Alveolar echinococcosis: A rare parasitic infection caused by the larva of a miniscule tapeworm called Echinococcus multilocularis. Transmission occurs through contact with foxes, coyotes, dogs and cats. The condition results in the development of parasitic tumors in the liver (sometimes other organs such as brain and lungs) but it generally causes no symptom for 5 to 15 years after infection.
Coccidioidomycosis: An infectious disease caused by a fungus called Coccidioides immitis which is found in the soil. Transmission usually occurs through inhalation but can rarely occur through the skin. Very rarely, infection can spread throughout the body to involve the skin, bones, joints, lungs and central nervous system which can be fatal if untreated.
Granuloma: A small aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells
Paragonimiasis: Infection by a parasitic worm, Paragonimus westermani, which are a type of lung fluke which invade the lungs, and sometimes other organs, where they cause problems. Occasionally the parasites infect the brain which can occasionally result in death. Infection occurs through eating freshwater crabs and crayfish which have not been cooked sufficiently.
Silicosis: An occupation lung disease caused by breathing in silica dust.
Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
Wegener's granulomatosis: A rare disease involving blood vessel inflammation which can affect the blood flow to various tissues and organs and hence cause damage. The respiratory system and the kidneys are the main systems affected.