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Diseases » Brain cancer » Glossary

Glossary for Brain cancer

  • Acrocallosal Syndrome (Schinzel Type): A rare condition characterized by absence of portion of the brain (corpus callosum), mental deficiency, duplicated toes, mental deficiency and other abnormalities.
  • Adenoma: General term for a benign tumor of a gland
  • Alzheimer's Disease: Dementia-causing brain disease mostly in seniors and the elderly.
  • Astrocytoma: A malignant tumour of the nervous system composed of astrocytes.
  • Bladder Cancer: Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder.
  • Brain Stem Glioma: Tumor of the brain stem consisting of neuroglia of many stages of development.
  • Brain abscess: Pus accumulating into an abscess on the brain
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
  • Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
  • Cataracts: Cloudy areas on the eye's cornea interfering with vision.
  • Cerebrovascular accident: Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted and results in cell injury and death.
  • Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 15. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Cleft upper lip, median -- cutaneous polyps: A rare birth disorder characterized mainly by a cleft in the upper lip, central nervous system tumors and skin polyps.
  • Cysticercosis: An infectious disease caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. If the larvae are ingested then a mild or asymptomatic tapeworm infection occurs. However, ingested eggs pass into the bloodstream where they can then enter various tissues and form the cysts that characterize cysticercosis.
  • Dandy Walker syndrome recessive form: A rare recessively inherited brain malformation where a cyst develops in the brain which can interfere with the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid and lead to hydrocephalus. The severity of the condition is variable and symptoms tend to only occur if the fluid builds up inside the skull.
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Dizziness: Feelings of lightheadedness or giddiness.
  • Encephalitis: Dangerous infection of the brain
  • Ependymoma: A tumor that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Symptoms vary according to the aggressiveness, size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Esophagus Cancer: Cancer of the esophagus in the throat.
  • Exercise: The use of the human muscles to improve ones health
  • Glioblastoma: An aggressive primary brain tumour of the glial (supporting) cells.
  • Glioma: A rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Head Conditions: Conditions that affect the head
  • Headache: In medicine a headache or cephalalgia is a symptom of a number of different conditions of the head and sometimes neck. Some of the causes are benign while others are medical emergencies. It ranks among the most common pain complaints
  • Hearing symptoms: Problems with the ear's hearing ability
  • Hyperthermia: Hyperthermia is an increase in body temperature in the context of an unchanged thermoregulatory point in the brain.
  • Hysteria: Psychological disorder causing physical symptoms
  • Leukemia: Cancer of the blood cells, usually white blood cells.
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by tumor development by young adulthood.
  • Lung cancer: Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to metastasis, which is the invasion of adjacent tissue and infiltration beyond the lungs. Most lung tumors are malignant.
  • Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Lymphoma: Cancer involving lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Malignant astrocytoma: A very malignant primary brain tumor consisting of astrocytes. The tumor spreads throughout the brain and a third of patients dying in the first year.
  • Medulloblastoma: A type of brain tumor.
  • Melanoma: Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease. It involves cells called melanocytes, which produce a skin pigment called melanin. Melanin is responsible for skin and hair color.
  • Melanoma -- astrocytoma syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of a melanoma with a type of brain tumor called an astrocytoma. The exact symptoms may vary depending on the exact location of the brain tumor.
  • Meningioma: A slow-growing tumor of the meninges that is not cancerous. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Metastatic cancer: Any cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
  • Migraine: Chronic recurring headaches with or without a preceding aura.
  • Multiple Sclerosis: Autoimmune attack on spinal nerves causing diverse and varying neural problems.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia: A group of conditions that is characterised by the hyperplasia and hyperfunction of two or more glands of the endocrine system
  • Nausea: The queasy feeling of nausea and often also vomiting.
  • Nervous system conditions: Diseases affecting the nerves and the nervous system.
  • Neurocysticercosis: Brain/CNS infection with the tapeworm Cysticercosis
  • Neurofibroma: A benign tumor that originates from nerve cells. The tumors usually arise from nerves in the skin or just under the skin.
  • Neurofibromatosis: Nerve disorders often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1): Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is a genetic disorder often leading to the development of nerve tumors. The condition is also characterized by skin pigmentation abnormalities.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3A: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant. The skin tumors tend to develop characteristically on the palms of the hands.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3B: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and intestinal tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis, type 4, of Riccardi: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis-1: Genetic disorder often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurological system tumors: Tumors of the nerves or neurological system, whether cancerous or benign.
  • Oligodendroglioma: Slow-growing brain tumor
  • Overactive bladder/urinary incontinence:
  • PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome is a group of conditions caused by a mutation in the PTEN gene. The primary characteristic of the condition is the development of multiple hamartomas (tumor-like growth) in virtually any part of the body. The growths are generally not cancerous but patients often have an increased risk of developing various cancers. Specific conditions covered by this term are Cowden syndrome, BAnnayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba Syndrome and Proteus syndrome.
  • Peripheral type neurofibromatosis:
  • Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition involving increased intracranial pressure which can produce symptoms similar to a brain tumor.
  • Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia -- Dandy Walker cyst: A very rare syndrome involving abnormal development of the kidneys, liver and pancreas as well as a brain cyst called a Dandy-Walker cyst.
  • Retinoblastoma: A very rare malignant tumor that originates in the retina.
  • Sarcoma: A malignant carcinoma that is located in connective tissue
  • Seizures: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, seizures and high levels of hydroxylysine in the urine.
  • Spinal Cord Tumor: Cancer of the spinal cord or central nervous system.
  • Spondylocostal dysostosis, Dandy-Walker: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by rib and spine abnormalities as well as the Dandy-Walker anomaly (brain cyst).
  • Subdural hematoma: Type of bleeding in the brain
  • Syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacteria (Treponema pallidum). The condition is often asymptomatic in the early stages but one or more sores may be present in the early stages. Untreated syphilis usually results in remission of visible symptoms but further severe damage may occur to internal organs and other body tissues which can result in death.
  • Tibia absent -- polydactyly -- arachnoid cyst: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by extra fingers, an absent shinbone and a brain cyst.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: Temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that persists, by definition, for less than 24 hours.
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • Tuberous sclerosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by harmartomatous skin nodules, seizures, phakomata and bone lesions.
  • Tuberous sclerosis, type 1: A rare genetic disorder with a variety of abnormalities such as seizures, mental retardation, skin lesions and nodules in various body tissues and organs.
  • Turcot syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by benign growths on the inside of the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system tumors.
  • Vision changes: Any change in vision or sight.
  • Vomiting: Vomiting or retching symptoms.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Genetic disease causing multiple benign tumors


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