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Glossary for Nutritional conditions

  • AIDS wasting syndrome: Loss of body mass (especially the muscles) associated with AIDS.
  • Achor-Smith syndrome: A dietary deficiency disorder involving low blood potassium levels which leads to other problems such as diarrhea, anemia, muscle wasting and kidney problems.
  • Acquired prothrombin complex deficiency: A rare disorder where infants with a deficiency of vitamin K suffer problems with bleeding. It is believed to occur in breast fed infants where the milk from the mother lacks sufficient vitamin K.
  • Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A rare inherited malabsorption disorder where the body is unable to absorb zinc in adequate quantities.
  • Acute vitamin A toxicity: Acute ingestion of vitamin A can cause symptoms. Symptoms usually only last for a day or two.
  • Acute zinc toxicity: Acute ingestion of zinc can cause symptoms.
  • Alpha Carotene deficiency- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Alpha Carotene deficiency during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Anderson's triad: The association of cystic fibrosis, celiac disease and vitamin A deficiency.
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: A lack of fully functioning red blood cells due to a deficiency of iron. The iron allows the body to make hemoglobin in red blood cells which in turn allows the red blood cell to carry oxygen.
  • Anemia, Neonatal: Insufficient red blood cells that can carry oxygen around the body. It is common in premature births or can occur as a result of blood loss before, during or just after the birth.
  • Anorexia: Any type of appetite loss; often refers to anorexia nervosa
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Anorexia nervosa, genetic types: There is mounting evidence that anorexia nervosa may be caused by genetic factors which when combined with psychosocial factors can increase a persons risk of developing the condition.
  • Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency: A rare disorder where a genetic disorder results in impaired vitamin E deficiency which in turn causes progressive neurological problems such as ataxia.
  • Avitaminosis: A group of diseases caused by the deficiency of one or more vitamins e.g. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency), rickets (Vitamin D deficiency), pellagra (niacin deficiency), pernicious anemia (Vitamin B12), bleeding (vitamin K deficiency) and night blindness (avitaminosis A). Symptoms depend on the type and degree of vitamin deficiency. Lack of various vitamins can affect just about every part of the body including the nervous system.
  • Bile acid synthesis defects: A defect which prevents the body from making bile acid which results in progressive liver disease.
  • Bile acid synthesis defects, congenital, 1: A defect which prevents the body from making bile acid which results in progressive liver disease. The defect is a deficiency of a particular enzyme (3-beta-hydroxy-delta-5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase) needed to make bile acid.
  • Bile acid synthesis defects, congenital, 2: A defect which prevents the body from making bile acid which results in progressive liver disease. The defect is a deficiency of a particular enzyme (cholestasis with delta(4)-3-oxosteroid 5-beta-reductase) needed to make bile acid.
  • Bile acid synthesis defects, congenital, 3: A defect which prevents the body from making bile acid which results in progressive liver disease. The defect involved a deficiency of 7-alpha-hydroxylase which is an enzyme needed to prevent the accumulation of 27-hydroxycholesterol which is toxic to the liver.
  • Bile acid synthesis defects, congenital, 4: A defect which prevents the body from making bile acid which results in progressive liver disease.
  • Binge eating disorder: Excessive overeating but without purging
  • Boron overuse: Consumption of high doses of the mineral boron can cause various symptoms.
  • Bulimia nervosa: Eating disorder with binging (overeating) and purging (vomiting).
  • Carnitine overuse: Consumption of high doses of the supplement carnitine can cause various symptoms.
  • Carotenemia: Excessive beta-carotene in the blood causing orange skin
  • Carotenoid overuse: Excessive consumption of carotenoids through diet or supplementation can cause harmless symptoms. Carotenoids are pigments found in various colored fruit and veges such as carrots and pumpkin.
  • Chromium poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to chromium.
  • Chromium toxicity: Excessive consumption of chromium can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Chronic vitamin A toxicity: Chronic excessive ingestion of vitamin A can cause symptoms.
  • Chronic zinc toxicity: Chronic ingestion of zinc can cause symptoms.
  • Cobalamin malabsorption, selective, with proteinuria: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10), deficiency: A rare inherited disorder characterized by the deficiency of Coenzyme Q 10. The range and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Congenital Vitamin B12 Malabsorption: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Copper deficiency, familial benign: A rare inherited copper deficiency. Copper has many functions in the body including heart function, cholesterol metabolism, brain development, immune defenses, blood supply, glucose metabolism and normal bone development.
  • Copper poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to copper.
  • Copper toxicity: Excessive accumulation of copper in the body can cause symptoms.
  • Corneal dystrophy -- pigmentary anomaly -- malabsorption: A very rare syndrome characterized by eye problems, pigmented skin spots and malabsorption due to chronic diarrhea.
  • Decreased appetite and poor growth in children: Decreased appetite and poor growth in children is an abnormal condition in which a child has a poor appetite coupled with deficient growth.
