Glossary for Athetosis
Medical terms related to Athetosis or mentioned in this section include:
- 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type 1: A recessively inherited metabolic disorder characterized by methylglutaconic acid in the urine.
- Aceruloplasminemia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a lack of the protein ceruloplasmin in the blood resulting in a buildup of iron in the liver, brain and pancreas. This in turn causes diabetes and degeneration of the neural system causing tremors and walking abnormalities.
- Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: A rare neurological disorder involving paralysis on one side of the body that is only temporary but occurs often. The extent of the paralysis is variable.
- Amphetamine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amphetamine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
- Ataxia Telangiectasia: A rare inherited childhood disorder involving progressive degeneration of the nervous system.
- Basal ganglia calcification: Basal ganglia calcification refers to the deposit of calcium in a specific area of the brain called the basal ganglia found at the base of the brain..
- Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic 1: Abnormal calcium deposits in the part of the brain called the basal ganglia. Type 1 results in psychiatric, cognitive or neurological problems associated with the calcification. The symptoms experienced are variable.
- Bd syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of mental retardation, small eyes and a movement disorder.
- Benedikt's syndrome: Damage to a part of the brain (intremedullary part of midbrain) can result in various neurological symptoms which can vary depending on the exact location and extent of the damage. Limb and trunk symptoms tend to be on the opposite side the eye symptoms. The damage may be caused by such things as trauma, cancer and stroke.
- Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: This is a medical condition caused by the transmission of an infective prion causing an encephalopathy
- Brain cancer: Cancer of the brain.
- Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
- Brain tumour: various extrinsic and intrinsic factors add up to to cause tumour in the brain
- Calcification of basal ganglia with or without hypocalcemia: Calcification of a part of the brain called the basal ganglia. That calcification may be associated with conditions such as hypothyroidism, cytomegalovirus, and AIDS or may occur for no apparent reason. The severity of the condition may vary greatly from asymptomatic to neurological, psychiatric and movement disorders. The disorder may also progress at variable rates or remain stable depending on the underlying disease process.
- Cerebral Palsy: Any brain disorder causing movement disability
- Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 4: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the progressive accumulation of certain chemicals (lipopigments) in body tissues due to deficiency of an enzyme (palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1) needed to process it.
- Chlorpromazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Chlorpromazine (a neuroleptic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
- Chorea: The occurrence of rapid, jerky, dyskinetic movements that are involuntary
- Chorea familial benign: A rare movement disorder which is stable and involves abnormal involuntary movements (chorea) and continuous writhing movements.
- Choreoathetoid movements: abnormal movements of the hands, legs
- Choreoathetosis: choreoathetosis is the occurrence of involuntary movements in a combination of chorea and athetosis
- Cornelia de Lange Syndrome: A very rare disorder involving delayed physical development and various malformations involving the head, face and limbs. The severity of symptoms is variable.
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A very rare degenerative brain disease that can be inherited, transmitted (eg in surgical transplants using infected tissue) or as a result of genetic mutations. The condition is fatal.
- De Barsy Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by loose, inelastic skin, involuntary limb movements, cloudy corneas and other abnormalities.
- Encephalophathy recurrent of childhood: A recurring form of brain disease that has been noted to occur within families. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in these families. Symptoms tend to have a recurring nature and can last for periods of days to weeks. The condition is believed to be an inherited predisposition with underlying immunological or metabolic problems which trigger the condition.
- Ethotoin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethotoin (an anticonvulsant drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
- Fahr's Syndrome: A rare neurologic disorder where calcium is deposited in various parts of the brain resulting in progressive loss of motor and mental function.
- Glutaricaciduria type 1: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where a genetic mutation results in the deficiency of an enzyme called glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase which is required to metabolise certain amino acids (lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan). Problems occur when these metabolites build up in the body and cause neurological problems. Symptoms often develop following an acute infection or fasting. The severity of the condition is highly variable from development of neurological symptoms during infancy to asymptomatic adults. The degree of enzyme deficiency will usually determine the severity.
- Hallervorden-Spatz disease: Nerve disorder causing movement problems.
- Hand symptoms: Symptoms affecting the hand
- Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
- Hepatic encephalopathy: Caused by marked liver disease that results in disturbances of consciousness
- Hereditary methemoglobinemia, recessive, type II: A rare inherited blood disorder where the hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying part of red blood cells) can't bind with oxygen which impairs the oxygen supply to parts of the body, especially during exertion when more oxygen is needed by the body. The type II form of Gibson syndrome is more severe than type I and is characterized by cyanosis as well as neurological problems, mental deficiency and various other anomalies. Type I has enzyme deficiency (cytochrome B5 reductase) only in the red blood cells whereas in Type II the enzyme deficiency occurs in other body cells as well as red blood cells.
- Huntington's Disease: Inherited disease causing progressive mental deterioration.
- Huntington's disease: Inherited disease causing progressive mental deterioration.
- Hyperthyroidism: The excessive activity of the thyroid gland
- Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia: A rare disorder that has neurological origins and causes progressive ataxia, impaired tendon reflexes, abnormal limb movements, and sensory, eye muscle and hearing impairment.
