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Diseases » Cardiac arrest » Glossary
 

Glossary for Cardiac arrest

  • Absent pulse: An undetectable pulse.
  • Anaesthesia: loss of sensations
  • Anaphylaxis: A rare, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction.
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Aortic valve stenosis: A congenital condition involving a malformation of the valve that controls the blood flow of the main heart vessel (aorta). The valve doesn't open enough to allow sufficient blood to flow through the aorta which reduces the supply of oxygenated blood to the body.
  • Arrhythmias: Irregularity in the heart's beating rhythm.
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
  • Autonomic Dysreflexia: A complication of spinal cord injury where a particular stimulus can trigger an excessive response from the autonomic nervous system which causes blood pressure to rise - sometimes to dangerous levels. Stimuli that can trigger the response include bladder irritation, bowel irritation (e.g. due to constipation, gas, enema), skin irritation (e.g. due to burns, pressure sores, ingrown toenails), broken bones, tight clothing, labour and temperature extremes. The severity and frequency of the condition is highly variable. The condition occurs in patients with tetraplegia or with loss of sensation above the lower rib cage.
  • Breathing difficulties: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
  • Brugada Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. The condition may be inherited in some cases. The mean age of sudden death is 40 years of age.
  • Brugada syndrome 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 1 is caused by a mutation in the SCN5A gene on chromosome 3p21. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Brugada syndrome 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 2 is caused by a mutation in the GPD1L gene on chromosome 3p22.3. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Brugada syndrome 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 3 is caused by a mutation in the CACNA1C gene on chromosome 12p13.3. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Brugada syndrome 4: A rare genetic disorder characterized by heart rhythm abnormalities which can result in sudden death if untreated. Type 14 is caused by a mutation in the CACNB2 gene on chromosome 10p12. Symptoms most often occur during the night and the condition is most prevalent in Japan and Southeast Asia.
  • Cardiomyopathy, infantile histiocytoid: A rare form of heart muscle disease that occurs during infancy and is caused by the presence of abnormal cells in the heart muscle.
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 deficiency: A very rare inherited deficiency of a particular enzyme (Carnitine palmitoyl transferase) which prevents fatty acids being transported to the part of the cell that converts it to energy. There are two main subtypes of the disorder with each involving a slightly different form of the enzyme. Type I can be readily managed through diet. Type II has three subtypes: the myopathic form affects mainly the muscles; the hepatocardiomuscular form affects the liver and heart muscle; and the lethal neonatal form affects muscles and organs and usually results in death during the first year of life.
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, lethal neonatal form: A very rare metabolic disorder where deficiency of a particular enzyme (CPT II) prevents muscle fats being converted to energy. The lethal neonatal form affects various organs as well as the muscles and death usually occurs during the first year of life.
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency: A very rare inherited deficiency of a particular enzyme (Carnitine palmitoyl transferase) which prevents fatty acids being transported to the part of the cell that converts it to energy. There are two main subtypes of the disorder with each involving a slightly different form of the enzyme. Type I can be readily managed through diet. Type II has three subtypes: the myopathic form affects mainly the muscles; the hepatocardiomuscular form affects the liver and heart muscle; and the lethal neonatal form affects muscles and organs and usually results in death during the first year of life.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Strychnine: Strychnine is used as a rodenticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chest conditions: Any condition affecting the chest
  • Choking: Sensation of blockage or inability to breathe.
  • Chromosome 16q, partial deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the lost genetic material.
  • Circulatory system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the heart and the circulatory system.
  • Collapse: Physical or mental process shutdown
  • Darvocet overdose: Darvocet is a prescription drug mainly used to treat pain. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Decreased oxygen saturation: decreased amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium
  • Dissecting aortic aneurysm: aortic dissection is a potentially life-threatening condition in which there is bleeding into and along the wall of the aorta, the major artery leaving the heart
  • Eating disorders: Various mental disorders impairing normal eating or appetite.
  • Electrocution: Any injury caused by electricity
  • Embolism: Blockage of an artery or blood vessel
  • Heart attack: Serious and often fatal acute heart condition
  • Heart block: Failure of the heart's normal rhythm controls leading to arrhythmia
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart failure: Slow failure of the heart (cardiac insufficiency).
  • Heart symptoms: Symptoms affecting the heart
  • Hemorrhage: Bleeding of any type (especially when referring to severe bleeding)