  • Decreased appetite and poor growth in infants: Decreased appetite and poor growth in infants occurs when an infant has a poor appetite coupled with deficient growth.
  • Decreased folate: Decrease in one of the B vitamins required for red blood cell production
  • Disordered Eating: Unusual and troubled eating habits
  • Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (ENDOS): Eating disorder that does not match a specific category.
  • Eating disorder not otherwise specified: Any eating disorder which has otherwise not been classified.
  • Eating disorders: Various mental disorders impairing normal eating or appetite.
  • Eijkman's syndrome: A group of nervous symptoms that is associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency. The deficiency leads to a condition called Beri-Beri. Severe cases result in progressive paralysis leading to convulsions and death as the nerves become increasingly inflamed and wasted.
  • Familial Selective Vitamin B12 Malabsorption: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Familial isolated deficiency of vitamin E: A rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an inherited condition where the body is unable to absorb vitamin E from the food consumed.
  • Fluoride overuse: Chronic excessive consumption of fluoride can cause various symptoms.
  • Folate-deficiency anemia: Folate-deficiency anemia is a blood condition characterized by low levels of folate in the body which leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells. It is usually the result of a poor diet, malabsorption issues or the use of certain medications.
  • Folic Acid Deficiency -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that a deficiency of Folic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Folic acid toxicity: Excessive consumption of folic acid can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Ginseng overuse: Excessive use of ginseng can cause symptoms.
  • Glucosamine -- adverse effects: Side effects may be associated with the use of glucosamine supplements.
  • Grasbeck-Imerslund Disease: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Guarana overuse: The consumption of high doses of guarana can cause symptoms.
  • Hunter glossitis: A tongue disorder frequently associated with pernicious anemia.
  • Hydroxykynureninuria: A rare genetic disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme kynureninase (a vitamin B6) causes physical and mental problems. The deficiency can also occur in an acquired form which tends to be less severe.
  • Hypervitaminoses A and D: The excessive physiological effect of vitamin A or D cause by excessive intake of the vitamins
  • Ichthyohepatotoxication: Ichthyohepatotoxication is a condition caused by eating the liver of certain fish. It is believed that the high vitamin A content of the liver leads to vitamin A overdose and the resulting symptoms. Tropical shark livers are associated with this condition.
  • Imerslund's Anemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund's Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund-Najman-Grasbeck Anemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund-Najman-Grasbeck Disease: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund-Najman-Grasbeck Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Intrinsic factor, congenital deficiency of: A very rare disorder where a deficiency of a protein called intrinsic factor prevents vitamin B12 from being absorbed from the stomach. Thus, vitamin B12 deficiency occurs which leads to anemia.
  • Iodine (insufficiency) -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that a lack of Iodine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Iodine overuse: The consumption of high doses of iodine can cause symptoms.
  • Iron deficiency anemia: Iron-deficiency anemia is a blood condition characterized by low levels of iron in the body which leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells.
  • Iron supplements -- adverse effects: The use of iron supplements can cause various adverse effects.
  • Juvenile Megaloblastic Anemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Keshan disease: A heart muscle disease believed to be caused by a deficiency of the mineral called selenium in the diet.
  • Malabsorption due to bile acid synthesis defects, idiopathic: Impaired synthesis of bile acids which impairs digestive system functioning and results in severely inhibited absorption of fats.
  • Marchiafava-Bignami disease: A progressive syndrome associated with alcohol abuse and/or nutritional disorder. It is characterized by fits, stupor, dementia and coma.
  • Megaloblasti Anemia, 1: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Megaloblastic Anemia 1: A rare genetic blood disorder where a defect in the vitamin B12 receptor means that it can't be absorbed from food during digestion. As a result of the low vitamin B12 levels, the body produces increased numbers of abnormal enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts).
  • Megaloblastic Anemia, Familial: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Microvillus Inclusion Disease: A rare, inherited, progressive intestinal disease where a defect in the intestinal wall results in severe diarrhea after birth.
  • Moller-Barlow disease: Vitamin C deficiency in infants.
  • Neural tube defect, folate-sensitive: Neural tube defects caused by abnormal folate or homocysteine metabolism. Neural tube defects are brain or spine defects such as an opening in the spinal cord through which the spinal cord protrudes.
  • Neurodegeneration due to Cerebral Folate Transport Deficiency: Brain degeneration due to the impaired transportation of folate in the brain.
  • Niacin toxicity: Excessive consumption of niacin can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Night eating syndrome: A disorder where a person persistently eats during the night. Sometimes patients are unware that they have eaten during the night and their may be more than one late-night eating binge each night. The behavior must usually continue for at least two months before it can be diagnosed as night eating syndrome. Triggering factors for this order include anxiety, depression, stress, boredom and body image problems.
