Glossary for Apnea
Medical terms related to Apnea or mentioned in this section include:
- 1q deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder where part of the long arm (q) of chromosome 1 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
- Aberrant subclavian artery abnormality: A rare defect where one the subclavian artery arises from an abnormal location on the aortic arch. The defect may cause compression of organs such as the airway and the voice box.
- Acute meningitis: Acute meningitis is an inflammation of the brain that presents in an acute fashion. The inflammation may be the result of infective agents such as bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as non-infective agents such as certain drugs. Acute forms of meningitis can develop in within hours or days whereas chronic meningitis develops over weeks or months.
- Adult respiratory distress syndrome: A condition which is characterized by fulminant pulmonary interstitial alveolar oedema.
- Airway obstruction: airway obstruction is a blockage of the upper airway, which can be in the trachea, laryngeal (voice box), or pharyngeal (throat) areas or involve the bronch.
- Amobarbital -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amobarbital during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A degenerative motor neuron disease marked by weakness and wasting of the muscles which starts at the hands and legs and spreads to the rest of the body. Death occurs in 2 to 5 years. Also called Lou Gehrig's disease or wasting palsy.
- Anemia, Neonatal: Insufficient red blood cells that can carry oxygen around the body. It is common in premature births or can occur as a result of blood loss before, during or just after the birth.
- Apnea: Periods of absence of breathing
- Apnea in children: Apnea in children is a pause of cessation of breathing in a child.
- Apnea in infants: Apnea in infants is the cessation of breathing in an infant.
- Apnea of prematurity: AOP occurs in infants who are born prematurely (before 34 weeks of pregnancy).
- Arnold-Chiari malformation type 3: An extremely rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. Type 3 involves the herniation of brain or brain stem tissue out of the back of the neck or head. The condition generally has a poor prognosis.
- Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: A rare inborn error of metabolism involving the deficiency of an enzyme (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) needed to process aromatic amino acids. This results in a deficiency of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. The condition manifests as movement and neurological problems.
- Arrhythmias: The occurrence of irregular heart beats
- Asthma: A condition which is characterized by recurrent attacks of paroxysmal dyspnoea
- Auriculo-condylar syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by variable ear and jaw abnormalities.
- Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is a form of meningitis caused by bacteria that normally lives in the mouth and throat. When the immune system is unable to supress this bacteria, it travels to the cerebrospinal spinal fluid in the brain. From there it affects the membranes surrounding the brain.
- Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: An inherited disorder marked by gigantism, exomphalos and macroglossia. Also called EMG syndrome and exophthalmos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome.
- Botulism food poisoning: Extremely dangerous food poisoning requiring medical attention, but not always recognized because of its non-abdominal symptoms.
- Brain abscess: abscess in the brain may involve any of the lobes of the brain
- Brain damage: A condition which is characterized by damage to the brain resulting in a decrease in function
- Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
- Brain tumor: A condition which is characterized by the abnormal growth of tissue within the brain
- Breath symptoms: Breath-related symptoms including breath odor
- Breathing difficulties: Various types of breathing difficulty (dyspnea).
- Breathing symptoms: Symptoms affecting the breathing systems.
- Bronchiolitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the bronchioles
- Bronchospasm: sudden spasm of the bronchi
- Brun's syndrome: Various neurological symptoms caused by an obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid with certain head postures. The obstruction is often due to some sort of brain tumor or cyst. Symptoms come and go depending on the position of the head.
- Campomelic Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by dwarfism due to bowed shin and thigh bones as well as various craniofacial and other skeletal anomalies.
- Campomelic dwarfism: A rare genetic disorder characterized by bowed tibia, underdeveloped shoulder blades and a flat face.
- Campomelic dysplasia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by bowed tibia, underdeveloped shoulder blades and a flat face.
- Cardiac arrest: Sudden loss of cardiac function, where the heart stops beating.
- Cerebral hemorrhage: Bleeding in the brain
- Chemical poisoning -- Ammonium Chloride: Ammonium Chloride is a chemical used as a medical agent for conditions such as metabolic acidosis, in deodorizer cleaners and also used in industry in fertilizers, electroplating, galvanizing, soldering and in deodorizer cleaners. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chemical poisoning -- Barium: Barium is an element used in fireworks, glassmaking, contrast X-rays and in the electronics industry . The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chemical poisoning -- Camphor: Camphor is a chemical used mainly in moth repellents, pharmaceuticals (preservative) cosmetics, explosives, varnishes and various therapeutic applications. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chemical poisoning -- Pepper Spray: Pepper Spray is a chemical used mainly in riot control. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chemical poisoning -- Pyrimidifen: Pyrimidifen is a chemical used mainly as an insecticide and acaricide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chemical poisoning -- Strychnine: Strychnine is used as a rodenticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chemical poisoning -- Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide: Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide is a chemical used mainly in the production of a variety of electronic components. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chemical poisoning -- Vinyl Choride: Vinyl Choride is an intermediate chemical used in the manufacturing process of a variety of products: polyvinyl chloride, pipes, wire coverings, vehicle plastics, rubber, paper, furniture and glass. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
- Chromosome 13 trisomy syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of chromosome 13 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. Most die within months and there are few survivors after 10 years.