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Arnica Flower: Arnica Flower can be used as a herbal agent used to topically for such things as bruises, hematomas and contusions. The herbal agent contains chemicals such as flavonoid glycoside, coumarin and sesquiterpene lactone. Ingestion of the herbal agent can result in overdose symptoms. The symptoms are mainly gastrointestinal. The herbal agent should not be used on broken skin.
  • Hypercalcaemia: Increased concentration of calcium in the blood
  • Hyperkalaemia: Increased concentration of potassium in the blood.
  • Hyperkalemia: The excess of potassium in the blood
  • Hypocalcaemia: Decreased concentration of calcium in the blood.
  • Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar level
  • Hypokalaemia: Decreased concentration of potassium in the blood
  • Hypokalemia: Low levels of potassium in the body.
  • Hypothermia: Low body temperature
  • Idiopathic, hypertrophic, subaortic stenosis: A rare heart disorder where thickening of parts of the heart (wall separating the heart chambers) reduces the size of heart chambers and hinders the flow of blood.
  • Indian Hemp poisoning: The Indian Hemp is a herbaceous shrubby plant who's sap contains resin and cardiac glycosides. Eating any part of the plant can result in cardiac arrest. The plant is considered very poisonous.
  • Injury: Any damage inflicted in the body
  • Ischemic heart disease: Heart disease from reduced blood flow to the heart
  • Lidocaine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A rare disorder where the body lacks enzymes needed to convert some fats (medium-chain fatty acids) into energy and hence these fats build up in the body and cause damage.
  • Myocarditis: Inflammation of the myocardium (muscle walls of the heart)
  • Pericardial effusion: Occurs when there is an abnormal collection of fluid within the pericardial sac
  • Pneumothorax: Air in the pleural spaces around the lungs.
  • Poisoning: The condition produced by poison
  • Pulmonary embolism: Blocked lung blood vessel often from a blood clot.
  • Respiratory arrest: A term used to indicate cessation of breathing.
  • Respiratory failure: Failure of the respiratory system
  • Reye's Syndrome: A syndrome in children recovering from infection and associated with aspirin.
  • Romano-Ward syndrome: A genetic heart disorder characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm (long Q-T interval) where the heart takes longer than normal to recharge between beats. The severity of the condition can vary.
  • Sea wasp poisoning: The sea wasp can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning (Chiropsalmus quadrigatus): The Chiropsalmus quadrigatus jellyfish can deliver a serious sting and can be found in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Sea wasp poisoning -- Chironex fleckeri: The Chironex fleckeri jellyfish is one of the deadliest jellyfish in the world. It can deliver a serious sting and can be found mainly in the waters of Northern Australia and the Philippines. Death can occur in as little as a few minutes if a person is severely stung.
  • Shock: Severe condition from reduced blood circulation
  • Shock, Cardiogenic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Cardiogenic shock is caused by impaired heart function which means that blood is unable to be pumped effectively around the body.
  • Shock, Distributive: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Distributive shock occurs when the blood vessels are dilated with affects blood volume and blood pressure within the vessels. Septic, neurogenic and anaphylactic shock are various forms of distributive shock.
  • Shock, Endocrine: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Endocrine shock is caused by a disturbance in the endocrine (hormone producing) system. Some examples include severe cases of hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and severe adrenal insufficiency.
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Hemorrhagic shock is caused by excessive bleeding which reduces the blood volume.
  • Shock, Hypovolaemic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Hypovolaemic shock is caused by a rapid fluid loss which reduces the blood volume.
  • Shock, Neurogenic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Neurogenic shock is caused problems with the nervous system.
  • Shock, Obstructive: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Obstructive shock is caused by obstruction the blood flow. Causes include cardiac tamponade, pulmonary embolism and narrowing of the aortic artery.
  • Shock, Septic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Septic shock is caused by infection which affects large parts of the body. This form of shock results in death in about half of the cases.
  • Shock, Traumatic: Shock is a life-threatening condition involving insufficient blood flow to the body tissues. Traumatic shock is caused by a serious injury or trauma to the body which affects the blood volume through one or more factors such as severe bleeding, heart damage and lung damage.
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: SIDS is a syndrome marked by the symptoms of sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant aged one month to one year.
  • Syncope: Temporary loss of conciousness or fainting.
  • Thanatophoric dysplasia, type 1: A rare lethal genetic disorder characterized by severe skeletal abnormalities, flat vertebrae, large head and low nasal bridge.
  • Ventricular fibrillation: Life-threatening heart arrhythmia with rapid beating in lower chambers
  • Ventricular tachycardia: A condition which is characterized by a fast heart beat originates from the ventricles

 

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