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Glossary for Child health conditions

  • ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. The related description Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a more modern description of the disease.

    Misdiagnosis of ADD is a well-known controversy in the sense that cases of hyperactivity in children may be over-diagnosed. There is a tendency for parents to seek and doctors to prescribe the drug Ritalin even in cases where the diagnosis of ADD or ADHD may be incorrect. Alternative diagnoses include normal child behavior (i.e. just an active child), food intolerances, or other behavioral disorders (see misdiagnosis of ADD).

    On the other hand, ADD is under-diagnosed in adults, with a large number of adults having ADD without knowing it; see misdiagnosis of Adult ADD.

  • ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome: A rare inherited childhood disorder involving deposits of cystine crystals in various parts of the body, especially the conjunctiva and cornea.
  • Acrodynia: Symptoms caused by chronic mercury poisoning in infants in children.
  • Acute (or transient) urinary incontinence: Acute (or Transient) Incontinence is caused by a new or recent medical problem that can be treated.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Cancer of the white blood cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia congenital sporadic aniridia: The rare association with a form of acute leukemia and congenital aniridia observed in a patient.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Susceptibility to: Cancer of the white blood cells characterized by the presence of excessive lymphoblasts. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are two subtypes of leukemia linked to a genetic anomaly which increases a person's susceptibility to developing the cancer. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q21 and type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 7p12.2.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Susceptibility to, 1: Cancer of the white blood cells characterized by the presence of excessive lymphoblasts. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are two subtypes of leukemia linked to a genetic anomaly which increases a person's susceptibility to developing the cancer. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q21.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Susceptibility to, 2: Cancer of the white blood cells characterized by the presence of excessive lymphoblasts. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets. There are two subtypes of leukemia linked to a genetic anomaly which increases a person's susceptibility to developing the cancer. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 7p12.2.
  • Acute meningitis: Acute meningitis is an inflammation of the brain that presents in an acute fashion. The inflammation may be the result of infective agents such as bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as non-infective agents such as certain drugs. Acute forms of meningitis can develop in within hours or days whereas chronic meningitis develops over weeks or months.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia: A form of rapidly progressing blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia: A form of rapidly progressing blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets. It is one of the most common forms of leukemia in adults but can occur in children.
  • Acute upper respiratory infection: Upper respiratory tract infections, are the illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx
  • Adenoid disorders: A disorder of the adenoids of the throat
  • Adenoiditis: Infection of the adenoids in the nasal-throat region
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy: A rare disorder which has characteristic symptoms of Addison disease (adrenocortical insufficiency) and Schilder disease (cerebral sclerosis). Bronze skin, brain sclerosis and demyelination are the main symptoms.
  • Airborne allergy: An airborne allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to airborne allergens such as pollen, mold spores and house dust mites. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Allergenic cross-reactivity: Studies have indicated that a significant number of people with certain allergies will also have allergic responses to other allergens which have a similar protein. For example patients allergic to birch pollen will often have allergies to plant foods such as apples and peaches. Symptoms can range from mild response to severe allergic reactions. Cross-reactivity tends to have mainly oral allergy symptoms with breathing problems and anaphylactic reactions being extremely rare. Food allergies related to cross-reactivity tend to be less severe than those not related to cross-reactivity.
  • Allergic Disorders: A group of disorders that a caused by an allergic response to allergens
  • Allergic conjunctivitis: Allergic conjunctivitis is an allergic reaction which causes inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye (thin clear lining covering the eye).
  • Allergic rhinitis: Allergic rhinitis involves inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes, eustachian tubes, middle ear, sinuses, and pharynx.
  • Allergies: Immune system over-reaction to various substances.
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: A rare neurological disorder involving paralysis on one side of the body that is only temporary but occurs often. The extent of the paralysis is variable.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2, juvenile: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2q33.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4, juvenile: An inherited disorder involving progressive degeneration of motor neurons which results in muscle weakness and wasting. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 9q34.
  • Analgesic asthma syndrome: Asthma caused by the use of pain-killing and anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin.
  • Animal allergies: Allergy to animals, typically household pets.
  • Animal allergy: An animal allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to animals such as cats. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of the animal. Animals frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to animals will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the animal. Frequent washing of the animal may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Aortic valves stenosis of the child: A birth defect where the aortic valve is abnormally narrow or unable to fully open. Depending on the degree of narrowing, the symptoms may range from severe to asymptomatic.
  • Apnea: Cessation of breathing. Apnea can be caused by neurological diseases, strangulation, drugs and airway obstruction.
  • Apneustic breathing: It is a series of slow, deep inspirations, each one held for 30 to 90 seconds, after which the air is suddenly expelled by elastic recoil of the lung.
  • Appendicitis/acute appendicitis/chronic appendicitis:
  • Arthropathy, progressive pseudorheumatoid, of childhood: A form of progressive rheumatoid arthritis that affects children.
  • Asperger syndrome: A neuropsychiatric disorder mainly involving the inability to understand and becoming involved in social interaction.
  • Asthma: Repeated attacks of breathing difficulty.
  • Asthma in Children:
  • Asthma related cough: Cough-variant asthma is a type of asthma in which the main symptom is a dry, non-productive cough. Cough-variant asthma is sometimes called chronic cough to describe a cough that has lasted longer than six to eight weeks.
  • Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Breathing problems caused by exercise. Patients who suffer from asthma and allergic rhinitis are particularly prone to the condition. Factors such as reduced humidity, cold temperatures, high levels of pollen, poor physical fitness, respiratory infections and reduced air quality can all increase the risk of an attack.
  • Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 7: An increased risk of asthma-related traits such as wheezing and atopic dermatitis are linked to a defect on chromosome 1q32.1.
  • Astrocytoma: A malignant tumour of the nervous system composed of astrocytes.
  • Astrovirus: An RNA virus that may affect the gastrointestinal system
  • Astroviruses:
  • Atopic dermatitis: Skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation, and pruritis. Often hereditary and associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 1: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q21. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 2: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 3: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20p. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 4: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17q25.3. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 5: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q12-q14. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis 6: Atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and itching. Dry, red, itchy patches of skin tend to develop most often in the folds of the arms and knees, wrists, face and hands. Atopic dermatitis often runs in a family which means that a genetic anomaly may increase a person's susceptibility to developing the skin condition. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q31-q33. The genetic anomaly means that the patient is more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis. The condition is often associated with hay fever and asthma.
  • Atopic dermatitis related allergy refers to allergies that: Atopic dermatitis related allergy refers to allergies that are related to atopic dermatitis. These allergies are allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma. Atopic dermatitis is a skin condition caused by an allergic reaction - it is often called eczema. A significant number of patients who have atopic dermatitis go on to develop asthma or hay fever.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral disorder with hyperactivity and/or inattention.
  • Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A condition characterized by attention problems and disruptive behavior. The condition is considered to be a grouping of three other disorders - oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 1: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16p13.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 2: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p11.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 3: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q12.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 4: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5p13.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 5: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q21.1.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 6: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q12.11.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 7: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q21.
  • Auditory Diseases, Central: A disorder where a person is unable to understand, recognize or differentiate sounds despite the fact that hearing and intelligence are normal.
  • Auditory Processing Disorder: Failure of the brain to correctly process sound.
  • Auditory perceptual disorder: A hearing disorder where the brain is unable to properly process or interpret auditory information it receives from the hearing organs.
  • Autism: Childhood mental condition with social and communication difficulties.
  • Autism, Susceptibility to, 15: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 15 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q35-q36.
  • Autism, X-linked, susceptibility to, 1: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. X-Linked type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome Xq13.
  • Autism, X-linked, susceptibility to, 2: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. X-Linked type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome Xp22.3.
  • Autism, X-linked, susceptibility to, 3: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. X-Linked type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome Xp22.3.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 1: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q22.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 10: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 10 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q36.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 11: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 11 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q24.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 12: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 12 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 21p13-q11.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 13: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 13 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 12q14.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 14: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 14 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 16p11.2.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 3: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 13q14.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 4: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q11.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 5: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 6: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 17q11.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 7: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 17q21.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 8: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q25-q27.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 9: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 9 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q31.
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis: Infection and inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by bacteria.
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Barraquer-Simons syndrome: A rare disorder that occurs in children and involves the progressive loss of fat layers under the skin which affects the face first and then spreads to the chest region and limbs.
  • Batten Disease: Rare childhood genetic degenerative nerve system disease.
  • Bedwetting: is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated.
  • Behavioral disorders: Disorders affecting behavior and emotional wellbeing
  • Behavioural disorders: Disorders that affect a persons behaviour
  • Benign astrocytoma: Benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity depends on the location and size of the tumors.
  • Billroth disease (1): A buildup of cerebrospinal fluid under the scalp. It tends to occur mainly in children as a result of skull fractures or a tear in a membrane that surrounds the central nervous system (arachnoid).
  • Bird allergy: A bird allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to birds. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, feathers or excrement of the bird. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Black eye: Bleeding in the skin around the eye
  • Bladder immaturity syndrome: Urinary incontinence that occurs in young girls. Urine leakage can occur during the day or night and can sometimes be due to urinary tract infection.
  • Bobble-head doll syndrome: A rare condition where a child's head bobs up and down continuously due to either fluid on the brain or a large cyst in the third ventricle of the brain.
  • Brain Stem Glioma: Tumor of the brain stem consisting of neuroglia of many stages of development.
  • Brennemann syndrome: A condition that can occur in young children after a respiratory tract infection. It primarily involves inflammation and swelling of the lymph glands in the abdomen, fever, vomiting and nausea.
  • Brennemann's syndrome: Abdominal symptoms that can result from an upper respiratory infection. The abdominal symptoms are caused by inflammation of the abdominal lymph nodes. The condition is most likely to occur in children.
  • Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the bronchioles.
  • Brown-Symmers disease: A rare form of brain inflammation that occurs in children and can quickly lead to death. Symptoms usually start suddenly.
  • CRMO, juvenile: A rare chronic inflammatory bone disease that occurs in children. The symptoms go into periods of remission only to return. The most common sites for the inflammation are the shinbone, thighbone and collarbone with usually several sites being affected at once.
  • Candidiasis: Fungal infection of moist areas such as mouth or vagina
  • Carotenemia: Excessive beta-carotene in the blood causing orange skin
  • Cat allergy: A cat allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to cats. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of cats. Cats frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to cats will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the animal. Frequent washing of the cat may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Cataract Hutterite type: An inherited form of cataract that occurs in children and is not associated with any other abnormalities.
  • Cataract, juvenile, with microcornea and glucosuria: A rare disorder characterized by the association of juvenile cataracts, small corneas and excessive glucose in the urine.
  • Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 3, Juvenile: A progressive genetic disorder where defective lipid metabolism that causes blindness, neurological deterioration, dementia leading to total incapication within years and death within 10-15 years.
  • Chickenpox: Common viral infection.
  • Child abuse: Physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect of child.
  • Childhood asthma: Childhood asthma is a type of asthma that occurs during childhood. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways. The severity of symptoms is variable. The asthma may be triggered by allergens, pollution, viral infections and many other factors.
  • Childhood conditions: Any conditions affecting children.
  • Childhood depression: Childhood depression is just as serious as adult depression. However, it is important to recognize that children have unique signs to be aware of when recognizing and diagnosing depression.
  • Childhood disintegrative disorder: A rare disorder where a period of normal development (a couple of years) is followed by delays in the development of motor, social and language skills. Previously acquired skills are lost.
  • Childhood hypophosphatasia: An inherited bone disorder due to an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a deficiency of alkaline phosphate which results in loss of deciduous teeth before the age of 5 as well as muscle and bone problems - childhood onset.
  • Childhood liver cancer, primary: Cancer that develops in the tissue of the liver in children.
  • Childhood nephrotic syndrome: Various kidney glomeruli conditions in children.
  • Childhood-onset bipolar disorder: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by recurrent episodes of depression, mania, and/or mixed symptom states. These episodes cause unusual and extreme shifts in mood, energy, and behavior that interfere significantly with normal, healthy functioning.
  • Childhood-onset cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: A rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of the protective sheath around nerves resulting in increasing difficulty. The childhood cerebral form of the condition is the most severe.
  • Chronic tonsilitis: Chronic ongoing inflammation of the tonsils in the throat.
  • Chronic tonsillitis: Chronic infection/inflammation of the tonsils.
  • Classic childhood ALD: Classic severe form of ALD in boys.
  • Cluttering: A speech defect where the speech is rapid, disordered and lacks fluency. It is a common occurrence in children during their initial speech development when they find difficulty finding the right words to express themselves.
  • Cold & Flu:
  • Cold sores: Skin cores on the skin, face, or lips.
  • Colic: Abdominal spasms causing pain
  • Combined ADHD: Combined ADHD are those individuals with ADHD who have both inattentive and hyperactive, impulsive behaviors. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. Children with ADHD have impaired functioning in multiple settings, including home, school, and in relationships with peers. If untreated, the disorder can have long-term adverse effects into adolescence and adulthood.
