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Glossary for Neurological system tumors

  • Acoustic Neurinoma: A benign tumor of the 8th cranial nerve which lies in the tube connecting the inner ear to the brain.
  • Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor of the 8th cranial nerve which lies in the tube connecting the inner ear to the brain.
  • Adult low grade infiltrative supratentorial Astrocytoma: A type of brain cancer that occurs in the supratentorial region of the brain of adults and is relatively non-aggressive.
  • Astrocytoma: A malignant tumour of the nervous system composed of astrocytes.
  • BANF acoustic neurinoma: A type of tumor that affects hearing and is associated with a condition called BANF (bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis). The tumor is benign an occurs in the cells that form the myelin sheath of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the nerve. The tumor may become large enough to compress against various cranial nerves or even the brainstem.
  • Benign astrocytoma: Benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity depends on the location and size of the tumors.
  • Brain Stem Glioma: Tumor of the brain stem consisting of neuroglia of many stages of development.
  • Brain Stem Neoplasms: A brain stem tumor. The tumor may be malignant or benign and the severity of the condition is determined by the size of the tumor and exact location.
  • Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
  • Brain tumor, adult: A growth or tumor that develops in the tissues of the brain in adults. The tumor can be benign or malignant.
  • Bristowe's syndrome: Symptoms caused by a brain tumor that develops in the corpus callosum which connects the two brain hemispheres.
  • Central nervous system lymphoma, primary: A type of lymphoma that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). A lymphoma consists of cancerous lymphocytes which are a type of white blood cell. Symptoms vary according to the location of the lymphoma.
  • Cerebral astrocytoma, adult: A very rare tumor that occurs in adults and develops in brain cells called astrocytes. The part of the brain involved is the cerebrum at the top of the head which controls functions such as reading, writing, thinking, learning, speech, emotion and voluntary movement.
  • Cerebral sarcoma: A type of brain tumor that can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The tumor arises from blood vessels in the brain. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Cerebral ventricle neoplasm: A tumor that occurs in the fluid-filled spaces of the brain called the ventricles. Symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor and whether it is cancerous or not.
  • Colloid cysts of third ventricle: A rare type of benign brain tumor. In rare cases the tumor can obstruct the flow of fluid in the brain and cause hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid in the brain). Untreated hydrocephalus can lead to death.
  • Death: The cessation of life
  • Dementia: Various mental impairment conditions.
  • Desmoplastic cerebral astrocytoma of infancy: A rare type of brain tumor that occurs in infants. The tumor consists of cancerous astrocytes.
  • Desmoplastic infantile ganglioma: A rare type of brain tumor that occurs in infants. The tumor may be slow-growing and benign or fast-growing and malignant.
  • Elephant man in context of NF: A rare disorder where a limb becomes enlarged due to neurofibromatosis of the skin and the tissue under it. Neurofibromatosis is a disorder involving the development of benign nerve and skin tumors. When large areas of nerves are affected in one limb then the limb becomes enlarged.
  • Ependymoma: A tumor that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Symptoms vary according to the aggressiveness, size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Ganglioglioma: A type of tumor that develops in the central nervous system. The tumor originates from glial and nerve cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Glioblastoma: An aggressive primary brain tumour of the glial (supporting) cells.
  • Glioma: A rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Glioma Susceptibility: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. There have been at least 8 genetic defects linked to an increased glioma susceptibility.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 1: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p25.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 2: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 10q23.31.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 3: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 13q12.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 4: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q23-q26.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 5: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 9p21.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 6: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20q13.33.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 7: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q24.21.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 8: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 5p15.33.
  • Gliomatosis cerebri: A rare, aggressive type of malignant brain tumor. Cancerous glial cells infiltrate various parts of the brain and can result in a variety of symptoms.
  • Gliosarcoma: A type of brain tumor that originates from glial cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Hemangioblastoma: A benign tumor that tends to occur in the central nervous system such as the brain and spinal cord. The tumor arises from the stem cells that develop into blood vessels or blood cells (hemangioblasts). Symptoms vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Hirschsprung disease ganglioneuroblastoma: A rare disorder characterized by an intestinal defect tumors of the nerves.
  • Hypothalamic hamartomas: A benign congenital tumor that develops on or near the hypothalamus.
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. The tumor is derived from a type of cell called an astrocyte and it can occur in various parts of the brain as well as the optic pathways and the spinal cord. Malignancy is rare. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Lhermitte-Duclos disease: A rare disorder characterized by a slow growing brain tumor located in the cerebellum.
  • MN1: A rare genetic defect that can cause meningiomas to develop. A meningioma is a tumor of the meninges which is a membrane that encloses the brain and spinal cord The genetic defect occurs on chromosome 22. The tumor is usually slow-growing and benign.
  • Malignant astrocytoma: A very malignant primary brain tumor consisting of astrocytes. The tumor spreads throughout the brain and a third of patients dying in the first year.
  • Medulloblastoma: A type of brain tumor.
  • Melanoma -- astrocytoma syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of a melanoma with a type of brain tumor called an astrocytoma. The exact symptoms may vary depending on the exact location of the brain tumor.
  • Meninges cancer: A disorder where a cancerous malignancy is found in the meninges of the brain
  • Meningioma: A slow-growing tumor of the meninges that is not cancerous. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Metastatic nervous system cancer: CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist.
  • Mood swings: Excessive and exaggerated alterations in mood.
  • Nerve cancer: Any cancer that affects the nerves
