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Diseases » Myositis » Glossary

Glossary for Myositis

  • Actinomycosis: An infection that results from the bacteria sp. Actinomyces.
  • Alcoholism: Alcoholism is the compulsive urge to drink alcohol despite knowing the negative impact on one's health.
  • Alveolar Hydatid Disease: Rare multi-organ tapeworm infection caught from animals.
  • Antisynthetase syndrome: A rare autoimmune disease that affects the muscles. It involves the development of antibodies to an enzyme (aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase) which is involved in making proteins.
  • Bacterial toxic-shock syndrome: A very rare, potentially fatal infection caused by toxins produced by bacteria, especially bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. The condition is often associated with tampon use but can originate from other sources.
  • Bornholm disease: Contagious viral infection
  • Cushing's syndrome: A rare syndrome where excessive secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex leads to a variety of symptoms. Hormone-secreting adrenal or pituitary tumors are often the cause of the excessive corticosteroid secretion.
  • Cutaneous larva migrans: A condition due to prolonged migration of nematode larvae in the skin
  • Cysticercosis: An infectious disease caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. If the larvae are ingested then a mild or asymptomatic tapeworm infection occurs. However, ingested eggs pass into the bloodstream where they can then enter various tissues and form the cysts that characterize cysticercosis.
  • Dermatomyositis: A muscle disease characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting in progressive muscle weakness and a characteristic rash.
  • Diffuse systemic sclerosi: A rare condition that characterized by skin tightness affecting the trunk and extremities as well as organ involvement. It involves an early period of internal inflammation which distinguishes it from other forms of scleroderma and the organ involvement can be severe and even life-threatening.
  • Endocrine disorders: Any disorder that affects the endocrine system
  • Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome: A rare condition that occurs in some people who take the antidepressant L-tryptophan.
  • Gangrene: Tissue death
  • HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands.
  • Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone production.
  • Hypothyroidism: Too little thyroid hormone production.
  • Idiopathic myopathy: A rare condition involving inflammation of the skeletal muscles which become weak and wasted.
  • Inclusion Body Myositis: Progressive inflammatory muscle disease causing muscle weakness.
  • Inflammatory conditions that may be pathogenic or non-pathogenic: Medical conditions causing inflammation, whether due to a pathogen (e.g. bacteria, virus), or a systemic or other cause.
  • Lupus: Autoimmune disease with numerous effects on various organs and linings.
  • Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Microsporidiosis: An infectious disease caused by a certain group of protozoa which form spores (microsporidia) e.g. Encephalitozoon, Enterocytozoon, Nosema, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophora, Vittaforma, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Enterocytozoan )Septata) intestinalis). The protozoa invade and live inside the hosts cells. The release spores into the gastrointestinal tract where they are excreted and can infect other animals. The infection is often asymptomatic in healthy people but can cause serious symptoms affecting various parts of the body in immunocompromised people.
  • Mitochondrial diseases: Any of a group of mitochondrial disorders affecting cell metabolism and especially muscles.
  • Muscle conditions: Any condition that affects the muscles of the body
  • Muscle weakness: A condition which is characterized by an inability of the muscles to function at their full strenght
  • Myalgia: Muscle aches and pains
  • Myoglobinuria: Myoglobin (muscle protein) in the urine. It is often caused by destruction of muscle tissue for a variety of reasons such as certain drugs, metabolic abnormalities and trauma.
  • Neurocysticercosis: Brain/CNS infection with the tapeworm Cysticercosis
  • Osteomalacia: A condition where the bones gradually soften and bend due to poor calcification stemming from a lack or impaired metabolism of vitamin D.
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica: A condition characterized by muscle pain and stiffness, fatigue and fever. It is often associated with giant-cell arteritis which is a related but more serious condition.
  • Pyomyositis: A bacterial infection of the muscles caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It occurs in tropical areas and people with weak immune systems are the most vulnerable.
  • Sarcoidosis: Rare autoimmune disease usually affecting the lungs.
  • Sarcosporidiosis: Infection with a protozoa called Sarcocystis. The condition is often asymptomatic. Infection usually occurs by eating raw infected meat.
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Sjogren's Syndrome: Autoimmune disease damaging the eye tear ducts and other glands.
  • Spinal stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal cavity around the spinal cord.
  • Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome: A very rare, potentially fatal infection caused by the bacterial toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. The condition is often associated with tampon use but can originate from other sources.
  • Toxoplasmosis: Infection often caught from cats and their feces.
  • Trichinosis: Worm infection usually caught from pigs


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