams of Polar bear liver can result in human death however death is considered rare.
  • Portugese Man-of-War larvae envenomation: The tiny stinging larvae of the Portugese Man-of-War can release a toxin if they are put under pressure. Thus, any larvae trapped under swimming bathers or caps can cause toxins to be released. The skin develops an allergic response to the toxin and a rash forms. Swimming clothes contaminated by the stinging cells can produce a reaction even weeks after they have been washed and dried as the toxins are still able to be released from trapped stinging cells. Rubbing, showering in fresh water and wearing contaminated bathing suits for a long time after getting out of the water tend make the rash worse. Symptoms other than those involving the skin may occur occasionally. The condition most often occurs in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Processionary tree caterpillar poisoning: A dark, grey-black caterpillar which can cause varying symptoms on contact with its hairs or spines.
  • Puss caterpillar poisoning: The puss caterpillar has hollow, poison-filled spines amongst the hairs along its body. It is found mainly in the southern states of the United states. It is often found feeding on trees such as elm, oak and sycamore. Contact with the poisonous spines can result in various symptoms. The puss caterpillar is one of the more poisonous stinging caterpillars. Children tend to be more severely affected than adults.
  • Rabbitfish poisoning: The rabbitfish is a tropical fish found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They have poisonous spines which can deliver a very painful sting but is not life-threatening.
  • Randa's Eyed Silk moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Randa's Eyed Silk moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Rattle snake poisoning: The Rattle snake is a poisonous snake found mainly in America. They are distinguished by a characteristic rattle at the tip of their tail.
  • Red Imported Fire ant sting: The Red Imported Fire ant is found in parts of Australia and can cause allergic reactions in susceptible people. Some people have a relatively minor allergic response whereas other develop anaphylaxis which is a life-threatening allergic response which requires urgent medical attention. The ants have a venom gland attached to a stinger located in their tail region. Ants can sting more than once.
  • Red Whelk poisoning: Red Whelk are colorful, carnivorous snail found mainly in Britain and Japan. The salivary gland of some whelks contains tetramine which can cause symptoms in humans if eaten. Raw, cooked or canned whelk can cause poisoning. Red whelk have the highest concentration of toxins in the summer. Whelk is often used as fish bait.
  • Ringed seal poisoning: The Ringed seal is often used as a food source by the arctic inhabitants. Eating the liver of the ringed seal can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Rodent allergy: A rodent allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to rodents such as mice and rats. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of rodents. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Rodent-borne disease: Any disease that is carried by rodents
  • Saddleback caterpillar poisoning: The Saddleback caterpillar is green with saddle-shaped markings on its back. It has four protrusions at its front and back which has stinging hairs. It is found mainly in the United states feeds on deciduous trees such as oak, cherry, chestnut and plum. Contact with the poisonous spines can result in various symptoms.
  • Sardine poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some sardines contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the sardines does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The sardines are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Satin moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Satin moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Scombrotoxic fish poisoning: Bacterial food poisoning from eating contaminated fish
  • Scorpaena spp. poisoning: Scorpaena species of fish live in coastal Pacific waters and can deliver a sting with their strong, sharp spines. The main symptoms tends to be varying severity of pain.
  • Sea Hare poisoning: Certain species of sea hares can result in poisoning if eaten. Sea hares are marine mollusks. Two species with a potential for poisoning are found in Oceans near Fiji and Japan. Eating the eggs of these sea hares can also cause liver damage. Poisoning by sea hares is considered quite rare. The substance underlying the condition is organic bromine compounds.
  • Sea anemone larvae envenomation: The tiny stinging larvae of certain sea anemone (Edwardsiella lineata) can release a toxin if they are put under pressure. Thus, any larvae trapped under swimming bathers or caps can cause toxins to be released. The skin develops an allergic response to the toxin and a rash forms. Swimming clothes contaminated by the stinging cells can produce a reaction even weeks after they have been washed and dried as the toxins are still able to be released from trapped stinging cells. Rubbing, showering in fresh water and wearing contaminated bathing suits for a long time after getting out of the water tend make the rash worse. Symptoms other than those involving the skin may occur occasionally.