- Chromosome 1q deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder where part of the long arm (q) of chromosome 1 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
- Chromosome 22 trisomy mosaic: A rare chromosomal disorder where three copies of chromosome 22 are present in some of the body's cells instead of the normal two. Severity of symptoms is determined by how many cells have the extra chromosomal material.
- Chromosome 4, Monosomy 4q: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
- Chronic Bronchitis: A condition which is characterized by the chronic inflammation of ones or more of the bronchi
- Chronic bronchitis: A condition which is characterized by the chronic inflammation of ones or more of the bronchi
- Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1F: Congenital disorders of glycosylation is a group of very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type IF is caused by a defect on chromosome 17p13.1-p12 and involves a defect on the MPDU1 gene.
- Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2B: A very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type 2B has glucosidase I enzyme defect.
- Congenital herpes simplex: An infant born with a herpes simplex infection transmitted through the mother. The infection may be localized or involve various internal organs and even the central nervous system in which case death can occur.
- Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 1: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters.
- Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 3: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q23-q24.3.
- Convulsions, benign familial infantile, 4: An inherited form of seizures that occurs in infancy and early childhood. Symptoms only occur during the seizures. The seizures tend to occur in clusters. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1p36.12-p35.1.
- Cyanosis: Blueness or purple coloring of skin.
- Decreased oxygen saturation: decreased amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium
- Deletion 5p: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of the genetic material from the short arm (p) of chromosome 5 which results in various abnormalities. The resulting condition is often called Cri-du-Chat Syndrome and features may vary somewhat depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
- Dialysis encephalopathy syndrome: A progressive brain disease that occurs in some patients who undergo chronic hemodialysis. Aluminium intoxication is believed to play a role in the disease.
- Diphtheria: Infectious bacterial respiratory disease
- Disopyramide toxicity: The toxic reaction of the body to the substance,
possibly via allergic reaction or overdose.
- Emphysema: Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is defined as an abnormal, permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis.
- Encephalitis: Infection of the brain (as a symptom)
- Enlarged adenoids: Enlargement of the adenoid glands, which lie in the oropharynx.
- Eucalyptus Oil poisoning: Eucalyptus oil can be used for medicinal purposes but excessive ingestion can cause problems. Likewise, eating the leaves of the eucalyptus plant (very unlikely) can also cause poisoning symptoms.
- Face symptoms: Symptoms affecting the face
- Flail chest: abnormal movement of a portion of the chest wall
- Funnel Web spider poisoning: The funnel web spider is a poisonous spider found mainly in Australia and America. The venom is toxic to the nervous system. There are two phases of poisoning - the first phase starts soon after envenomation and may result in death in severe cases. The second phase occurs one or two hours after envenomation where patients may recover somewhat but symptoms such as apnea and low blood pressure may develop.
- Gaucher disease -- perinatal lethal form: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of abnormally tight skin and Gaucher disease which is a lipid storage disease. This is the most severe form of Gaucher disease.
- Gaucher disease type 2: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the deficiency of the enzyme called glucocerebrosidase and accumulation of glycosylceramide (glucocerebroside). There are three forms of this disease: type 1, 2 and 3. Type 2 is acute neurological form apparent in infancy.
- Gustavson syndrome: A very rare condition characterized by features such as mental retardation, spasticity, seizures and eye and ear problems.
- Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
- Head trauma: injury to the haed
- Hemothorax: a condition that results from accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
- Hyperglycinemia: Increased blood levels of glycine. There are two types of hyperglycinemia (ketotic and nonketotic) with different symptoms.
- Hypertension in children under one year: Hypertension in children under one year is a condition in which a child under the age of one year has an abnormal elevation in blood pressure.
- Idiopathic alveolar hypoventilation syndrome: A rare condition characterized by a reduced breathing rate despite no respiratory system abnormalities. The cause of the condition is unknown.
- Illum syndrome: A very rare disorder characterized by a distinctive "whistling face" and contractures in multiple joints.
