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Causes of Postpartum depression

Contents
  1. Postpartum depression: Introduction
  2. Excerpts from book chapters
  3. Risk factors
  4. Complication causes
  5. News
  6. Related cause information

Postpartum depression as a complication of other conditions:

Other conditions that might have Postpartum depression as a complication may, potentially, be an underlying cause of Postpartum depression. Our database lists the following as having Postpartum depression as a complication of that condition:

Medical news summaries relating to Postpartum depression:

The following medical news items are relevant to causes of Postpartum depression:

Related information on causes of Postpartum depression:

As with all medical conditions, there may be many causal factors. Further relevant information on causes of Postpartum depression may be found in:

Causes of Postpartum depression: Online Medical Books

16 MEDICAL BOOKS ONLINE! Review excerpts from medical books online, free, without registration, for more information about the causes of Postpartum depression.

Depression: Medical causes
(Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition))

Organic disorders

Various organic disorders and chronic illnesses produce mild, moderate, or severe depression. Among these are metabolic and endocrine disorders,such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and diabetes; infectious diseases, such as influenza, hepatitis, and encephalitis; degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and multi-infarct dementia; and neoplastic disorderssuch as cancer.

Psychiatric disorders

Affective disordersare typically characterized by abrupt mood swings from depression to elation (mania) or by prolonged episodes of either mood. In fact, severe depression may last for weeks. More moderate depression occurs in cyclothymic disordersand usually alternates with moderate mania. Moderate depression that's more or less constant over a 2-year period typically results from dysthymic disorders. Also, chronic anxiety disorders,such as panic and obsessive-compulsive disorder, may be accompanied by depression.

Other causes

Alcohol abuse

Long-term alcohol use, intoxication, or withdrawal commonly produces depression.

Drugs.

Various drugs cause depression as an adverse effect. Among the more common are barbiturates; chemotherapeutic drugs, such as asparaginase; anticonvulsants, such as diazepam; and antiarrhythmics, such as disopyramide. Other depression-inducing drugs include centrally acting antihypertensives, such as reserpine (common in high dosages), methyldopa, and clonidine; beta-adrenergic blockers, such as propranolol; levodopa; indomethacin; cycloserine; corticosteroids; and hormonal contraceptives.

Postpartum period.

Although the cause hasn't been proved, depression occurs in about 1 in every 2,000 to 3,000 pregnancies and is characterized by various symptoms. Symptoms range from mild postpartum blues to an intense, suicidal, depressive psychosis.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition), 2006

Fontanel depression: Medical causes
(Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition))

Dehydration

With mild dehydration (5% weight loss), the anterior fontanel appears slightly depressed. The infant has pale, dry skin and mucous membranes; decreased urine output; a normal or slightly elevated pulse rate; and, possibly, irritability

Moderate dehydration (10% weight loss) causes slightly more pronounced fontanel depression, along with gray skin with poor turgor, dry mucous membranes, decreased tears, and decreased urine output. The infant has normal or decreased blood pressure, an increased pulse rate and, possibly, lethargy.

Severe dehydration (15%or greater weight loss) may result in a markedly sunken fontanel, along with extremely poor skin turgor, parched mucous membranes, marked oliguria or anuria, lethargy, and signs of shock, such as a rapid, thready pulse; very low blood pressure; and obtundation.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Handbook of Signs & Symptoms (Third Edition), 2006

Major depression: Causes and incidence
(Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition))

The multiple causes of depression aren’t completely understood. Current research suggests possible genetic, familial, biochemical, physical, psychological, and social causes. Psychological causes (the focus of many nursing interventions) may include feelings of helplessness and vulnerability, anger, hopelessness and pessimism, and low self-esteem. They may be related to abnormal character and behavior patterns and troubled personal relationships. In many cases, the history identifies a specific personal loss or severe stressor that probably interacts with the person’s predisposition to provoke major depression.

Depression may be secondary to a specific medical condition — for example, metabolic disturbances, such as hypoxia and hypercalcemia; endocrine disorders, such as diabetes and Cushing’s syndrome; neurologic diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases; cancer (especially of the pancreas); viral and bacterial infections, such as influenza and pneumonia; cardiovascular disorders, such as heart failure; pulmonary disorders, such as chronic obstructive lung disease; musculoskeletal disorders, such as degenerative arthritis; GI disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome; genitourinary problems, such as incontinence; collagen vascular diseases, such as lupus; and anemias.

Drugs prescribed for medical and psychiatric conditions as well as many commonly abused substances can also cause depression. Examples include antihypertensives, psychotropics, opioid and nonopioid analgesics, antiparkinsonian drugs, numerous cardiovascular medications, oral antidiabetics, antimicrobials, steroids, chemotherapeutic agents, cimetidine, and alcohol. Depression occurs in up to 18 million Americans, affecting all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. It affects both sexes, but is more common in women.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2005

Puerperal infection: Causes and incidence
(Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition))

Microorganisms that commonly cause puerperal infection include group B streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli. Most of these organisms are considered normal vaginal flora but are known to cause puerperal infection in the presence of certain predisposing factors:

❑ prolonged and premature rupture of the membranes

❑ prolonged (more than 24 hours) labor

❑ frequent or unsanitary vaginal examinations or unsanitary delivery

❑ retained products of conception

❑ hemorrhage

❑ maternal conditions, such as anemia or debilitation from malnutrition

❑ cesarean birth (20-fold increase in risk for puerperal infection).