  • Sea bather's eruption: A rash that can develop sometimes when swimming in the ocean. The rash forms on the skin covered by the bathing suit and is caused by an allergic response to stinging cells from the larvae of certain sea anemones and thimble jellyfish which become trapped under the bathers. Stings are most likely to occur in summer. Swimming clothes contaminated by the stinging cells can produce a reaction even weeks after they have been washed and dried as the toxins are still able to be released from trapped stinging cells. Rubbing, showering in fresh water and wearing contaminated bathing suits for a long time after getting out of the water tend make the rash worse. Symptoms other than those involving the skin may occur occasionally. The condition most often occurs in Thailand, Brazil, the Bahamas and the Philippines.
  • Sea nettle sting: The Sea Nettle is a poisonous jellyfish found in coastal parts of the Atlantic and Gulf areas - especially eastern US. The jellyfish usually only causes a relatively minor skin rash but prolonged exposure can result in muscle cramps and breathing problems. The severity of the sting depends on the level of exposure.
  • Sea onion poisoning: Sea onion is a bulbous herb which has long narrow leaves and tall stems of small, usually white, flowers. The plant is often used indoors or outdoors as an ornamental plant. The plant contains cardiac glycoside which causes gastrointestinal symptoms if eaten. The plant is considered to have a relatively low level of toxicity. Skin irritation can also result from skin exposure to the juice from the bulb.
  • Sea snake poisoning: The Sea snake is a poisonous snake found in the warmer western parts of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Sea snakes have scales but not gills or fins so they still need to go to the surface of the water to breathe. Sea snake venom is particularly poisonous but their bite fails to achieve any significant envenomation. The venom is toxic to the nervous system and muscles.
  • Sea thimble larvae envenomation: The tiny stinging larvae of the sea thimble can release a toxin if they are put under pressure. Thus, any larvae trapped under swimming bathers or caps can cause toxins to be released. The skin develops an allergic response to the toxin and a rash forms. Swimming clothes contaminated by the stinging cells can produce a reaction even weeks after they have been washed and dried as the toxins are still able to be released from trapped stinging cells. Rubbing, showering in fresh water and wearing contaminated bathing suits for a long time after getting out of the water tend make the rash worse. Symptoms other than those involving the skin may occur occasionally.
  • Sea urchin poisoning: The gonads of sea urchins are eaten in some European and Indo-Pacific areas. These gonads are believed to produce a toxic chemical during their reproductive season. Ingestion of the toxic gonads can result in various symptom. Some people develop allergy symptoms following ingestion of the gonads.
  • Sea wasp poisoning: The sea wasp can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning (Chiropsalmus quadrigatus): The Chiropsalmus quadrigatus jellyfish can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning -- Chironex fleckeri: The Chironex fleckeri jellyfish is one of the deadliest jellyfish in the world. It can deliver a serious sting and can be found mainly in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sei whale poisoning: The Sei whale is eaten in certain parts of Asia. Eating the liver of the Sei whale can cause poisoning symptoms in humans if sufficient quantities are consumed. It is believed that the poisoning results from the very high levels of vitamin A in the liver.
  • Silkworm dropping lung: Inhalation of silkworm dropping particles in an occupational setting can cause various lung symptoms. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the duration of the exposure. Chronic exposure can lead to progressive lung symptoms which can gradually lead to symptoms such as weight loss and eventually lung scarring and possibly even respiratory failure in severe cases. Acute exposure results in symptoms such as fever, chills, shortness of breath and body aches.
  • Silver Spotted Tiger moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Silver Spotted Tiger moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Slickhead poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some slickhead contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the slickhead does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The slickhead are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Snake bite: When a person is bitten by a snake
  • Solomon's seal poisoning: Solomon's seal is aherbaceous plant which bears long, unbranched stemsm white floers and hanging blue-black berries. The plant can be found growing in the wild or in gardens as an ornamental plant. The berries contain a chemical called which can cause gastrointestinal symptoms if eaten. The plant is considered to have a relatively low level of toxicity.