  • Nerve sheath neoplasm: Tumors that develop from the protective sheath surrounding nerves. There are two types of nerve sheath tumors: schwannomas and neurofibromas. They most often occur around the spinal cord. Symptoms are determined by the size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Neural crest-derived tumors: A neuroendocrine tumor that occurs only in children and infants tends to have a chronic progression. The tumors may be benign or malignant and symptoms will vary depending on the location and malignancy of the tumor. Neural crest-derived tumors include benign swchwannomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, neurofibromas and primary melanomas.
  • Neuroblastoma: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblstoma.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 1: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 2: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4p12.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 3: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2p23.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 4: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 5: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q35.
  • Neuroblastoma, Susceptibility to, 6: Neuroblastoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of infants and children that develops from nerve tissue. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a neuroblastoma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q21.
  • Neuroectodermal tumor, primitive: A very rare type of tumor that occurs in children under the age of ten. It is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis with less than half of patients surviving. The tumor originates from primitive nerve cells in the brain (CNS PNET) or other parts of the body (peripheral PNET). CNS tumors can be further divided into infratentorial tumors (e.g. medulloblastoma) or supratentorial tumors. The tumors usually cause no symptoms in the early stages and the symptoms that do develop will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Neuroectodermal tumors primitive: A type of brain tumor that consists of small round cells and is believed to originate from primitive nerve cells in the brain. Symptoms are determined by the exact location of the tumor.
  • Neuroepithelioma: A type of tumor derived from certain nerve cells and can occur in the retina, central nervous system or sometimes in the peripheral nerves. The symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Neurofibroma: A benign tumor that originates from nerve cells. The tumors usually arise from nerves in the skin or just under the skin.
  • Neurofibromatosis: Nerve disorders often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1): Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is a genetic disorder often leading to the development of nerve tumors. The condition is also characterized by skin pigmentation abnormalities.
  • Neurofibromatosis syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis syndrome Type II: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation, acoustic neuromas and the development of many noncancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant - it is a more severe form of type I neurofibromatosis.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3A: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant. The skin tumors tend to develop characteristically on the palms of the hands.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 3B: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and intestinal tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 6: A rare, dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the presence of at least 6 café-au-lait spots without the presence of neurofibromas or Lisch nodules typically present in neurofibromatosis.
  • Neurofibromatosis, familial intestinal: A rare type of familial tumor that arises from intestinal nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis, type 4, of Riccardi: A rare genetic disorder characterized by areas of increased and decreased skin pigmentation and the development of many non-cancerous nerve and skin tumors some of which may eventually become malignant.
  • Neurofibromatosis-1: Genetic disorder often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis-2: Genetic disorder often leading to tumors on nerves.
  • Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome: A rare disorder where the patients has symptoms of neurofibromatosis (nerve tumors) and Noonan syndrome (short stature, bleeding problems, heart defect, unusual facial features, skeletal anomalies, webbed neck).
  • Neurofibrosarcoma: A rare type of tumor that develops from cells that provide a protective layer around nerves (nerve sheath). Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor. The arms and legs are most commonly affected.
  • Neurological symptoms: Any symptoms that are caused by neurological conditions
  • Neuroma biliary tract: A benign nerve tumor that occurs in the biliary tract. Often occurs after certain surgeries such as gall bladder removal.
  • Oligodendroglioma: Slow-growing brain tumor
  • Optic pathway glioma: A type of tumor that arises in the optic nerve which sends messages from the eye to the brain. These tumors tend to occur mainly in children under the age of 10. The tumor may affect the hormone center of the brain and hence can affect such things as growth and weight.
  • Papilloma of choroid plexus: A very rare syndrome characterized by the development of papillomas (benign tumor) in the choroids plexus which is the part of the brain the produces cerebrospinal fluid. The papilloma may become malignant.
  • Peripheral type neurofibromatosis:
  • Pheochromocytoma as part of Neurofibromatosis: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. This tumor is often associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. The tumor affects automatic body activities such as regulating breathing rate and heartbeat.
  • Pineoblastoma, adult: A rare type of highly malignant brain tumor that usually occurs in children. The tumor develops in the pineal region of the brain.
  • Radiation induced meningioma: A type of brain tumor caused by exposure of the head region to radiation. Radiation is often used to treat a number of conditions, particularly cancer. The tumor can develop years or even decades after the exposure. Symptoms are determined by the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Neuroblastoma: A cancer of the kidney associated with a neuroblastoma (cancer of the nerve cells) which is a relatively common childhood cancer. The kidney cancer tends to develop in long-term survivors of this childhood cancer. It is unclear as to whether the treatment therapies for the neuroblastoma increase the risk of the kidney cancer or whether there is a susceptibility gene involved. Usually only one kidney is affected but it can occur in both kidneys.
  • Schwannoma: Solid, benign tumour derived from Schwann cells. Primarily found in the cerebellopontine angle.
  • Schwannoma, malignant: A malignant tumor that develops from nerve sheath cells. Any nerve can be affected but it is most common on the sciatic, brachial and sacral plexus (leg, upper arm and lower back nerves). Symptoms are determined by the exact location of the tumor.
  • Schwannomatosis: A type of tumor that develops from cells in nerve sheaths. Nerves in the head, spin and peripheral nerves may be affected.
  • Segmental neurofibromatosis: A rare genetic disorder involving the development of benign nerve and skin tumors. The tumors are confined to a defined segment of the body such as on one side of the upper back.
  • Spinal Cord Tumor: Cancer of the spinal cord or central nervous system.
  • Spinal cord neoplasm: A growth (tumor) that arises from the spinal cord. The tumor may be benign or malignant.
  • Turcot syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by benign growths on the inside of the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system tumors.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Genetic disease causing multiple benign tumors

 

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