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Glossary for Additional Heart Sounds

Medical terms related to Additional Heart Sounds or mentioned in this section include:

  • Abnormal heart sound: Abnormal heart sounds refers to any deviant or irregular sounds made by the beating heart.
  • Acute intermittent porphyria: A rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by a disturbed porphyrin metabolism resulting in increased production of porphyrin or its precursors. Symptoms include abdominal pain, photosensitivity and neurological disturbances such as seizures, coma, hallucinations and respiratory paralysis.
  • Acute kidney failure: The sudden and acute loss of kidney function
  • Acute radiation sickness: Tissue injury can result from exposure to radiation. The radiation dose, rate of dosing and tissues irradiated will determine the severity and type of symptoms. The effects may be chronic, delayed or acute. Acute irradiation sickness usually occurs after abdominal irradiation and lasts for hours or days.
  • Acute rheumatic fever: Bacterial joint infection with risk of heart complications.
  • Acute stress disorder: An acute anxiety state
  • Additional Heart Sounds: A heart sound that is heard in addition to the normal two beats.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenal medulla neoplasm: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. The tumor is usually benign but can be malignant.
  • Aldehyde syndrome: A metabolic anomaly where consumption of alcohol results in high levels of blood acetaldehyde which causes a variety of symptoms.
  • Amitriptyline toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Amoxapine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Amphetamine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of amphetamine drugs.
  • Amyloidosis: A disease characterized by the accumulation of insoluble amyloid protein in tissues and organs which in turn affects the functioning of these tissues and organs.
  • Anaesthesia complications: Complications that occur due to anaesthesia
  • Anticholinergics poisoning: Excessive ingestion of anticholinergic drugs.
  • Aorta conditions: Conditions that affect the aorta
  • Aortic Valve Insufficiency: A heart valve disorder where the heart valve is unable to close completely which causes a backflow of some of the blood from the aorta. The condition can be caused by such things as systemic lupus erythematosus, endocarditis, high blood pressure, Marfan's syndrome and aortic dissection.
  • Aortic coarctation: A rare inherited birth defect where the heart blood vessel called the aorta has a narrowed area which affects blood flow. The degree of constriction is variable which mild cases asymptomatic until adulthood. The poor blood flow to the lower body gives results in it appearing less developed than that upper body.
  • Aortic stenosis: A condition which affects the aortic valve of the heart resulting in stenosis of the valve.
  • Aortic valve disease: Disease of the heart's aortic valve
  • Aortic valve incompetence: A condition characterized by an inability of the aortic valve to function effectively
  • Aortic valves stenosis of the child: A birth defect where the aortic valve is abnormally narrow or unable to fully open. Depending on the degree of narrowing, the symptoms may range from severe to asymptomatic.
  • Aorto-ventricular tunnel: A rare heart defect where a tunnel from between the ascending aorta and the cavity of the left or sometimes right heart ventricle. The severity of the condition is highly variable from asymptomatic for many years to fetal death. Often other heart anomalies are also associated.
  • Aplastic anemia: A blood disorder where the bone marrow produces insufficient new blood cells.
  • Arrhythmia: The occurrence of an irregular heart beat
  • Atrial Septal Defect: An abnormal connection between the 2 atria, or upper chambers of the heart
  • Atrial fibrillation: A rhythm disturbance of the heart that results in irregular and chaotic ventricular contractions.
  • Atrial tachyarrhythmia with short pr interval: An inherited heart rhythm abnormality characterized by a short PR interval and atrial tachyarrhythmia.
  • Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly with cardiac defects and sensorineural hearing loss: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart defects, hearing impairment and a congenital eye disorder called Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly.
  • Bacteremia: A condition where bacteria is present in the blood.
  • Bacterial digestive infections: Bacterial infections affecting the gastrointestinal
  • Bacterial diseases: Diseases caused by a bacterial infection
  • Bacterial endocarditis: Infection and inflammation of the inner layers of the heart, most commonly the valves cause by bacteria.
  • Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
  • Bernheim's syndrome: Reduced size of right heart ventricle due to enlargement of the left ventricle which encroaches on the space in the right ventricle. Blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle is obstructed.
  • Beta-Adrenergic poisoning: Excessive ingestion of Beta-Adrenergic drugs.
