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Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative and granulomatous disease which spreads into the adjacent soft tissue and forms multiple abscesses with sinus tracts which discharge sulphur granules. Dental caries is the most common triggering factoring cases of cervicofacial actinomycosis which is the most common type. The diagnosis of Actinomycosis based on clinical grounds is very difficult due to its varied presentation and number of other diseases which may present in a similar manner. It must be excluded out from other conditions such as lung abscess, abdominal abscess, Crohn's disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, pneumonia, lymphoma, lung cancer etc. When actinomycosis is diagnosed early and treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, the prognosis is excellent. The more advanced and complicated actinomycotic forms require aggressive antibiotic and surgical therapy for optimal outcome; however, deaths can occur despite such therapy.
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