  • Common cold: A cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat that can be caused by a number of different viruses (e.g. rhinoviruses, coronaviruses). There are over 200 different viruses that have the potential to cause the common cold. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Conduct Disorder: Behavioral disorder with antisocial behaviors
  • Conjunctivitis: Contagious eye infection
  • Constipation: Difficult or dry bowel movements
  • Contact dermatitis: Skin reaction to an irritant
  • Corneal dystrophy, juvenile epithelial of Meesmann: A rare eye disorder characterized by chilidhood onset of degeneration of the cornea (clear covering of the eye) which impairs vision. Both eyes are affected.
  • Croup: Respiratory infection with a characteristic cough
  • Cryptosporiosis: Contagious parasitic digestive infection
  • Cutaneous mastocytosis: Skin mastocytosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease affecting the exocrine (mucus) glands of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and intestines, causing progressive disability due to multisystem failure.
  • Decorticate posture in children: An abnormal body posture occurring in children and usually the result of damage to particular parts of the brain - midbrain, thalamus, internal brain capsule, cerebral hemispheres. The position involves elbows flexed inwards on the chest, clenched hands and fists and legs which are extended outwards and inwards.
  • Decreased appetite and poor growth in children: Decreased appetite and poor growth in children is an abnormal condition in which a child has a poor appetite coupled with deficient growth.
  • Decreased bowel sounds in children: Decreased bowel sounds in children is a condition in which a child has a lack of or decrease in the sounds that the intestines normally produce
  • Dengue fever: An acute viral disease characterized by fever, rash and myalgia and caused by a flavivirus which is transmitted by mosquitoes.
  • Dent-Friedman syndrome: A rare form of osteoporosis that occurs in children and adolescents and no cause can be determined.
  • Dental caries: A destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel leading to cavitation of the tooth
  • Dermatitis: General name for any type of skin inflammation.
  • Diarrhea: Loose or watery stool.
  • Difficulty concentrating in children: it can occur either due to medical conditions or psychological conditions
  • Difficulty concentrating in toddlers: it can occur either due to medical conditions or psychological conditions
  • Dog allergy: A dog allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to dogs. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of dogs. Dogs frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to dogs will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the dog. Frequent washing of the dog may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Down Syndrome: A chromosome syndrome causing physical effects and mental retardation.
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An inherited degenerative disease of the muscles which progresses rapidly compared to other muscle wasting diseases.
  • Dust mite allergies: Allergy to dust mites in household dust.
  • Ear foreign body: Having a "foreign body" stuck inside the ear
  • Ear infection: An infection that affects the ear
  • Earache: Pain in the ear called "otalgia"
  • Eczema: Eczema is a chronic skin condition characterized by skin inflammation and irritation. The severity of extent of the condition is highly variable. It may be caused by allergies, irritants or other factors such as stress.
  • Eczema vaccinatum: A rare condition where a person who has eczema and is exposed to vaccinia through vaccination. The condition can occur even if the inoculation doesn't occur directly onto eczematous skin. The virus can also be transferred to an eczema sufferer from a recently vaccinated person. Severe untreated cases can result in death.
  • Encephalophathy recurrent of childhood: A recurring form of brain disease that has been noted to occur within families. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in these families. Symptoms tend to have a recurring nature and can last for periods of days to weeks. The condition is believed to be an inherited predisposition with underlying immunological or metabolic problems which trigger the condition.
  • Encopresis: Faecal incontinence by a child older than 4 years of age
  • Endodermal sinus tumor: A form of malignant germ cell tumor that occurs mainly in young children. They can occur in the testis, ovaries, uterus, abdomen, thorax, tailbone region, vagina, liver, retroperitoneum and pineal ventricle of the brain. Symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Epilepsy juvenile absence: A rare form of epilepsy that occurs around the time of puberty. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures occur when waking up and myoclonic seizures can also occur.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 1: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 8q24.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 2: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q31.1.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 3: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 3q26.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 4: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q34.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 5: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 15q11-q12.
  • Epilepsy, Childhood Absence, Susceptibility to, 6: A susceptibility to childhood absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 16p13.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Absence, Susceptibility to, 1: A susceptibility to juvenile absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 6p12-p11.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Absence, Susceptibility to, 2: A susceptibility to juvenile absence seizures linked to a particular gene - 3q26.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 1: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 6p12-p11.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 2: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 15q14.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 3: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 6p21.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 4: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q12-q14.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 5: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 5q34-q35.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 6: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 2q22-q23.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 7: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 1p36.3.
  • Epilepsy, Juvenile Myoclonic, Susceptibility to, 8: A susceptibility to juvenile myoclonic seizures linked to a particular gene - 3q26.
  • Erucism: Erucism is a skin reaction to envenomation from certain poisonous caterpillar spines. The reaction can be cause by contact with the spines or hairs of the caterpillar. Even airborne caterpillar hair can cause symptoms as can spines or hair on dead caterpillars.
  • Ewing's family of tumors: A rare condition where tumors develop in bone or soft tissue. Usually teenagers are affected.
  • Ewing's sarcoma: Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant round-cell tumor. It is a rare disease in which cancer cells are found in the bone or in soft tissue. The most common areas in which it occurs are the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, and the ribs.
  • Extrinsic asthma: Extrinsic asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by an exposure to an allergen. Extrinsic asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways in response to exposure to the allergen. Examples of possible allergens include dust mites, pollen and mould. The severity of symptoms and allergen involved is variable.
  • Eye foreign body: Feeling of grit or sand in the eye
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 1: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8q13-q21
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 10: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q26.2-q26.33.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 2: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 19p13.3.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 3: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 3A: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 3A is linked to a defect on the SCN1A gene on chromosome 2q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 3B: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 3B is linked to a defect in the SCN9B gene on chromosome 2q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 4: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q14.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 5: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q22-q24.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 6: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 18p11.2.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 7: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 21q22.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 8: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 8 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5q31.1-q33.1.
  • Familial Febrile Convulsions, 9: Childhood seizures associated with fevers. Certain genetic defects are linked to a predisposition for developing these types of seizures. Type 9 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3p24.2-p23.
  • Familial Wilms tumor 2: A familial form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 2 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 19q13.4).
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 1: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 8q13-q21.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 2: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19p.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 3: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 3 is caused by a defect in the SCN1A gene on chromosome 2q24.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 4: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 4 is caused by a defect in the GPR98 gene on chromosome 5q14.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 5: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 6q.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 6: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 18p.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 7: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 21q22.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 8: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 8 is caused by a defect in the GABRG2 gene on chromosome 5q31.
  • Febrile convulsions, familial, 9: A dominantly inherited form of childhood seizures. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 3p24.2-p23.
  • Fever of Unknown Origin: Fevers that occur for no apparent reason. The fever involves temperatures of greater than 38.3 degrees Celsius which occurs sporadically for more than three weeks. Infection and cancers are the most common causes of this type of fever.
  • Fluorosis: Excessive fluoride in the body
  • Food Additive Allergy: A food additive allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a food additive or a food or drink containing to food additive. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients and may range from mild to severe.