  • Bicuspid aortic valve: A heart defect where the aortic valve has only two leaflets instead of the normal three. The severity of the disorder is variable.
  • Boerhaave syndrome: A rare spontaneous rupture of the esophagus which can occur during violent vomiting or retching.
  • Bone-Marrow failure syndromes: A disorder where the bone marrow fails to produce enough new blood cells.
  • Bounding pulse: Is most often classified as a forceful and strong pulse.
  • Bright's Disease: A condition where the parts of the kidneys that are responsible for filtering become inflamed and results in blood and proteins accidentally leaking into the urine. The condition can occur after certain infections and serious kidney dysfunction can result in severe or chronic complications.
  • Bruit: Audible blood flow through a vessel or the heart, indicating abnormal flow.
  • Bruits: Swishing sounds heard over an artery that may also produce a palpable vibration.
  • Caffeine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of caffeine.
  • Carbamate insecticide poisoning: Excessive ingestion of carbamate insecticide drugs.
  • Carcinoid crisis: Carcinoid crisis can occur spontaneously or as a response to stress, such as anesthesia or chemotherapy.
  • Carcinoid syndrome: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare, metastatic disease that occurs predominantly in the right heart. The tricuspid and pulmonic valves are affected, leading to right heart failure, which results in increased morbidity and mortality.
  • Cardiac malformation: Any malformation or structural defect of the heart or it's structures. Some examples include atrioventricular septal defect, conotruncal malformations, transposition of great vessels and heart valve dysplasia. The symptoms vary in nature and severity depending on the type of malformation.
  • Cardioauditory syndrome of Sanchez- Cascos: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart and hearing abnormalities. The deafness was present at birth or soon after.
  • Cardiovascular symptoms: Symptoms affecting the heart and related vascular systems.
  • Cervical bruit: Audible blood flow through a cervical vessel, indicating abnormal flow.
  • Chest pain: Any chest pain must be considered as cardiac in origin until proven otherwise.
  • Chromosome 11, deletion 11p: A syndrome that is caused by the deletion of short arm (p) of chromosome 11. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Chromosome 12, trisomy 12q: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of the long arm (q) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. In most cases, death occurs during infancy. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is duplicated.
  • Chromosome 12q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of the long arm (q) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. In most cases, death occurs during infancy.
  • Chromosome 17p, partial deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the lost genetic material.
  • Chromosome 17q, partial duplication: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 20q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving a duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 20 resulting in various physical and developmental abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 22q11 Deletion Spectrum: A rare chromosomal disorder where a small piece of genetic material is missing from chromosome 22 at the q11 location.
  • Chromosome 3, monosomy 3p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome 3 is absent and is characterized by mental and growth deficiency, drooping upper eyelid and polydactyly.
  • Chromosome 4, trisomy 4q: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 4q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 7p deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where part or all of the short arm (p) of chromosome 7 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
  • Chromosome 8p inverted duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving the inverted duplication of the short arm (p) of chromosome 8 resulting in three copies of the genetic material instead of the normal two. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and size of the duplication.
  • Chromosome 9, Partial Monosomy 9p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 9 is missing resulting in various abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount of genetic material that is missing.
  • Chromosome 9, monosomy 9p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 9 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chronic renal failure: Long-term and generally irreversible disease of the kidneys due to infection, obstruction, congenital diseases or generalised diseases causing failure of the kidneys' normal functions.
  • Clomipramine Toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Cobalamin malabsorption, selective, with proteinuria: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Cocaine poisoning: Excessive ingestion of cocaine.
  • Congenital Vitamin B12 Malabsorption: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Congenital cardiovascular malformations: The abnormal development of heart blood vessels. Specific examples of this condition includes hypoplastic left heart syndrome, coarctation and tricuspid atresia.
  • Congenital heart defects: Heart defects that a baby is born with.
  • Congenital mitral malformation: Malformations of the mitral valve that are present at birth. The mitral valve allows blood to flow between the two chambers on the left side of the heart. Types of mitral malformation are atresia (absent mitral valve), stenosis (narrowed mitral valve) and parachute mitral valve.
  • Conotruncal heart malformations: A rare group of heart defect involving the outflow tracts. Examples include truncus arteriosus, transposition of great arteries and tetralogy of Fallot. Obviously the symptoms will be determined by which specific defect is involved.
