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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in Wikipedia

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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1". (Source - Retrieved 2006-09-07 14:21:07 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_endocrine_neoplasia_type_1)

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Introduction

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is part of a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system. These disorders greatly increase the risk of developing multiple cancerous and noncancerous tumors in glands such as the parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreas. Multiple endocrine neoplasia occurs when tumors are found in at least two endocrine glands. Tumors can also develop in organs and tissues other than endocrine glands. If the tumors become cancerous, some cases can be life-threatening. The disorder affects 1 in 30,000 people.

Although many different types of hormone-producing tumors are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia, tumors of the parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, and pancreas are most frequent in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Tumors cause an overactivation of these hormone-producing glands, leading to serious health problems such as severe ulcers. Overactivity of the parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism) is the most common sign of this disorder. Hyperparathyroidism disrupts the normal balance of calcium in the blood, which can lead to kidney stones, thinning of bones, weakness, and fatigue.

The two major types of multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 and type 2, are often confused because they have similar names. These types are distinguished by the genes involved, the hormones that are affected, and their characteristic signs and symptoms. They are also very different in their options for cancer.

Mutations in the MEN1 gene cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The function of the MEN1 gene is unknown.The MEN1 gene is located in $Chromosome 11q$13 and the gene product is Menin (a cofactor for transcription).$[1]$ Researchers believe that it acts