  • Food allergies: Immune over-reaction to an eaten food.
  • Food allergy related asthma: Food allergy related asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is caused by an allergic reaction to a particular food. This is a very uncommon cause of asthma.
  • Food intolerances: Any inability to tolerate particular foods.
  • Fructose intolerance: An enzyme deficiency that causes toxic symptoms when fructose containing food is ingested.
  • Gastroenteritis: Acute stomach or intestine inflammation
  • Generalized vaccinia: Generalized vaccinia is a widespread blistered skin rash that develops in some people following smallpox vaccination. The rash usually covers the trunk of the body but can cover all of the body in some cases.
  • Glue ear: Fluid accumulation in the middle ear
  • Gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty: A rare disorder affecting females where premature puberty occurs due to premature release of gonadotropin hormones.
  • Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty: A rare disorder affecting males where premature puberty is not caused by a premature release of gonadotropin hormones.
  • Granulomatous arthritis of childhood: A rare chronic inflammatory condition that starts during early childhood and is characterized by arthritic joints, uveitis and a skin rash that forms on the trunk and limbs.
  • Grass pollen allergy: A grass pollen allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pollen produced by various grasses. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Habit cough: Habit or nervous cough is a throat-clearing noise made by a person who is nervous and self-conscious. There are patients with a chronic dry cough (longer than 4 months) that seems to defy all explanation and resist all the usual standard treatments (cough and cold remedies for children). A habit cough is a cough that occasionally develops in children after a cold or other airway irritants
  • Hand, Foot, & Mouth Disease: Common contagious viral infant or child condition
  • Hay fever: An allergy which causes sneezing, runny nose or blocked nose for part of the year.
  • Hay fever-like sneezing symptoms: Allergy causes runny nose, sneezing and headache.
  • Head lice: Small lice infesting the hair and head.
  • Heat exhaustion: Overheating of the body with exhaustion or collapse
  • Heat rash: Skin rash due to hot and humid weather
  • Heatstroke: Heat exhaustion and collapse from heat exposure
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 1: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q34.3.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 2: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q32.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 3: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4q25.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 4: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 5: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.3-p13.2.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 6: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20p11.2.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by acute kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (reduced blood platelet count). The condition is often caused by upper respiratory infections or infectious diarrhea.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, childhood: A rare disorder involving destruction of blood cells and kidney disease. Unlike typical hemolytic uremic syndrome which usually follows a bacterial infection, the atypical form is possibly a genetic disorder. The distinguishing feature of the atypical form is that no diarrhea is involved. The atypical form has a poorer prognosis than the typical form.
  • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A condition which is characterized by an abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, familial, 1: A rare recessively inherited disorder involving an overactive immune system. More specifically, the body becomes infiltrated by large numbers of histiocytes (macrophages) that accumulate in various organs such as the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skin and central nervous system. It usually only occurs in infants and young children and can be life-threatening.
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, familial, 2: A rare recessively inherited disorder involving an overactive immune system. More specifically, the body becomes infiltrated by large numbers of histiocytes (macrophages) that accumulate in various organs such as the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skin and central nervous system. It usually only occurs in infants and young children. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 10q22.
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, familial, 3: A rare recessively inherited disorder involving an overactive immune system. More specifically, the body becomes infiltrated by large numbers of histiocytes (macrophages) that accumulate in various organs such as the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skin and central nervous system. It usually only occurs in infants and young children. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 17q25.1.
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, familial, 4: A rare recessively inherited disorder involving an overactive immune system. More specifically, the body becomes infiltrated by large numbers of histiocytes (macrophages) that accumulate in various organs such as the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skin and central nervous system. It usually only occurs in infants and young children. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 6q24.
  • Hemophilia: Blood disease usually genetic causing failure to clot.
  • Hepatoblastoma: A primary malignant liver tumor which is rare in infants and children.
  • Hives: Weals on the skin due to an allergic reaction.
  • Hodgkin lymphoma, childhood: A type of cancer that originates from lymphocytes (white blood cells). It is more common during adolescence but can occur during childhood.
  • Hodgkin's Disease: A form of cancer that affects the lymphatic system.
  • Hodgkin's disease, childhood: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system in children. The lymphatic system forms part of the body's immune system. This type of cancer can also occur in children.
  • Hookworm: Worm spread through feces with poor sanitation.
  • House dust allergy: House dust allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to allergens dound in household dust such as pet dander, mold and dust mites. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Human parvovirus B19 infection: An infectious disease caused by parovirus B19 which causes fifth disease and erythema infectiosum.
  • Hyperactive-impulsive ADHD: A condition in which a person (usually a child) has an unusually high activity level and a short attention span. People with the disorder may act impulsively and may have learning and behavioral problems.
  • Hypercalciuria, childhood idiopathic: A rare disorder occurring in children for no detectable reason where excess calcium is excreted through the urine resulting in the development of stones in the urinary tract.
  • Hyperglycerolemia, juvenile form: A genetic condition where an enzyme deficiency (glycerol kinase) results in an accumulation of glycerol in the body as well as it's excretion through the urine. The juvenile form of the condition occurs in chidren and can cause serious complications.
  • Hyperhidrosis in children: Hyperhidrosis in children is a condition in which a child experiences episodes of excessive and unpredictable sweating.
  • Hyperinsulinism in children, congenital: A rare inherited condition characterized by high insulin levels which cause low blood sugar. Severe symptoms such as seizures and coma can result if sugar levels drop too low.
  • Hyperlipidemia in children: Hyperlipidemia in children refers to a child who has high cholesterol and triglycerides.
  • Hyperpigmentation in children: Hyperpigmentation in children refers to a child who has areas of skin that are lighter in color than the surrounding skin.
  • Hyperreflexia in children: Hyperreflexia in children is a condition on which there are over active reflexes in a child.
  • Hypersalivation in children: Hypersalivation in children refers to excessive salivation in a child.
  • Hypersensitive: Excessive sensitivity to sensations or stimuli
  • Hypersensitivity reaction: Hypersensitivity reaction, also called an allergic reaction, is a condition in which the body is sensitive to a particular substance (allergen) and reacts with certain symptoms after exposure to the allergen.
  • Hypersensitivity to Pets: increased sensitivity to pets
  • Hypersensitivity to drugs: increased sensitivity to a particular drug
  • Hypersensitivity to dust: Dust that contain microorganisms or proteins may cause an allergic reaction in the lungs
  • Hypersensitivity to food: any food can cause allergy. There is no allergy-safe diet
  • Hypersensitivity to pollen: Plants produce the microscopic round or oval grains called pollen which lead to allergy in a few individuals
  • Hypertension in children: Hypertension in children is a condition in which a child has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence: Hypertension in children from 11 through adolescence refers to a child between the ages of 11 years through adolescence who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Hypertension in children one to ten years: Hypertension in children one to ten years refers to a child between the ages of one to ten years who has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
  • Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification, childhood onset: A rare disorder involving the buildup of calcium deposits in various parts of the brain. It manifests as degeneration of the nervous system.
  • IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy: An adverse reaction by the body's immune system to food that is driven by IgE. IgE antibodies specific to food molecules bind with the circulating food allergen and cause the release of immune response molecules such as cytokines. Symptoms usually occur soon after exposure to the allergen and usually cause skin symptoms. Severe cases may result in anaphylaxis. It is associated with allergic conditions such as pollen-food allergy and other oral allergies and immediate gastrointestinal hypersensitivity.
  • Impacted tooth: Tooth that does not emerge from under the gums
  • Inattentive ADHD: ADHD predominantly inattentive (ADHD-I) is one of the three subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD-I is different from the other subtypes of ADHD in that it is characterized primarily by inattention, easy distractibility, disorganization, procrastination, forgetfulness, and lethargy (fatigue), but with less or none of the symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsiveness typical of the other ADHD subtypes.
  • Infectious meningitis: Infectious meningitis is meningitis caused by bacterial, viral, or protozoan infection. Most of the agents known to cause meningitis are infectious, but very few people exposed to them will get meningitis. Those at greatest danger include people with AIDS, infants, transplant patients, and others whose immune systems may be compromised.
  • Insect allergy: An allergic response to a wasp sting.
  • Insect bite allergy: An insect bite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a bite by an insect such as an ant. Multiple bites increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Insect bites and stings: Any bites or stings caused by insects
  • Insect sting allergies: When a person has an allergic reaction at the site of an insect sting
  • Insect sting allergy: An insect sting allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to a sting by an insect such as an ant. Multiple stings increase the risk of a severe reaction or death. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Intrinsic asthma: Intrinsic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Irritant contact eczema: Irritant contact eczema is a form of eczema that occurs when an irritating substance comes into direct contact with the skin. Eczema is a type of skin inflammation or irritation that manifests as a skin rash. This form of eczema often occurs in occupational settings.
  • Juvenile Glaucoma: Juvenile glaucoma is a primary pen angle glaucoma with IOP increase that occurs in the first two decades of life and is often inherited.
  • Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis: Myasthenia gravis is a chronic neuromuscular disease which results from autoimmune dysfunction. Juvenile myasthenia gravis also has autoimmune origins and tends to develop during childhood. Symptoms tend to become worse during the day with activity and improve after rest or after sleeping. The severity of symptoms may vary.
  • Juvenile Paget disease: A rare genetic bone disorder involving abnormal loss of bone mineralization and remineralization, broadened bone shafts and high levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood. Some juvenile cases are relatively mild.
  • Juvenile Paget's Disease:
  • Juvenile Retinoschisis: An inherited eye condition where degenerative changes in the eye causes the retina to split. The severity and age of onset of symptoms can vary.
  • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Chronic arthritis affecting children and teens
  • Juvenile Scleroderma: Scleroderma that occurs in children. Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect the skin, blood vessels, the immune system and sometimes even the organs may be involved. The disorder may be localized or affect large areas of the body.
  • Juvenile angiofibroma: A condition characterized by a benign tumour of the nasopharynx
  • Juvenile dermatomyositis: A very rare autoimmune disorder where the body's own immune system attacks blood vessels and causes them to become inflamed. The condition is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and a characteristic pinkish-purple rash.
  • Juvenile gout: Gout that occurs in children as a result of kidney disease caused by a genetic defect.
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A group of chronic inflammatory joint disorders that affects children. The condition generally involves periods of time where the condition is active followed by periods of abatement of symptoms. In some cases, the condition can be systemic and can cause symptoms such as fever and rash with organ involvement. There are three main types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis - oligoarticular, polyarticular and systemic (Still's disease).
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, unclassified: A chronic inflammatory joint condition affecting children. This particular subtype is defined as unclassified as it doesn't fit into any of the other classifications.
  • Juvenile macular degeneration and hypotrichosis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by hair loss and eye degeneration.
  • Juvenile macular degeneration, hypotrichosis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by hair loss and eye degeneration.
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer that occurs in children and involves the proliferation of immature precursors of certain blood cells - myelocytes and monocytes. The proliferation is slower than in acute forms of the disease.
  • Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A form of epilepsy that occurs in teenagers and involves sudden muscle jerking and seizures which is especially common on awakening.
  • Juvenile nephronophthisis: A rare inherited kidney disorder characterized by formation of cysts inside the kidney, kidney fibrosis and tubular atrophy which leads to progressive kidney failure.
  • Juvenile osteoporosis: Osteoporosis (progressive bone loss) that occurs in children. Osteoporosis in children can be caused by certain medical conditions (e.g. diabetes, malabsorption syndromes, kidney disease, hyperthyroidism), certain medications (e.g. corticosteroids, anticonvulsants), prolonged immobility or sometimes for no detectable reason (idiopathic).
  • Juvenile polyposis of infancy: A genetic inherited risk of developing gastrointestinal tumors. The condition is characterized by gastrointestinal polyps which have a high risk of eventually becoming malignant. The polyps can cause gastrointestinal symptoms even if they aren't malignant.
  • Juvenile polyposis syndrome: An inherited or sporadic condition characterized by the development of multiple noncancerous polyps in the digestive tract usually by the second decade of life. The polyps are generally noncancerous but there may be an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. The number and size of polyps and the risk of cancer is variable.
  • Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis: A very rare genetic disorder characterized by increasing weakness and stiffness of the muscles in the arms, legs and face due to damage to nerve cells that control motor movement.
  • Juvenile pustular psoriasis: Pustular psoriasis is an uncommon form of psoriasis.People with pustular psoriasis have clearly defined, raised bumps on the skin that are filled with pus (pustules). The skin under and around these bumps is red. Large portions of your skin may redden.
  • Juvenile temporal arteritis: A rare form of localized blood vessel inflammation that affects older children and young adults. The condition is harmless and any nodules that develop can be removed and do not reappear. The nodules develop in blood vessels in the temples.
  • Juvenile-onset dystonia: A rare form of progressive dystonia that starts early in life - first or second decade. Dystonia is prolonged involuntary muscle spasms or contractions. Various other physical abnormalities are also present and severe hearing loss usually occurs by the middle of the first decade. In the two reported cases, death occurred early in the third decade.
  • Kashin-Bek disease: A disease involving progressive joint degeneration which affects the spine and hands and feet. The condition becomes progressively worse and eventually leads to disability. The condition is most often seen in children who live in the northern parts of China, Siberia and Korea. A possible cause is believed to be eating cereals contaminated with a fungus called Sporotrichella.
  • Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
  • Kugel-Stoloff syndrome: A rare form of heart disease that occurs in children and involves fibrosis and thickening of the heart muscle which affects it's ability to function. The cause is unknown.
  • Lactose Intolerance: Lactose intolerance is the inability to metabolize lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products, because the required enzyme lactase is absent in the intestinal system or its availability is lowered.
  • Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: A neurological disorder which results in aphasia, epileptic seizures and inability to recognize sounds.
  • Latex allergies: When a person has an allergic reaction to latex
  • Learning disabilities: Various developmental problems impairing learning or schooling.
  • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: A form of epilepsy that occurs mostly in preschool-aged children and is characterized mainly by absences.
  • Lepidopterism: A systemic illness caused by contact with certain poisonous caterpillar spines or urticating hairs.
  • Leukemia: Cancer of the blood cells, usually white blood cells.
  • Lice: A parasitic insect that can infect humans
  • Limp in children: Limp is defined as an uneven, jerky, or laborious gait, usually caused by pain, weakness, or deformity. It is a common complaint in childhood, accounting for 4 per 1000 visits in one paediatric emergency department
  • Lymphoma: Cancer involving lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Malignant germ cell tumor: Malignant tumors that are made up of germ cells which are immature cells that eventually become reproductive system tissues in males and females. The symptoms depend on the location of the tumor which may occur in the ovaries, testes or anywhere along the body's midline such as the chest, head, abdomen, pelvis and lower back.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Measles: Once common viral infection now rare due to vaccination.
  • Measles Encephalitis in Children with Immunosuppression: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Meningitis: Dangerous infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Meningococcal A: Meningococcal meningitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningococcal meningitis A is caused by meningococcus A which is mostly common in hyperendemic areas in Africa known as the meningitis belt.
  • Meningococcal B: Meningococcal meningitis B is an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
  • Meningococcal C: Meningitis C is a strain of meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Meningococcal infection: A rare infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Neisseria meningitides.
  • Mental retardation, X linked -- precocious puberty -- obesity: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, premature puberty and obesity. The disorder is inherited in a X-linked manner which means that only males display the full range of symptoms whereas female carriers may have mild or no symptoms.
  • Metapneumovirus: A type of viral respiratory infection which was first discovered early in the 21st century. The infection tends to occur mainly in children and infants or the elderly. The incubation period is probably less than a week and the virus is transmitted through large droplets or contact with contaminated surface or objects e.g. used tissue. Symptoms are usually mild but may be severe in some cases.
  • Middle ear infection: Infection of middle ear also called otitis media.
  • Mild diarrhea:
  • Mite conditions: Any condition that is caused by the mite
  • Mixed granulocytic asthma: Mixed granulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by increased levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Mold allergies: Allergies to airborne or household molds.
  • Motion sickness: Nausea from any type of motion or travel
  • Mumps: An acute viral disease that causes the salivary glands to become swollen, sore and inflamed. Immunization had greatly reduced the incidence of this disease.
  • Munk disease: A type of kidney disease that is more prevalent in children. It involves the build up of fats in the cells of the kidney tubules. The symptoms experienced may vary with the severity of the condition.
  • Myelogenous leukemia: A condition which is characterized proliferation of myeloid tissue and the abnormal increase in granulocytes
  • Neural crest-derived tumors: A neuroendocrine tumor that occurs only in children and infants tends to have a chronic progression. The tumors may be benign or malignant and symptoms will vary depending on the location and malignancy of the tumor. Neural crest-derived tumors include benign swchwannomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, neurofibromas and primary melanomas.
  • Neuroblastoma: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue.
  • Neuroectodermal tumor, primitive: A very rare type of tumor that occurs in children under the age of ten. It is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis with less than half of patients surviving. The tumor originates from primitive nerve cells in the brain (CNS PNET) or other parts of the body (peripheral PNET). CNS tumors can be further divided into infratentorial tumors (e.g. medulloblastoma) or supratentorial tumors. The tumors usually cause no symptoms in the early stages and the symptoms that do develop will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Neuroectodermal tumors primitive: A type of brain tumor that consists of small round cells and is believed to originate from primitive nerve cells in the brain. Symptoms are determined by the exact location of the tumor.
  • Nocturnal asthma: Nocturnal asthma is a type of asthma that tends to only produce symptoms at night. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable. Factors such as airconditioning, gastroesophageal reflux and sleeping in a reclining positing may increase the incidence of this form of asthma in susceptible patients.
  • Nocturnal enuresis: A condition which is characterized by bed wetting
  • Noma: A rare disorder characterized by gangrenous sores that spread rapidly and usually start in the mouth or lips. It mostly occurs in undernourished children living in poor, unhygienic conditions.
  • Non-Food Allergy -- dust mites: A mite allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to dust mites. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary amongst patients.
  • Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A type of lymphoma, a cancer affecting lymph nodes and the immune system.
  • Non-atopic asthma: Non-atopic asthma refers to inflammation and constriction of the airways that is not caused by exposure to an allergen. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Norwalk-like viruses: Several shellfish or oyster-associated gastro-causing viruses related to Norwalk or caliciviruses.
  • Nose foreign body: Having a foreign body inserted in a nostril or otherwise in the nose.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Ocular vaccinia: Ocular vaccinia is a smallpox infection of the eye. The infection usually occurs through eye contact with a hand contaminated with the virus.
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A behavioral problem that occurs in children and involves persistent disobedience, defiance and hostility towards authority figures. The behavioral problem is greater than the normal pattern of child misbehaviors. The severity of the problem affects the child's ability to perform satisfactorily in home, school and community environments.
  • Optic pathway glioma: A type of tumor that arises in the optic nerve which sends messages from the eye to the brain. These tumors tend to occur mainly in children under the age of 10. The tumor may affect the hormone center of the brain and hence can affect such things as growth and weight.
  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease: Knee condition with inflammation of tendons and tissues.
  • Osteochondrosis: A disease that is affects the growth ossification centres in children
  • Osteosarcoma: Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. There is a preference for the metaphyseal region of tubular long bones. 50% of cases occur around the knee.
  • Otitis: Any type of ear inflammation or infection (otitis)
  • Otitis externa: Infection of the outer ear canal
  • Paediatric conditions: Any condition that affects a child
  • Paget disease juvenile type: A rare genetic bone disorder involving abnormal loss of bone mineralization and remineralization, broadened bone shafts and high levels of alkaline phosphatase in the blood. Some juvenile cases are relatively mild.
  • Parkinson disease 2, autosomal recessive juvenile (PARK2): Type 2 Parkinson disease is juvenile form of the condition and is linked to a genetic mutation on chromosome 6q25.2-q27. The condition may be inherited in a recessive manner and symptoms tend to be milder following sleep. Parkinson's disease is a chronic, progressive, degenerative brain disorder characterized by tremors, muscle rigidity and slowed movements.