- Inborn amino acid metabolism disorder: A group of inherited disorders where the body is not able to metabolize amino acids consumed in the diet. Amino acids are a part of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and are metabolized in order to provide energy or to make other needed compounds. There are many steps involved in metabolism and the severity can be greatly variable depending on the exact nature of the disorder.
- Increased intracranial pressure: Increased pressure inside the skull due to brain swelling or fluid accumulation
- Infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis, familial: A very rare inherited syndrome characterized mainly by convulsions during infancy and choreoathetosis which can occur randomly or be triggered by certain stimuli such as exercise.
- Injury: Any damage inflicted in the body
- Intermittent apnea: Intermittent apnea is a pause or cessation of breathing that comes and goes.
- Irregular breathing: The irregular respiration of an individual
- Joubert Syndrome: A rare neurological disorder where there is a defect in the part of the brain that controls coordination and balance.
- Leukoencephalopathy, arthritis, colitis, and hypogammaglobulinema: A rare condition characterized by the association of arthritis, colitis, low blood gammaglobulin levels and brain anomalies.
- Leukomalacia: Softening or destruction of the white matter of the brain. Brain tissue that surrounds fluid-filled parts of the brain (ventricles) is destroyed. It tends to occur mainly in premature or newborn babies who have been deprived of oxygen or have poor blood flow to parts of the brain. Intrauterine infections and premature membrane rupture tend to predispose infants to this condition. This type of brain destruction can cause cerebral palsy. Severity of symptoms varies according to the degree of injury to the brain.
- Lung symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both lungs.
- Malformations in neuronal migration: A rare disorder where the brain fails to develop normally - usually the cerebral cortex is involved. Various parts of the brain can be affected to various degrees depending on what stage of development the defect occurs. Mental retardation is one of the most common symptoms associated with brain malformations.
- Meconium aspiration syndrome: A condition that occurs when an infant suffers respiratory distress following birth due to the presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid.
- Meningitis: Infection of the membrane around the brain (as a symptom)
- Metabolic disorder: occurs when abnormal chemical reactions occur in the body
- Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism types 1 and 3: Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism types 1 and 3 were originally regarded as separate conditions but it was recently concluded that they were different expressions of the same condition. The main differences between the two forms is a difference in the radiological bone anomalies. The condition is characterized mainly by bone abnormalities, short stature and a small head.
- Mouth symptoms: Symptoms of the mouth or oral area.
- Movement symptoms: Changes to movement or motor abilities
- Multiple pterygium syndrome: A very rare disorder characterized by webbing of various parts of the body, contractures, short stature, fusion of neck vertebrae and facial anomalies.
- Muscle symptoms: Symptoms affecting the muscles of the body
- Myasthenia Gravis: An autoimmune disorder which interferes with nerve impulses to muscles and hence results in weak, easily fatigued muscles.
- Myocardial infarction: blood supply to part of the heart is interrupted
- Necrotizing enterocolitis: A rare disease that is tends to occur in premature infants and involves inflammation and destruction of gastrointestinal tissue. It usually occurs within weeks of birth - often after the start of milk feeding. The condition can be extremely serious and even fatal.
- Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Lung disease mostly in premature newborns; see also adult RDS.
- Neonatal bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis that occurs in an infant under 3 months of age. Bacterial meningitis is a bacterial brain infection.
- Neonatal sepsis: Bacterial blood infection in an infant under 3 months of age.
- Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
- Neuromuscular failure: Neuromuscular disease is a very broad term that encompasses many diseases and ailments that either directly, via intrinsic muscle pathology, or indirectly, via nerve pathology, impair the functioning of the muscles
- Nocturnal symptoms: Symptoms related to sleeping or other nocturnal issues.
- Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia: A rare disorder of amino acid metabolism where glycine and proline are unable to be metabolized properly due to defects in the glycine cleavage system.
- Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
- Organic acidemia: High blood levels of organic acids which is caused by abnormal protein metabolism. Maple syrup urine disease and propionic academia are examples of organic acidemias. Deficiency of certain metabolic enzymes one of the main causes of organic academia.
- Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease: A disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. The foetal form is one of several forms of Gaucher disease and is the rarest. The fetal form causes death before birth or soon after.
- Pierre Robin's sequence: A rare genetic disorder characterized by an underdeveloped jaw, cleft soft palate and abnormal tongue location.
- Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation with periods of overbreathing and apnea.