  • Cor Triatriatum: A rare congenital malformation where the heart has three atria instead of the normal two due to the presence of a separating membrane.
  • Cor biloculare: A rare birth defect where the heart has two chambers instead of the normal four. The severity of the condition is variable with some cases being asymptomatic during infancy and survival has occurred for several decades in some cases. The defect rarely occurs on its own and is usually associated with various other malformations such as inverted abdominal organ positions.
  • Coronaro-cardiac fistula: An abnormal opening between a heart artery and a heart chamber or great vessel. This rare defect is present at birth and often causes no problems or symptoms until adulthood. The severity of the condition is determined by the size and exact location of the defect.
  • Cutaneous mastocytosis: Skin mastocytosis
  • Cyclic antidepressant poisoning: Excessive ingestion of cyclic antidepressant drugs.
  • Deafness -- thyroid hormone resistance: An inherited disorder where the body fails to respond to thyroid hormone even though there is sufficient quantities of the hormone.
  • Deletion 11p: A syndrome that is caused by the deletion of short arm (p) of chromosome 11. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Deletion 22q11: A rare chromosomal disorder where a small piece of genetic material is missing from chromosome 22 at the q11 location.
  • Deletion 3p: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome 3 is absent and is characterized by mental and growth deficiency, drooping upper eyelid and extra digits.
  • Dermatomyositis: A muscle disease characterized by chronic muscle inflammation resulting in progressive muscle weakness and a characteristic rash.
  • Desipramine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • DiGeorge syndrome: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder which can result in a vast array of symptoms. Various names have been used to describe different manifestations of the syndrome. Di George Syndrome primarily involves an underdeveloped thymus and parathyroid glands which results in lowered immunity low blood calcium levels respectively. Another primary feature is heart defects. Various other variable features are also present. It is not uncommon for patients to have more than one of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome subtypes which can make diagnosis confusing - other subtypes include Sphrintzen syndrome, Caylor cardiofacial syndrome and CATCH 22.
  • Double outlet right ventricle: A very rare birth defect where the aorta and the pulmonary artery both exit from the right ventricle and thus blood is unable to be pumped to the lungs. However, a hole connects the two ventricles and ultimately allows some blood flow to the lungs. The severity of symptoms varies depending on the location of the connecting hole in the heart and the exact location of the two arteries with respect to the heart.
  • Doxepin toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Duplication 12q: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of the long arm (q) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. In most cases, death occurs during infancy. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is duplicated.
  • Ear sounds: Hearing ringing, buzzing, or noises in the ears
  • Eisenmenger Syndrome: Increased lung blood pressure that can result from conditions such as a hole in the wall between the two heart chambers.
  • Emphysema: Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is defined as an abnormal, permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis.
  • Endocardial fibroelastosis: A rare heart disorder characterized by a thickening of the heart muscle lining causing heart enlargement and heart failure.
  • Endocarditis: Inflammatory alterations of the endocardium of ones heart
  • Familial Selective Vitamin B12 Malabsorption: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 11: An inherited heart condition involving thickening of the walls of the heart chambers which reduces the size of the heart chambers which restricts the outflow of blood from the heart ventricle and results in heart muscle disease. The condition may not cause any symptoms and can result in sudden death. Type 11 is caused by a defect in the ACTC1 gene on chromosome 15q14.
  • Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 12: An inherited heart condition involving thickening of the walls of the heart chambers which reduces the size of the heart chambers which restricts the outflow of blood from the heart ventricle and results in heart muscle disease. The condition may not cause any symptoms and can result in sudden death. Type 12 is caused by a defect in the CSRP3 gene on chromosome 11p15.1.
  • Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone: An inherited disorder where the body fails to respond to thyroid hormone even though there is sufficient quantities of the hormone.
  • Graeck-Imerslund disease:
  • Grasbeck-Imerslund Disease: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Graves disease: A condition which is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid resulting hyperthyroidism
  • Groll-Hirschowitz syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by deafness, gastrointestinal abnormalities and neuropathy.
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by the destruction of thyroid cells by various cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies to various thyroid antigens, the most frequently detected of which include antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg), and, to a lesser extent, TSH receptor-blocking antibodies.
  • Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
  • Heart attack: An acute myocardial infarction
  • Heart block: is a disease in the electrical system of the heart
  • Heart cancer: A malignancy that is located in the heart
  • Heart conditions: Any condition that affects the heart
  • Heart disease: Any disease that affects that heart but particularly relating to its own blood supply
  • Heart injury: An injury to the heart
  • Heart rhythm symptoms: Problems with the rhythm of the heartbeat (arrhythmias)
  • Heart sounds symptoms: Symptoms of sounds related to the beating of the heart.
  • Heart symptoms: Symptoms affecting the heart
  • Hepatorenal tyrosinemia: A rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of particular enzymes which prevents the breakdown of tyrosine which then builds up in the liver. Type 1 involves a deficiency of the enzyme fumaril acetoacetate hydrolase.
  • High blood pressure: Excessive blood pressure.
  • Hurler syndrome:
  • Hyperadrenalism: Excessive levels of adrenal hormones in the body. Symptoms depend on which hormone is involved and the degree of involvement. Adrenal hormones are aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  • Hypertension: Excessive blood pressure.
  • Hyperthyroidism: The excessive activity of the thyroid gland
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Heart damage from thickened heart walls.
  • Hypertrophic subaortic stenosis: A heart condition involving thickening of parts of the heart (usually the muscle wall separating the heart chambers) which reduces the size of the heart chambers (specifically the left ventricle). This abnormally thick heart muscle restricts the outflow of blood from the left heart ventricle and results in heart muscle disease. The condition is considered to be uncommon but not rare with as many as 1 in 500 people affected. The condition is usually caused by a genetic defect and the severity of the condition is variable.
  • Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: A rare inherited muscle condition characterized by periods of severe muscle weakness or paralysis which can last from hours to days. Episodes can occur as often as daily or only rarely.
  • Hypovolemia: a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma
  • Imerslund's Anemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund's Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund-Najman-Grasbeck Anemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund-Najman-Grasbeck Disease: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imerslund-Najman-Grasbeck Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Imipramine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Intracranial bruit: Audible blood flow through a cranial vessel, indicating abnormal flow.
  • Iron deficiency: When there is a deficiency of iron in the body
  • Juvenile Megaloblastic Anemia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Kozlowski-Celermajer syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by congenital heart disease and spine and upper arm bone abnormalities.
  • Loeffler's endocarditis: Heart muscle disease caused by infiltration of the heart by eosinophils (type of white blood cell). It occurs as a complication long-term, high eosinophilic levels in the peripheral blood.
  • Loud Heart Sounds: Heart sounds that are louder than normal.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 1: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 1 is located at 19q13.1.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 2: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 2 is located at 17q11.2-q24.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 3: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 3 is located at 7q21-q22.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 4: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 4 is located at 3q13.1.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 5: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 5 is located at 1q32.
  • Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 6: A rare, potential lethal disorder that is triggered by general anesthetic or certain muscle relaxant drugs. On exposure to the drugs, muscle metabolism is severely disrupted and the body is unable to control its temperature which can lead to death without treatment. The chromosomal defect for type 6 is located at 5p.
  • Mallory weiss syndrome: A laceration of the lining of the gastroesophageal junction or just above it - often caused by severe vomiting.
  • Marfan syndrome: A genetic connective tissue disorder involving a defect of chromosome 15q21.1 which affects the production of the fibrillin needed to make connective tissue.
  • Megaloblasti Anemia, 1: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Megaloblastic Anemia, Familial: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Megaloblastic anemia: Megaloblastic anemia, also called pernicious anemia, is a condition in which there is a low number of red blood cells most often caused by a lack of vitamin B12.
  • Midline field defects: Congenital problems that occur along the vertical axis of the body. Defects can involve the brain, spine, heart, genitals and midline of the head and face.
  • Mitral regurgitation: A condition which is characterized by a regurgitation of blood from the left ventricle into the atrium due to a problem with the mitral valve
  • Mitral stenosis: Narrowing of the mitral heart valve
  • Mitral valve prolapse syndrome: A rare condition where an abnormal heart valve (mitral vavle) fails to close properly and allows some blood to leak through.
  • Mitral valve prolapse, familial: Mitral-valve prolapse (MVP) is frequently diagnosed in healthy people and is, for the most part, harmless. Most people suffer no symptoms at all. Sometimes it occurs in a familial pattern.
