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Botulism food poisoning in Wikipedia

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Botulism". (Source - Retrieved 2006-09-07 14:19:24 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botulism)

Introduction

Botulism (from Latin botulus, "sausage") is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulin is a potent known toxin, blocking nerve function and leading to respiratory and musculoskeletal paralysis.

There are three main kinds of botulism:

  • Foodborne botulism is a form of foodborne illness and is caused by eating foods that contain the botulinum toxin.
  • Wound botulism is caused by toxin produced from a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum, this is, also, the rarest type of botulism.
  • Infant botulism is caused by consuming the spores of the botulinum bacteria, which then grow in the intestines and release toxin.

All forms of botulism can be fatal and are considered medical emergencies. Foodborne botulism can be especially dangerous as a public health problem because many people can be poisoned from a single contaminated food source.

In the United States an average of 110 cases of botulism are reported each year. Of these, approximately 25% are foodborne, 72% are infant botulism, and 3% are wound botulism. Outbreaks of foodborne botulism involving two or more persons occur during most years and usually are caused by eating contaminated home-canned foods. The number of cases of foodborne and infant botulism has changed little in recent years, but wound botulism has increased because of the use of black tar heroin, especially in California$[1]$.

Symptoms (food-borne and wound forms)

Classic symptoms of food-borne botulism occur between 12-36 hours after consuming the botulinum toxin, but they can occur as early as 6 hours or as late as 10 days. Wound botulism has a longer incubation period, usually between 4-14 days. Symptoms of either form usually include dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, muscle weakness, double vision, vomiting, and sometimes diarrhea. These symptoms may progress to cause paralytic ileus with severe constipation, and eventually body paralysis. The respiratory muscles are affected as well, which may cause death due to respiratory failure. These are all symptoms of the muscle paralysis caused by the bacterial toxin. In all cases the toxin made by C. botulinum causes illness, not the bacterium itself.

Infant botulism

Infant botulism (First recognized in 1976) is the most common form of the ailment in the United States, but is rarely diagnosed in other countries. It affects about 100 infants per year in the United States, with the majority in the state of California (50-60%). Infants less than 12 months of age are susceptible, with 95% of cases occuring between the ages of 3 weeks and 6 months of age at presentation. The mode of action of this form is through colonization by germinating spores in the gut of an infant. The first symptom is usually constipation, followed by generalized weakness, loss of head control and difficulty feeding. Because of these symptoms, infant botulism is sometimes referred to as floppy baby syndrome. Like the other forms of botulism, the symptoms are caused by the absorption of botulinum toxin, and typically progress to a symmetric descending flaccid paralysis. Death is the eventual outcome unless the infant receives artificial ventilation.

Honey, corn syrup, and other sweeteners are potentially dangerous for infants. This is partly because the digestive juices of an infant are less acidic than older children and adults, and may be less likely to destroy ingested spores. In addition, young infants do not yet have sufficient numbers of resident microbiota in their intestines to competitively exclude C. botulinum. Unopposed in the small intestine, the warm body temperature combined with an anaerobic environment creates a medium for botulinum spores to germinate, divide and produce toxin. Thus, C. botulinum is able to colonize the gut of an infant with relative ease, whereas older children and adults are not typically susceptible to ingested spores. C. botulinum spores are widely present in the environment, including honey. For this reason, it is advised that neither honey, nor any other sweetener, should be given to children until they are weaned. Nevertheless, the majority of infants with botulism have no history of ingestion of honey, and the exact source of the offending spores is unclear about 85% of the time. Spores present in the soil are a leading candidate for most cases, and often a history of construction near the home of an affected infant may be obtained.

Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings thus arresting their function. The C. Botulinim bacterium does not produce toxin in an aerobic environment, and the toxin is unstable to heating, so poisoning generally occurs from the use of improperly bottled or canned foods: typical instances of botulism would be home-bottled preserves used in salads. An unusual example of botulism occurred in Britain in the exceptionally hot, dry summer of 1976, when river levels dropped so low in some areas that feeding swans accidentally ingested material from anaerobic layers in a river (normally out of their reach), and were struck by botulism symptoms.

Botulinum toxin is also used cosmetically, for example in reducing facial wrinkles or excessive transpiration, and is commercially known as Botox. Cases of inadvertent botulism have occurred due to overdose or accidental intravenous injection of Botox.