- Pleural pressure gradient disruption: Pleural pressure, or Ppl, is the pressure surrounding the lung, within the pleural space, during quiet breathing, the pleural pressure is negative. Certain conditions may cause disruption of this pressure gradient
- Pneumothorax: pneumothorax is the collection of air in the space around the lungs and chest wall
- Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 6: A rare inherited condition where the brainstem and part of the brain (cerebellum) is abnormally small.
- Pseudoadrenoleukodystrophy: A rare disorder where an enzyme deficiency (Acyl-CoA Oxidase) results in symptoms such as seizures, apnea, delayed psychomotor retardation and neurological deterioration.
- Pulmonary edema: A condition which is characterized by engorgement of the pulmonary vessels and transudation of fluid into the alveoli
- Pulmonary embolism: The occurrence of an embolism which blocks blood vessels in the lungs
- Pulmonary fibrosis: A scarring condition that affects the lungs
- Pulmonary hypertension: The occurrence of hypertension the blood vessels of the lungs
- Respiratory symptoms: Symptoms affecting the breathing systems.
- Rett's syndrome: Autism-like behavioral syndrome in infant girls
- Seizures: Uncontrolled physical movements
- Seizures -- intellectual deficit due to hydroxylysinuria: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, seizures and high levels of hydroxylysine in the urine.
- Septicemia: A systemic inflammatory response to an infection.
- Septo-Optic Dysplasia: A rare birth defect characterized by impaired vision and pituitary deficiency.
- Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal bone development and brain and skin abnormalities.
- Shock: Physical and mental reaction to reduced circulation
- Shortness of breath: The feeling of being short of breath
- Sleep apnea: A condition which is characterized by transient attacks of apnea that usually occur during ones sleep
- Sleep symptoms: Symptoms affecting sleep patterns.
- Sleeping problems: Any problems that disturb ones sleep
- Spinal cord injury: spinal cord injury causes myelopathy or damage to white matter or myelinated fiber tracts that carry sensation and motor signals to and from the brain
- Stiff baby syndrome: A rare inherited neurological disorder characterized by increased muscle tone during infancy and an exaggerated startle response later in life.
- Streptococcal Group B invasive disease: Infection with bacteria called Group B Streptococcus which can cause severe symptoms or even death. The bacteria occur in the stomach and the urogenital tract of females and are normally harmless and cause no symptoms. However, it can cause a range of diseases in newborns, the elderly and people with poor immune systems.
- Stuve-Wiedemann dysplasia: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, bowed long bones and permanent flexion of fingers.
- Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by short stature, bowed long bones and permanent flexion of fingers.
- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The sudden death of an infant due to an unknown cause that occurs during sleep
- Sudden infant death syndrome: The sudden death of an infant due to an unknown cause that occurs during sleep
- Sudden onset of apnea: Sudden onset of apnea refers to the rapid development of a pause or cessation in breathing.
- Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by servere breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgent between the lungs and the blood supply.
- Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 1: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 1 involves a defect in the pulmonary associated surfactant protein B (SFTPB) and due to a genetic anomaly located on chromosome 2p12-11.2.
- Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 2: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxygen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 2 involves a defect in the pulmonary associated surfactant protein C (SFTPC) and due to a genetic anomaly located on chromosome 8p21.
- Surfactant Metabolism Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 3: Surfactant metabolism dysfunction is a group of genetic conditions characterized by severe breathing problems or breathing failure in infants who were born at full term. A genetic defect results in a disruption of the lipids and proteins which reduced the surface tension in the lung alveoli and allows transfer of oxgen between the lungs and the blood supply. Type 3 involves a defect on chromosome 16p13.3 which is believed to affect the secretion of surfactant.
- Throat symptoms: Symptoms affecting the throat
- Tonic seizure: Abnormal electrical activity in a part of the brain which results mainly in muscle stiffness and rigidity. Tonic seizures are considered relatively uncommon. They can occur at any age but are more common in childhood. Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or multiple sclerosis are particularly susceptible to this type of seizure. Episodes usually only last for a matter of minutes and recovery can vary from minutes to hours.
- Trisomy 13 mosaicism: A very rare chromosomal disorder where there is an extra copy of chromosome 13 in some of the body's cells. Some cases with this chromosomal abnormality have no clinical symptoms. The presence of abnormalities in some cases is dependent on which body cells contain the chromosomal defect. There appears to be a direct correlation between the number of cells in the body containing the chromosomal defect and severity of symptoms and survival.
- Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis
- Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by an enlarged tongue, omphalocele, excessive birth weight and ear creases.
- Zanoli-Vecchi syndrome: A complication of spinal surgery where bleeding in the spine causes blood to move into the brain ventricles and results in apnea, convulsions and loss of consciousness.
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