  • Parkinson disease, juvenile, autosomal recessive: A rare form of Parkinson disease that tends to occur by the age of 40 and is inherited in a recessive manner. Symptoms tend to be more severe during the day rather than the night.
  • Parvovirus: A family of viruses that contain the human parvo virus B19
  • Paucigranulocytic asthma: Paucigranulocytic asthma is a type of asthma that is characterized by normal levels of eosinophils and neutrophils (types of white blood cell) in the airways. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Peanut allergies: A hypersensitive state that is due to exposure to an allergen contained in peanuts
  • Pediatric AIDS: Pediatric AIDS is an immune system disease in infants or children caused by the HIV virus. AIDS is a term used when a person infected with HIV has a CD4+ T cell count below 200 or 14% of lymphocytes. AIDS is an advanced form of HIV. To be classified as AIDS the person must also have an AIDS-related condition such as opportunistic infections. Symptoms in children are similar to those of an adult but their susceptibility to various AIDS-related conditions varies e.g. children are less susceptible to Kaposi sarcoma, taxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis than adults.
  • Pediatric conditions: Any condition which affects a child
  • Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease: Gastroesophageal reflux is defined as the retrograde movement of gastric contents into the esophagus; it is a physiologic process that occurs in everyone, young and old, particularly after meals. Researchers have found that 10 percent of infants (younger than 12 months) with GER develop significant complications. The diseases associated with reflux are known collectively as Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).
  • Pediculosis: Lice infestation of the body
  • Penicillin allergy: Taking penicillin (a type of antibiotic) can cause an allergic response in some people. It involves the body's immune system overreacting to the drug. The type and severity of symptoms can vary considerable though skin symptoms are the most common allergic response to drugs. Penicillin allergy is one of the more common types of drug allergies.
  • Perennial rhinitis: A condition which is characterized by a constant inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane
  • Persistent parvovirus infection: Symptoms resulting from a persistent parvovirus infection in immunocompromised patients or those who have undergone organ transplant and take anti-rejection drugs. Their immune systems are unable to respond to the virus. The B19 parvovirus mainly attacks immature red blood cells so a persisting infection may lead to severe, chronic anemia.
  • Pervasive developmental disorders: Group of developmental disorders often recognized before 3 years of age.
  • Pet allergy: A pet allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to pets such as cats and dogs. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of the animal. Animals frequently lick themselves which results in saliva sticking to the fur. Thus a person allergic to animals will often react to the fur even if it is not attached to the animal. Frequent washing of the animal may reduce symptoms. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Pharyngitis: Inflammation or infection of the larynx in the throat
  • Pharyngoconjunctival fever: An infectious disease usually caused by adenovirus type 3. The infection may be acute, epidemic or sporadic and is more common in children. Infection can be transmitted through swimming pools. The incubation period is 5-9 days.
  • Pinworm: Small, threadlike parasitic worms mainly in colon and rectum
  • Pituitary cancer, childhood: Cancer (malignant) of the pituitary gland in children. The pituitary gland produces various hormones and some pituitary tumors (functioning tumors) can affect the secretion of one or more of these hormones resulting in a range of symptoms depending on the exact location of the tumor. Some pituitary tumors do not affect hormone production (nonfunctioning tumors).
  • Pityriasis Alba: Skin condition of children
  • Pleuropulmonary blastoma: A type of tumor that originates from precursor cells or blasts (immature or embryonic tissue) in the lungs or covering of the lungs.
  • Polio: Dangerous virus now rare due to vaccination.
  • Pollen food allergy syndrome: A significant number of people with an allergy to pollen also have allergic responses to certain plant foods (usually fruit) which have similar proteins to that found in pollens. Examples of these includes pineapple, avocado, chestnuts, apples, raw carrot, raw celery, melon, peach, pear, plum, kiwi fruit, mango, passionfruit, strawberries, tomato, potato, bell pepper and soy. Symptoms usually only involve the mouth and throat.
  • Precocious puberty: A rare condition where the hormones that trigger the development of secondary sex characteristics are released prematurely resulting in puberty at an early age. In severe cases puberty can occur before the age of 3.
  • Primary open angle glaucoma juvenile onset 1: A inherited form of open-angle glaucoma caused by a genetic mutation.
  • Pseudobattered child syndrome: Multiple bruises on a body caused by the Vietnamese belief that vigorous rubbing a coin on the skin can cure certain illnesses (fever, headache, convulsions).
  • Psoriatic arthritis, juvenile form: A type of arthritis associated with psoriasis in children. Psoriasis and arthritis are both inflammatory conditions with one affecting the skin and the other affecting the joints. The arthritis tends to precede the psoriasis.
  • Reactive attachment disorder of early childhood: A disorder where young children fail to develop a normal attachment to their primary caregiver. It may be caused by such things as neglect, abuse or caregiver unresponsiveness during the early years of life. The severity and type of symptoms are variable.
  • Residual ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. Children with ADHD have impaired functioning in multiple settings, including home, school, and in relationships with peers. If untreated, the disorder can have long-term adverse effects into adolescence and adulthood.
  • Respiratory tract infections:
  • Retinoblastoma: A very rare malignant tumor that originates in the retina.
  • Retinoschisis, Juvenile, X-Linked: An inherited eye condition where degenerative changes in the eye causes the retina to split. The severity and age of onset of symptoms can vary.
  • Retinoschisis, juvenile: An inherited eye condition where degenerative changes in the eye causes the retina to split. The severity and age of onset of symptoms can vary.
  • Retinoschisis1, X-linked, Juvenile: A rare congenital eye disorder inherited in a X-linked manner. It is characterized by the separation of the retina into two layers which results in progressive vision loss. Though close examination may show signs of the condition, symptoms such as noticeable vision impairment generally don't become evident until middle age.
  • Retractions, costal and sternal: The retraction of the skin in between the ribs and the sternum
  • Reye's Syndrome: A syndrome in children recovering from infection and associated with aspirin.
  • Rhabdoid tumor: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma: Soft tissue cancer occurring in children
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma, embryonal: A type of cancer that arises from rhabdomyoblasts which are immature muscle cells. The tumors can occur arise from muscle tissue almost anywhere in the body but in the embryonal form, tends to occur primarily in the head, neck and genitourinary areas. Symptoms depend on size and location of the tumor.
  • Rheumatic fever: An inflammatory disorder that can occur as a complication of untreated streptococcal bacterial infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. The condition may affect the brain, skin, heart and joints.