Diagnosis

Physicians may consider the diagnosis if the patient's history and physical examination suggest botulism. However, these clues are often not enough to allow a diagnosis of botulism. Other diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, stroke, and myasthenia gravis can appear similar to botulism, and special tests may be needed to exclude these other conditions. These tests may include a brain scan, cerebrospinal fluid examination, nerve conduction test (electromyography, or EMG), and a Edrophonium Chloride (Tensilon) test for myasthenia gravis. The most direct way to confirm the diagnosis is to demonstrate the botulinum toxin in the patient's serum or stool by injecting serum or stool into mice and looking for signs of botulism that can be blocked by specific antisera.

Treatment

The respiratory failure and paralysis that occur with severe botulism may require a patient to be on a breathing machine for weeks, plus intensive medical and nursing care. After several weeks, the paralysis slowly improves. If diagnosed early, foodborne and wound botulism can be treated with a horse-derived antitoxin which blocks the action of toxin circulating in the blood. This can prevent patients from worsening, but recovery still takes many weeks. Physicians may try to remove contaminated food still in the gut by inducing vomiting or by using enemas. Wounds should be treated, usually surgically, to remove the source of the toxin-producing bacteria. Good supportive care in a hospital is the mainstay of therapy for all forms of botulism.

Besides supportive care, infant botulism can be treated with human botulism immune globulin (BabyBIG), when available. Supply is extremely limited, but is available through the California Department of Health Services. This dramatically decreases the length of illness for most infants. Paradoxically, antibiotics (especially aminoglycosides or clindamycin) may cause dramatic acceleration of paralysis as the affected bacteria release toxin. Visual stimulation should be performed during the time the infant is paralyzed as well, in order to promote the normal development of visual pathways in the brain during this critical developmental period.

Furthermore each case of food-borne botulism is a potential public health emergency in that it is necessary to identify the source of the outbreak and ensure that all persons who have been exposed to the toxin have been identified, and that no contaminated food remains.

Complications

Botulism can result in death due to respiratory failure. However, in the past 50 years, the proportion of patients with botulism who die has fallen from about 50% to 8% due to improved supportive care. A patient with severe botulism may require a breathing machine as well as intensive medical and nursing care for several months. Patients who survive an episode of botulism poisoning may have fatigue and shortness of breath for years and long-term therapy may be needed to aid their recovery.

Infant botulism has no long-term side effects, but can be complicated by nosocomial adverse events. The case fatality rate is less than 1% for hospitalized infants with botulism.

Prevention

Commercially canned goods are required to undergo a "botulinum cook" (121°C for 3 minutes) and so rarely cause botulism, there have however been notable exceptions (such as the 1978 Alaskan salmon outbreak). Foodborne botulism has more frequently been from home-canned foods with low acid content, such as asparagus, green beans, beets, and corn. However, outbreaks of botulism have resulted from more unusual sources. In July, 2002, fourteen Alaskans ate muktuk (whale meat) from a beached whale, and eight of them developed symptoms of botulism, two of them requiring mechanical ventilation [1]. Other origins of infection include garlic or herbs stored covered in oil, chile peppers, tomatoes , improperly handled baked potatoes wrapped in aluminum foil , and home-canned or fermented fish. Persons who do home canning should follow strict hygienic procedures to reduce contamination of foods. Oils infused with garlic or herbs should be refrigerated. Potatoes which have been baked while wrapped in aluminum foil should be kept hot until served or refrigerated . Because the botulism toxin is destroyed by high temperatures, persons who eat home-canned foods should consider boiling the food for 10 minutes before eating it to ensure safety. Canned foods may also indicate botulism infestation by outward bulges in the can which result from gas production (perhaps during bacterial growth) causing increased pressure inside the can; it would be safest to simply throw such cans away as the bacteria which grew may have been botulism. Honey and other sweeteners should not be fed to infants until their digestive systems have matured -- typically this will be after weaning age (ie, 18 months+). Wound botulism can be prevented by promptly seeking medical care for infected wounds, and by avoiding punctures by unsterile things such as needles used for street drug injections.

References

  1. Passaro DJ, Werner SB, McGee J, Mac Kenzie WR, Vugia DJ. Wound botulism associated with black tar heroin among injecting drug users. JAMA 1998;279:859-63. PMID 9516001.
  • Clostridium Botulinum In The Food Chain, By Dr. Rhodri Evans, Department of Industrial Microbiology, University College, Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4. Published in Hygiene Review 1997, under the auspices of The Society of Food Hygiene Technology. [2]
 

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