In the United States, puerperal infection develops in about 6% of maternity patients.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Professional Guide to Diseases (Eighth Edition), 2005

Depression: Medical causes
(Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition))

Organic disorders

Various organic disorders and chronic illnesses produce mild, moderate, or severe depression. Among these are metabolic and endocrine disorders, such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and diabetes; infectious diseases, such as influenza, hepatitis, and encephalitis; degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and multi-infarct dementia; and neoplastic disorders such as cancer.

Psychiatric disorders

Affective disorders are typically characterized by abrupt mood swings from depression to elation (mania) or by prolonged episodes of either mood. In fact, severe depression may last for weeks. More moderate depression occurs in cyclothymic disorders and usually alternates with moderate mania. Moderate depression that’s more or less constant over a 2-year period typically results from dysthymic disorders. Also, chronic anxiety disorders, such as panic and obsessive-compulsive disorder, may be accompanied by depression.

Other causes

Alcohol abuse

Long-term alcohol use, intoxication, or withdrawal commonly produces depression.

Drugs

Various drugs cause depression as an adverse effect. Among the more common are barbiturates, chemotherapeutic drugs such as asparaginase, anticonvulsants such as diazepam, and antiarrhythmics such as disopyramide. Other depression-inducing drugs include centrally acting antihypertensives, such as reserpine (common with high doses), methyldopa, and clonidine; beta-adrenergic blockers such as propranolol; levodopa; indomethacin; cycloserine; corticosteroids; and hormonal contraceptives.

Postpartum period

Although its cause hasn’t been determined, postpartum depression occurs in about 1 in every 2,000 to 3,000 women who have given birth. Symptoms range from mild postpartum blues to an intense, suicidal, depressive psychosis.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition), 2006

Fontanel depression: Medical causes
(Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition))

Dehydration

In mild dehydration (5% weight loss), the anterior fontanel appears slightly depressed. Other findings include pale, dry skin and mucous membranes; decreased urine output; a normal or slightly elevated pulse rate; and possibly irritability.

Moderate dehydration (10% weight loss) causes slightly more pronounced fontanel depression along with gray skin with poor turgor, dry mucous membranes, decreased tears, and decreased urine output. The infant has normal or decreased blood pressure and an increased pulse rate; he may also be lethargic.

Severe dehydration (15% or greater weight loss) may result in a markedly sunken fontanel along with extremely poor skin turgor, parched mucous membranes, marked oliguria or anuria, lethargy, and signs of shock, such as rapid, thready pulse, very low blood pressure, and obtundation.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Professional Guide to Signs & Symptoms (Fifth Edition), 2006

Depression: Differential Overview
(Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis)

❑ Dysthymia

❑ Major depression

❑ Adjustment disorder with depressed mood

❑ Seasonal affective disorder

❑ Bipolar disorder

❑ Drug-induced

❑ Grief

❑ Thyroid disease

❑ Dementia

❑ Stroke

❑ Paraneoplastic

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis, 2007

Depression, major: Causes
(Handbook of Diseases)

The multiple causes of depression aren’t completely understood. Current research suggests possible genetic, familial, biochemical, physical, psychological, and social causes.

Psychological factors

Such causes may include feelings of helplessness and vulnerability, anger, hopelessness and pessimism, and low self-esteem; they may be related to abnormal character and behavior patterns and troubled personal relationships.

In many patients, the history identifies a specific personal loss or severe stressor that probably interacts with the person’s predisposition to provoke major depression.

Medical conditions

Depression may be secondary to a specific medical condition — for example, metabolic disturbances, such as hypoxia and hypercalcemia; endocrine disorders, such as diabetes and Cushing’s disease; neurologic diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease; and cancer, especially of the pancreas.

Other medical conditions that may underlie depression include viral and bacterial infections, such as influenza and pneumonia; cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure; pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; musculoskeletal disorders such as degenerative arthritis; GI disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome; genitourinary problems such as incontinence; collagen vascular diseases such as lupus; and anemias.

Drugs

Drugs prescribed for medical and psychiatric conditions as well as many commonly abused substances, can also cause depression. Examples include antihypertensives, psychotropics, narcotic and nonnarcotic analgesics, antiparkinsonian drugs, numerous cardiovascular medications, oral antidiabetics, antimicrobials, steroids, chemotherapeutic agents, cimetidine, and alcohol.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Handbook of Diseases, 2003

Fontanel depression: Medical causes
(Nursing: Interpreting Signs and Symptoms)

Dehydration.With mild dehydration (5% weight loss), the anterior fontanel appears slightly depressed. The infant has pale, dry skin and mucous membranes; decreased urine output; a normal or slightly elevated pulse rate; and, possibly, irritability.

Moderate dehydration (10% weight loss) causes slightly more pronounced fontanel depression, along with gray skin with poor turgor, dry mucous membranes, decreased tears, and decreased urine output. The infant has normal or decreased blood pressure, an increased pulse rate and, possibly, lethargy.

Severe dehydration (15% or greater weight loss) may result in a markedly sunken fontanel, along with extremely poor skin turgor, parched mucous membranes, marked oliguria or anuria, lethargy, and signs of shock, such as a rapid, thready pulse; very low blood pressure; and obtundation.

» READ BOOK EXCERPT ONLINE »

Source: Nursing: Interpreting Signs and Symptoms, 2007

 

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