  • Mitral-valve prolapse: A common heart condition that is often harmless.
  • Mouth symptoms: Symptoms of the mouth or oral area.
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses: A lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the ability to metabolise glycosaminoglycans
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis VI: A lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the ability to metabolise glycosaminoglycans
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler syndrome: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (?-L-diuronidase) needed to break it down. There are three main sub-types of the disorder: Hurler - severe form, Scheie - mild form and Hurler/Scheie form which is intermediate.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia: A group of conditions that is characterised by the hyperplasia and hyperfunction of two or more glands of the endocrine system
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3: Rare inherited disease causing tumors in multiple glands
  • Mungan syndrome: A recessively inherited disorder characterized by heart abnormalities and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Death has occurred in some cases during the late teenage years.
  • Murmur: A sound that is heard through a stethoscope that is associated with turbulent blood flow
  • Muscle symptoms: Symptoms affecting the muscles of the body
  • Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker type: An inherited l disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness. The disorder is caused by a genetic anomaly and results in insufficient quantities of or ineffective dystrophin which is needed for normal muscle functioning. The disorder is expressed in males but females can be carriers.
  • Nathalie syndrome: A very rare condition described in four children of one family. The condition is characterized by wasting of the spine muscles, abnormal heart electrical activity, cataracts, hypogonadism and hearing impairment.
  • Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: A severe, potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs.
  • Nipah virus encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by the Nipah virus which can infect pigs and humans so transmission usually occurs through contact with pigs.
  • Nortriptyline toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Obesity: Excessive body weight especially fat.
  • Organophosphate insecticide poisoning: Excessive ingestion of organophosphate insecticides. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the exact poison ingested and the quantity.
  • Palpitations: Abnormality of the heart beat that person can feel
  • Peanut Allergy: Allergic reaction brought on by the ingestion of, or exposure to peanuts in a sensitised person
  • Penfield syndrome: A rare disorder where a tumor pushes against the hypothalamus and causes seizures as well as a variety of other symptoms.
  • Pericarditis: Inflammation of the pericardium that surrounds the heart
  • Pernicious Anemia, Juvenile type: A rare inherited disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency which results from the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the foods eaten.
  • Pheochromocytoma: pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that usually starts in the cells of the adrenal glands
  • Pheochromocytoma as part of Neurofibromatosis: A tumor that develops in the part of the adrenal gland called the medulla which produces adrenalin and noradrenaline. This tumor is often associated with a condition called neurofibromatosis. The tumor affects automatic body activities such as regulating breathing rate and heartbeat.
  • Plant poisoning -- Angel's trumpet (D. suaveolans): Ingestion of Angel's trumpet can cause various symptoms which can be severe in some cases.
  • Plant poisoning -- Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata): Ingestion of parts of the Indian tobacco plant may cause various symptoms and severe cases may result in a coma.
  • Plant poisoning -- Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium): Ingestion of Jimsonweed can cause various symptoms which can be severe in some cases.
  • Plant poisoning -- Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum): Ingestion of parts of the Poison hemlock plant may cause various symptoms and severe cases may result in a coma.
  • Plant poisoning -- potato (Solanum tuberosum): Ingestion of green potatoes or potato sprouts can cause various symptoms which can be severe in some cases.
  • Plant poisoning -- tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum): Ingestion of parts of the tobacco plant may cause various symptoms and severe cases may result in a coma.
  • Postoperative pulmonary embolism: Pulmonary embolism (lung blood clot) after surgery.
  • Postoperative respiratory failure: A condition characterised by the inability to use the lungs to perfuse the body with oxygen that occurs following an operation
  • Postoperative septicaemia: When a person contracts a bacterial infection in their blood system that occurs after an operation
  • Postpartum haemorrhage: The loss of blood by the mother after delivery of her child
  • Postpartum hyperthyroidism: Postpartum thyroiditis is a postpartum condition that results in temporary hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism.
  • Protozoan Conditions: Any condition caused by the infection of the human being by a protozoan organism
  • Protriptyline toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Pulmonary artery coming from the aorta: A rare congenital heart defect which is usually fatal. The pulmonary artery is abnormally placed and comes out of the aorta.
  • Pulmonary atresia -- intact ventricular septum: A very rare heart defect where the opening that allows blood to travel from the heart to the lung is narrowed or absent which impairs the body's ability to oxygenate blood. Death generally occurs without immediate medical attention.