  • Sparrow allergy: A sparrow allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to sparrows. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement of the bird. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Spider Bites: A puncture wound caused by a spider that may involve the release of noxious substances or bacteria.
  • Spiny elm caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Spiny Elm caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Stinging Bark caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Stinging Bark caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Stinging Nettle caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Stinging Nettle caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Stinging Rose caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the Stinging Rose caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • Striped Blister Beetle poisoning: The striped blister beetle is native to many parts of America and Canada. Animals that accidentally eat the beetles can become quite ill and they can also cause symptoms in humans if accidentally ingested. The beetles contain toxic substances called cantharidin and pederin which can cause symptoms through skin or eye exposure as well as through ingestion.
  • Tarpon poisoning (clupeotoxin): Some tarpon contain toxins (Clupeotoxin) which can be poisonous to humans if eaten. Heat does not destroy the toxin and there is still uncertainty as to the origin of the toxin. The toxin appears to be present in higher concentrations in summer and is believed to be possible linked to the consumption of toxic food in its food web. The size and age of the tarpon does not appear to be related to the toxicity. The tarpon are found in coastal waters off Africa and the Caribbean, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
  • Tetraodon Poisoning: Food poisoning from Tetradons.
  • Tick bite: When an individual is bitten by a tick
  • Tick-borne diseases: Any disease that is transferred to humans by the tick
  • Tick-borne encephalitis: A viral infection (flavivirdae) of the central nervous system which is transmitted by ticks. Ticks usually feed on small rodents who are the main carriers of the virus. Transmission may also occur through the consumption of untreated milk. The incubation period is usually 1 to 2 weeks. The symptoms occur in two phases: the first involves symptoms of a general viral illness (fever, headache, nausea, aching muscles) followed by a period of remission and then central nervous system inflammation such as meningitis. However, many patients only suffer the first phase of the disease.
  • Turkey allergy: A turkey allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to turkeys. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement from the turkey. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Venerupin shellfish poisoning: The venerupin shellfish can be eaten by humans. The shellfish can become toxic if they consume toxic algae. The shellfish is most commonly found and eaten in Japan but has been introduced into parts of the US. Interestingly, all cases of poisoning have occurred in very localized areas of Japan where they are harvested from lakes. This type of poisoning tends to have a high death rate - up to a third of patients die.
  • Vietnamese Centipede poisoning: The Vietnamese centipede is a large centipede sometimes kept as a pet. It can deliver a bite which usually only causes localized skin symptoms.
  • Walrus poisoning: The walrus is used as a food source in some parts of the world. Eating the liver of the walrus can result in a Vitamin A overdose which can cause serious symptoms and even death in extreme cases.
  • Weeverfish poisoning: The Weeverfish lives on the bottom of coastal areas in various parts of the world (Pacific Ocean, European coast, Mediterranean Ocean). The fish can deliver a sting with their strong, sharp spines. The main symptoms tends to be severe pain and localized inflammation.
  • White marked tussock moth caterpillar poisoning: Contact with the poisonous hairs or spines of the White marked tussock moth caterpillar can cause skin rashes or even a hypersensitivity reaction in some cases.
  • White whale poisoning: The White whale is used as a food source in the Arctic. The white whale may cause toxicity if the meat and visceral organs eaten by humans in sufficient quantities.
  • Xanthid crab poisoning (Palytoxin): Palytoxin is a marine toxin found in some xanthid crabs from the Philippines and Singapore region. The toxin is extremely potent and death is common in patients who ingest contaminated xanthid crabs.
  • Yellow sac spider poisoning: The yellow sac spider is a small spider found in Hawaii, eastern US, Utah and New England. The spider tends to hold on very tightly when it bites and often has to be physically removed. The venom contains a toxin which kills cells. Skin and sometimes systemic symptoms result - symptoms experience can vary amongst patients.

 

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