  • Noma: A rare disorder characterized by gangrenous sores that spread rapidly and usually start in the mouth or lips. It mostly occurs in undernourished children living in poor, unhygienic conditions.
  • Nothnagel acroparesthesia: Stiffness, numbness and tingling in the extremities caused by blood vessel dilation and constriction abnormalities.
  • Nutritional anemia: Nutritional anemia refers to a reduced red blood cell count due to a poor diet which is deficient in iron, folat and/or Vitamin B12.
  • Obal syndrome: The association of eye problems with severe malnutrition. The condition occurred frequently in soldiers, prisoners of war and people in concentration camps.
  • Overweight: An increase in the body weight greater than that required for normal function that is characterised by the accumulation of excessive fat
  • Para-amino benzoic acid overuse: High doses of para-amino benzoic acid (member of the vitamin B family) cause symptoms.
  • Pernicious Anemia, Juvenile type: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia is a blood disorder where the body is unable to use it properly use Vitamin B12 to make red blood cells.
  • Phrynoderma: A skin disorder thought to be caused by vitamin A deficiency. The skin bumps tend to occur mainly on the trunk and extremities.
  • Potassium toxicity: Excessive consumption of potassium can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Protein R deficiency: A rare inherited condition where the lack of a protein (R binder protein) results in a deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12). The condition is considered benign and no treatment is needed.
  • Psyllium -- adverse effects: The use of psyllium as a diet supplement can cause adverse symptoms.
  • Rumination disorder: A chronic eating condition where the stomach contents are regurgitated, rechewed and swallowed again. It tends to occur predominantly in infants, young children and people with mental impairment but it can occur in otherwise healthy individuals. Sufferers often try to hide their condition for fear of being diagnosed as having bulimia. The condition is often misdiagnosed as gastroparesis or bulimia. The regurgitation can occur as soon as the food is swallowed or even up to an hour after finishing eating.
  • Selective Vitamin B12 malabsorption with Proteinuria: A rare genetic blood disorder where a defect in the vitamin B12 receptor means that it can't be absorbed from food during digestion. As a result of the low vitamin B12 levels, the body produces increased numbers of abnormal enlarged red blood cells (megaloblasts).
  • Selenium -- overuse: Excessive use of selenium can case various adverse symptoms.
  • Selenium poisoning: Excessive exposure to selenium. Selenium is essential to the diet in small amounts but is toxic in large amounts. Poisoning can occur through inhalation or ingestion.
  • Shwachman syndrome: A rare disorder where a pancreatic defect impairs digestive enzyme production and malfunction of the bone marrow produces blood abnormalities, particularly blood cells involved with fighting infection. These defects produce a range of symptoms as a result of malabsorption and poor ability to fight infections. Characterized by a lack of digestive enzymes and low immunity due to low leukocyte level.
  • Siegler-Brewer-Carey syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by cataracts, ear infections, poor absorption by the intestines, respiratory infections and failure to thrive.
  • Stryker-Halbeisen syndrome: The association of vitamin B complex deficiency, anemia and red, scaly skin.
  • Underweight: Body weight below normal (BMI<20)>
  • Vilanova-Canadeli syndrome: A syndrome involving the association of hypothyroidism and a skin disorder caused by vitamin A deficiency.
  • Vitamin A embryopathy: A morbid condition of the embryo caused by the consumption of excess Vitamin A during pregnancy
  • Vitamin B1 toxicity: Excessive consumption of vitamin B1 (thiamine) can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Vitamin B12 -- adverse effects: Regular use of large doses of vitamin B12 supplements can cause adverse effects.
  • Vitamin B6 -- adverse effects: Regular use of large doses of vitamin B6 supplements can cause adverse effects.
  • Vitamin B6 toxicity: Excessive consumption of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Vitamin C Overdose: Symptoms occurring due to the ingestion of an amount of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in excess of recommended doses or prolonged chewing of vitamin C supplement tablets; overdose is rare except in people with predisposing conditions as ascorbic acid is non-toxic.
  • Vitamin C toxicity: Excessive consumption of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Vitamin D -- adverse effects: Excessive use of vitamin D supplements can cause symptoms.
  • Vitamin D resistant rickets: A form of rickets that is caused by Vitamin D resistance
  • Vitamin D toxicity: Excessive consumption of vitamin D can cause symptoms of toxicity.
  • Vitamin K deficiency: Deficiency of vitamin K
  • WDHA syndrome: A syndrome characterized by watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria.
  • Wasting Syndrome: AIDS related wasting syndrome is the involuntary loss of more than 10% of the body weight plus more than 30 days of either diarrhoea or weakness and fever. It is linked to disease progression and death.
  • Weight cycling: The cyclic changing of a persons weight
  • Whipple's Disease: Rare malabsorption disease from bacterial digestive infection
  • Zinc poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to zinc.

 

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