  • Pulmonary branches stenosis: A very rare disorder where the pulmonary branches are narrower than normal. The severity of symptoms depends on the degree of narrowing.
  • Pulmonary edema of mountaineers: A severe complication of mountain sickness resulting from a lack of oxygen at high altitudes.
  • Pulmonary embolism: The occurrence of an embolism which blocks blood vessels in the lungs
  • Pulmonary heart disease: Heart disease that is caused by pulmonary conditions
  • Pulmonary hypertension: The occurrence of hypertension the blood vessels of the lungs
  • Pulmonary incompetence: A condition characterised by incompetence of the pulmonary valve of the heart
  • Pulmonary supravalvular stenosis: A very rare defect where the pulmonary artery is narrowed above the valve. The severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Pulmonary valve disease: Any condition that affects ones pulmonary valve
  • Pulmonary venous return anomaly: A rare disorder where one or more of the four veins that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs drain to the right atrium of the heart instead of the left atrium. Symptom severity is determined by the number of veins involved and the exact location of the heart that the veins drain into.
  • Quetiapine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Rapid heart beat: Excessively fast heart beat (fast pulse) called "tachycardia"
  • Reiterís syndrome: A form of reactive arthritis characterized by arthritis, urethritis, conjunctivitis and skin lesions.
  • Respiratory conditions: Any condition that affects the respiratory system
  • Respiratory failure: A condition which is due to marked impairment of respiratory function
  • Respiratory symptoms: Symptoms affecting the breathing systems.
  • Respiratory system cancer: A condition that is characterised by a malignancy anatomically located in the respiratory system
  • Rheumatic fever: An inflammatory disorder that can occur as a complication of untreated streptococcal bacterial infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. The condition may affect the brain, skin, heart and joints.
  • Rheumatic heart disease: Chronic heart condition due to heart damage from rheumatic fever
  • Rieger anomaly -- partial lipodystrophy: A very rare disorder characterized by short stature, low birth weight and loss of skin fat. SHORT is an acronym for short stature, hyperextensible joints and/or hernia, ocular depression, Reiger anomaly and teething delay. Additional symptoms are also variably present.
  • Sedative dependence: The psychological or physical dependence on sedative medication
  • Sepsis: The presence of microorganisms in the blood circulation
  • Seronegative spondyloarthropathy: Spondyloarthropathy that is negative to rheumatoid facotr
  • Shprintzen syndorme: An inherited syndrome of cardiac defects and craniofacial anomalies and various other abnormalities.
  • Slow heartbeat: Excessively slow heart beat (slow pulse) called "bradycardia"
  • Snake bite: When a person is bitten by a snake
  • Soft Heart Sounds: Heart sounds that are softer than normal.
  • Tachycardia: Heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.
  • Takayasu arteritis: A chronic inflammation of the large blood vessels leading from the aorta which results in lack of pulse in the arms and the carotid arteries, transient paraplegia and blindness and atrophy of the facial muscles. Also called Takayasu's disease, pulseless disease, brachiocephgalic arteritis or aortic arch syndrome.
  • Theophylline poisoning: Excessive ingestion of theophylline drugs.
  • Toxemia: A medical condition that occurs when there is a release of toxins from bacteria within the bloodstream
  • Transfusion Reaction: The allergic reaction to the transfusion of blood products to a person
  • Transposition of great arteries: A congenital malformation where the aorta and pulmonary artery are transposed which causes oxygenated blood from the lungs to be sent back to the lungs and de-oxygenated blood to be sent to body tissues. Often there is some other defect such as an opening in the heart chambers which allows mixing of the blood and hence survival is possible for a short while at least.
  • Tricuspid valve diseases: Any disease that affects the tricuspid valve
  • Trimipramine toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance, possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
  • Trisomy 5 mosaicism: A very rare chromosomal disorder where there is an extra copy of chromosome 5 in some of the body's cells. Some cases with this chromosomal abnormality have no clinical symptoms. The presence of abnormalities in some cases is dependent on which body cells contain the chromosomal defect.
  • Uhl anomaly: A rare congenital heart malformation where the myocardial layer (muscle wall of the heart) of the right ventricle is completely or partially absent.
