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Diseases » Multiple Myeloma » Glossary

Glossary for Multiple Myeloma

  • Amyloidosis: A rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. Symptoms depend on the organs involved. There are numerous forms of the condition: primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis and familial amyloidosis.
  • Bence jones protein: Bence Jones protein is a type of abnormal protein that may be found in the urine associated with certain conditions and diseases that produce high levels of protein in the urine.
  • Blood cancer: Malignancy of one or several of the different types of cells in the blood
  • Blood conditions: Conditions that affect the blood
  • Bone Marrow Conditions: Medical conditions affecting the bone marrow
  • Bone cancer: Malignancy that occurs in the bone
  • Bone conditions: Conditions that affect the bones
  • Bone pain: Bone pain or tenderness is aching or other discomfort in one or more bones.
  • Bone symptoms: Symptoms affecting the body's bones
  • Cachexia: physical wasting with loss of weight and muscle mass caused by disease
  • Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Hand or wrist problems; often from repetitive motion.
  • Dexamethasone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dexamethasone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Fractures: Fracture of a bone; also "broken bone".
  • Glomerulonephritis: Kidney disease where the kidney's have problems removing waste material and excessive fluid.
  • Human carcinogen -- Melphalan: Melphalan (a chemotheraphy drug) is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by duration and level of exposure.
  • Hypercalcemia: Raised level of calcium in the blood
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands.
  • Immune disorders: Disorders that affect the immune system
  • Immunoglobulinic amyloidosis: A disease characterized by the abnormal deposit of amyloid in various parts of the body, especially organs such as the kidneys, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract and peripheral nerves. It occurs when plasma cells in the bone marrow produce too much of a protein portion of an antibody called the light chain. The exact symptoms are determined by the extent of the organ involvement.
  • Immunoproliferative diseases: Diseases characterised by proliferation of the lymphoid cells
  • Interstitial nephritis: A condition which is characterized by disease of the renal interstitial tissue
  • Kidney damage: Any damage that occurs to the kidneys
  • Kidney failure: Total failure of the kidneys to filter waste
  • Kyphosis: Outward curvature of the spine at the back causing hunching or Dowager's hump
  • Lymphocytosis: An abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood.
  • Macroglossia: Abnormally large tongue.
  • Multiple Myeloma: A rare malignant cancer that occurs in the bone marrow. More common in skull, spine, rib cage, pelvis and legs.
  • Myeloma: A primary malignancy of the plasma cells
  • Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcium salt deposits in the kidneys which may affect it's ability to function. The condition refers to a generally increased level of calcium in the kidneys rather than actual localized deposits such as occurs in kidney stones. It may be caused by such things as high blood calcium levels and tuberculosis. The condition often goes unnoticed until kidney or urinary tract stones form.
  • No symptoms: The absence of noticable symptoms.
  • Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition characterised by mechanical disrturbances due to degradation of joints. It is the most common form of arthritis, and the leading cause of chronic disability.
  • Osteomalacia: A condition where the bones gradually soften and bend due to poor calcification stemming from a lack or impaired metabolism of vitamin D.
  • Osteomyelitis: A bone inflammation caused by bacteria. The inflammation usually originates in another part of the body and is transported to the bone via the blood.
  • Osteoporosis: Bone thinning and weakening from bone calcium depletion.
  • Paget's Disease: Breast carcinoma involving nipple and areola.
  • Paget's disease of bone: A chronic, slowly progressing bone disorder where the bone is destroyed rapidly and replaced by abnormal bone which is dense and fragile.
  • Paralysis: The loss of motor function due to dysfunction of the spinal cord
  • Pathological fracture: The occurrence of a fracture a bone of the body caused by a disease state
  • Peripheral neuropathy: Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness.
  • Pneumococcal pneumonia: Lung pneumnoia from streptococcus bacteria.
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica: A condition characterized by muscle pain and stiffness, fatigue and fever. It is often associated with giant-cell arteritis which is a related but more serious condition.
  • Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A rare inflammatory skin disorder characterized by small red bumps or blisters which eventually become ulcerated.
  • Raynaud's phenomenon: Blood vessel constriction attacks affecting fingers and/or toes.
  • Rib symptoms: Symptoms affecting the ribs
  • Rickets: A rare condition where a lack of Vitamin D results in bone disease as it is essential for the process of bone calcification.
  • Secondary Bone Cancer: Tumour development in bone as a result of spread from a primary malignant tumour from another body site (usually lung bronchus, breast and prostate)
  • Selective IgA Deficiency: Immune deficiency from lacking immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies.
  • Spine symptoms: Symptoms affecting the spine
  • Thalidomide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Thalidomide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Thrombocytopenia: Decreased platelets in the blood
  • Vertebral fracture: A fracture of the vertebra of the back
  • Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia: A rare disorder involving malignancy of the lymph and blood cells.


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