  • Rhinitis: Nasal lining inflammation leading to runny/blocked nose
  • Rodent allergy: A rodent allergy is an adverse reaction by the body's immune system to rodents such as mice and rats. The allergy is usually associated with the skin, saliva or urine of rodents. The body's immune system produces immunoglobulin E (IgE - an antibody) and histamine in response to contact with the allergen. The specific symptoms that can result can vary considerably amongst patients e.g. skin and respiratory symptoms.
  • Roseola infantum: Contagious infant conditions
  • Rotavirus: Diarrhea-causing virus in infants.
  • Roundworm: A worm of the class nematode
  • Rubella: A contagious viral infection caused by the Rubella virus which produces a rash and lymph node swelling. It can have serious implication in pregnant women as the virus can be transmitted through the placenta and cause serious fetal defects or even fetal death.
  • Sakamoto disease: An epidemic disease that tends to occur each year in Japan and affects infants and young children. Symptoms are similar to cholera and death can occur.
  • Salicylate-sensitive asthma: Salicylate-sensitive asthma is a type of asthma that is triggered by salicylates which can be found in medications such as aspirin as well as many foods. Asthma involves constriction and inflammation of the airways which makes breathing difficult. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Scarlet fever: A complication of infection from strep bacteria such as strep throat.
  • Scheuermann juvenile Kyphosis, familial:
  • Sialidosis type II, juvenile: A very rare inherited metabolic disorder where a defect in the enzyme alpha-neuraminidase prevents glycoproteins being metabolized.
  • Sjogren's syndrome, juvenile, secondary to autoimmune disease: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands involved in tear and saliva production as well as gastrointestinal tract moisture. It can occur as a secondary condition associated with other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Skin allergies: A reaction to the exposure of the skin to an allergen
  • Skin allergy: A skin allergy is an adverse response by the body's immune system to an allergen. The response may occur when the allergen comes into contact with the skin or when it is inhaled or ingested. A skin allergy manifests in skin symptoms such as hives and itchy skin. The severity of the response is variable.
  • Skin rash: A reaction to the exposure of the skin to an allergen
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Spastic paraplegia glaucoma precocious puberty: A rare syndrome characterized by premature puberty, mental retardation, glaucoma and progressive spastic paraplegia.
  • Spastic paraplegia with precocious puberty: A rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by early onset of progressive weakness of the lower legs as well as premature onset of signs of puberty.
  • Sticky eye: When a person experiences a sticky eye
  • Stridor: A harsh high pitched breath sound
  • Stuart-Bras disease: A type of liver disease that is seen in children (usually aged 1-6 years) in the West Indies and is possibly caused by ingestion of plant toxins from plants such as Senico.
  • Sunburn: Any injury to the skin caused by the ultraviolet rays caused by the sun
  • Swine flu: The Swine Flu is a respiratory viral disease which is usually found in pigs but can sometimes be transmitted to humans and cause epidemics or even pandemics. The viral strain involved is type A H1N1. The virus can be spread amongst humans from direct contact which can occur through coughing, sneezing or contamination of hands and surfaces. The severity of symptoms is highly variable, although with most people suffering only relatively mild symptoms. Patients are considered contagious for up to a week after the onset of symptoms but children may be contagious for longer periods of time.
  • Systemic Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Onset of JRA with fevers and systemic symptoms
  • T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Cancer of particular white blood cells called T-cells. Precursors to white blood cells are called blasts and are made by the bone marrow but in ALL the blasts are abnormal and do not develop into lymphocytes. Instead, the abnormal blasts or leukemic cells multiply rapidly and reduce the level of other types of blood cells such as red blood cells and platelets.
  • Tapeworms: Parasitic worm infestation of digestive or other organs.
  • Tay-Sachs disease -- juvenile onset: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme called Hexosaminidase A. There are two forms of the disease - juvenile and adult onset.
  • Tetanus: A disease caused by chemicals which are produced by a bacterium (clostridium tetani) and are toxic to the nerves. The infection usually occurs when the bacteria enter the body through a deep wound - these bacteria are anaerobic and hence don't need oxygen to survive.
  • Thrush: Thrush is a fungal infection which is caused by a fungus from the Candida species. It usually affects the mucus membranes of the mouth and vagina. Occasionally the infection can spread throughout the body and cause severe illness.
  • Thumb sucking: The sucking of the thumb
  • Tonsil disorders: Any disorder that occurs on the tonsil
  • Tonsilitis: Inflammation of the tonsils in the throat.
  • Tonsillitis like bad breath: Also known as halitosis.
  • Tooth abscess: Pus-filled abscess of a tooth
  • Tooth loss: The loss of a tooth
  • Toy-related injury: Any injury that is related to a toy
  • Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood: A rare disorder where new red blood cells are not temporarily not produced. Symptoms become increasingly noticeable as the existing supply of mature red blood cells gradually die and aren't replaced. Symptoms improve once red blood cell production starts again. The condition is believed to possibly be triggered by a Parvovirus B19 infection.
  • Trichomalacia: A rare genetic condition resulting in patchy hair loss in children. It is an abnormality of the hair shaft and can be due to a compulsive habit of pulling hair on the head or even eyelashes and eyebrows.
  • Tufted angioma: A rare benign type of blood vessel tumor that usually affects children under the age of five. The appearance often resembles a slow-growing birthmark.
  • Urinary incontinence in children: Any urinary incontinence that occurs in children
  • Urinary tract infections (child): Infection of the urinary system in children.
  • Vaccinia: A cowpox virus that was initially used for human smallpox vaccines.
  • Vaccinia keratitis: Vaccinia keratitis is an eye condition that occurs when the cornea is exposed to the smallpox virus. This exposure is most likely to occur when a person rubs their eyes after handling or bathing a recently vaccinated child. Symptoms may be severe and permanent damage to vision may result.
  • Valvular dysplasia of the child: A condition which is characterised by the dysplasia of one or more of the valves to a childs heart
  • Vertigo, benign paroxysmal, in childhood: A rare harmless disorder in children which causes short periods of dizziness, nausea and involuntary eye movements.
  • Viral meningitis: Viral meningitis refers to meningitis caused by a viral infection
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Warts: Lumpy growths under the skin
  • Wheat intolerance: A condition that is characterised by an intolerance to wheat
  • Whipworm: Any nematode of the genus trichuris
  • Whitaker syndrome: A condition that usually occurs in childhood caused by an autoimmune polyendocrinopathy
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.
  • Wilms tumor 2: A familial form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 2 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 11p15.5).
  • Wilms tumor 3: A dominantly inherited form malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children. Type 3 differs from other forms of Wilms tumor by the origin of the genetic defect (chromosome 16q).
  • Wilms' tumor: A malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children.
  • Worm conditions: Any condition that is caused by infestation of worms
  • Yersiniosis: A condition which is characterized by infectious diarrhea, enteritis, ileitis and occasionally septicaemia

 

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