  • Valvular dysplasia of the child: A condition which is characterised by the dysplasia of one or more of the valves to a childs heart
  • Vancomycin resistant enterococcal bacteremia: A condition which is characterised by bacteremia caused by an enterococci that is resistant to vancomycin.
  • Variegate porphyria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of a certain enzyme which results in a build-up in the body of porphyrins or their precursors. This form of hepatic porphyria causes the sufferer to have acute attacks as well as skin sensitivity.
  • Vascular malposition: A condition which is characterised by malposition of the great vessels
  • Velocardiofacial syndrome: A genetic disorder which can present with a wide range of phenotypic manifestations which has lead to a number of different names being assigned to the various presentations e.g. DiGeorge Syndrome and Cayler Anomaly Face Syndrome. There are nearly 200 different symptoms that can occur and the severity of the condition is also highly variable depending on the nature and severity of the symptoms that are present.
  • Ventricular extrasystoles perodactyly Robin sequence: A syndrome characterised by the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmia, perodactyly, and Robin sequence
  • Ventricular familial preexcitation syndrome: A condition which is inheritable and causes any syndrome that is characterised by ECG signs of preexcitation
  • Ventricular septal defect: An abnormal connection between the 2 lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
  • Ventriculo-arterial discordance, isolated: A rare birth disorder where the right atrium is connected to the left ventricle and vice versa. The position of the heart ventricles is also inverted which allows normal blood oxygenation. Symptoms generally only occur later in life or if other heart defects are present which is usually the case.
  • Vibrio: An organism of the genus Vibrio or other spiral motile organism
  • Vibrio vulnificus infection: The infection by the vibrio vulnificus bacteria
  • Viral digestive infections: Any virus that infects the gastrointestinal tract causing a medical condition
  • Volume depletion: Reduced fluid volume in the cells, including both water and salts, similar to but distinct from dehydration.
  • WAGR Syndrome: A syndrome that is due to the deletion of chromosome 11.
  • Warm-reacting-antibody haemolytic anemia: An autoimmune disorder characterised by the premature destruction of red blood cells
  • Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome: A rare syndrome that occurs as complication of septicemia (often due to meningococcal or pneumococcal infection) and involves blood coagulation in blood vessels, adrenal gland hemorrhages and ultimately kidney failure.
  • Watermelon stomach: The dilation of the blood vessels in the antral of the stomach
  • Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
  • Wheezing: Breathing difficulty with specific wheezing sound.
  • Wilms tumor -- aniridia -- genitourinary anomalies -- mental retardation: A syndrome resulting from deletion of genetic material from chromosome the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p13). The characteristic symptoms are partial or complete absence of iris, genitourinary anomalies, mental retardation and Wilms' tumor. The specific range and severity of symptoms is variable depending on the size and exact location of the genetic material that is missing.
  • Wilms tumor and radial bilateral aplasia: A condition that is characterised by bilateral aplasia of the kidneys and wilms tumor
  • Wilms tumour and pseudohermaphroditism: A syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of Wilms tumor with pseudohermaphroditism
  • Wilms tumour and radial bilateral aplasia: A conditions that is characterized by the absence of one of the two forearm bones (radius) as well as the development of a type of kidney tumor called Wilm's tumor.
  • Wilms' tumor: A malignant kidney tumor that occurs in children.
  • Wolcott-Rallison syndrome: A very rare genetic condition characterized primarily by the onset of diabetes mellitus during infancy and epiphyseal dysplasia (abnormal joint development).
  • X-linked sideroblastic anaemia:
  • X-linked sideroblastic anemia: X-linked sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of iron in the red blood cells which makes them unable to function properly. The body continues to absorb more iron from digesting food in order to try and correct the problem but this simply leads to excessive iron being deposited in body tissues as the it can't use the iron properly. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Xanthic urolithiasis: The formation of xanthine crystals in the urine
  • Yorifuji Okuno syndrome: A condition that is characterised by pancreatic insufficiency and heart disease
  • Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome: A very rare genetic syndrome characterized by a range of symptoms such as colobomas of the eye, heart defects, ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation and ear defects.

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Additional Heart Sounds:

The following list of conditions have 'Additional Heart Sounds' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Additional Heart Sounds:

The following list of medical conditions have 'Additional Heart Sounds' or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.

 

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