- Infantile sialic acid storage disorder: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of sialic acid in the tissues and excretion of sialic acid in the urine. The disorder results in death within the first few years of life - usually in infancy.
- Kernicterus: Kernicterus refers to neurological damage (brain damage) resulting from the passageof bilirubin through the immature blood brain barrier in infants. It can occur in jaundiced infants but not all jaundiced infants will develop kernicterus.
- Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: Inherited biochemical disorder of purine metabolism caused by the virtual absence of an enzyme called hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase or HPRT.
- Mc Leod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by neuromuscular, blood and central nervous system symptoms. The disease is slowly progressive.
- Mental Retardation, Joint Hypermobility With or without Metabolic Abnormalities: A rare syndrome observed in a small number of patients and characterized by the association of mental retardation, loose joints. Metabolic abnormalities occur in only some patients.
- Mental retardation athetosis microphthalmia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of mental retardation, small eyes and a movement disorder.
- Mount Reback syndrome: A rare inherited condition characterized by episodes of chorea (involuntary movements) which may be triggered by such things as hunger, tiredness, stress, coffee, alcohol and tobacco. Episodes may last for minutes or hours.
- Movement symptoms: Changes to movement or motor abilities
- Muscle contractions: When a muscle is shortened in use
- Muscle spasms: Involuntary movement or contraction of muscles without full control
- Muscle symptoms: Symptoms affecting the muscles of the body
- Musculoskeletal symptoms: Symptoms affecting muscles or bones of the skeleton.
- NADH cytochrome B5 reductase deficiency: A very rare syndrome caused by a genetic anomaly resulting in an enzyme deficiency (NADH cytochrome B5 reductase).
- Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
- Neuhauser-Eichner-Opitz syndrome: A very rare form of brain disease which causes recurring bouts of symptoms that may last from days to weeks.
- Neuroferritinopathy: A rare disorder where a genetic mutation results in a neurological disease resulting from abnormal iron and ferritin deposits in the brain.
- Neurological symptoms: Any symptoms that are caused by neurological conditions
- Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis: A rare inherited neurological disorder involving short, recurring attacks of involuntary movement. The attacks usually only last for 5 to 10 seconds.
- Phenylketonuria: A metabolic disorder where there is a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase which leads to a harmful buildup of the phenylalanine in the body. Normally the phenylalanine is converted into tyrosine. The severity of the symptoms can range from severe enough to cause mental retardation to mild enough not to require treatment. Severity is determined by the level of impairment of enzyme activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase.
- Polycythaemia: An abnormal increase in the number of blood cells in the blood.
- Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Phenytoin: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Phenytoin (an anticonvulsant medication) has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
- Pregnancy symptoms: Symptoms related to pregnancy.
- Psychogenic Movement Disorders: Movement problems for which no neurological, chemical or structural cause can be determined. The condition is believed to be the result of a psychiatric problem and symptoms occur subconsciously.
- Pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder involving an enzyme (pyruvate decarboxylase) deficiency which results in symptoms such as failure to thrive, psychomotor retardation, small head, eye problems, increased blood ammonia levels and lactic acidosis which can result in infant death in severe cases.
- Respiratory failure: A condition which is due to marked impairment of respiratory function
- Rheumatic fever: An inflammatory disorder that can occur as a complication of untreated streptococcal bacterial infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. The condition may affect the brain, skin, heart and joints.
- SSADH deficiency (succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency): A rare inherited metabolic disorder where an enzyme deficiency (succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase) prevents the normal metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid.
- Segawa Syndrome: A disorder characterized by dystonia of the lower limbs which becomes worse towards nighttime. The condition usually starts during childhood.
- Seizures: Uncontrolled physical movements
- Sialuria, Finnish type: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of sialic acid in the tissues and excretion of sialic acid in the urine. This condition is an adult form of sialuria.
- Spasms: Involuntary muscle movements without full control.
- Spastic paraplegia 20, autosomal recessive: A rare disorder characterized mainly by progressive stiffness, weakness and wasting of the lower leg muscles. The thumb muscle and speech is also affected.
- Spinocerebellar Ataxia: A condition characterised by a failure of muscle coordination due to pathology arising in the spinocerebellar tract of the spinal cord
- Stroke symptoms: Brain-related symptoms of bleeding or blockage.
- Sydenham's chorea: A condition which is self limiting and is characterized by involuntary movements
- Systemic lupus erythematosus: chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare.
- Tardive dyskinesia: The toxic neurological side effects of neuroleptic drugs that have been used long term.
- Tay Sachs Disease: A condition which is causes GM2 gangliosidosis
- Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder involving vocal and movement tics where where uncontrollable movements or verbal utterances are made.
- Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain injury from trauma or accident.
- Triose phosphate-isomerase deficiency: A very rare inherited condition involving a deficiency of triose phosphate-isomerase.
- Wilson's Disease: Wilson disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a neurodegenerative disease of copper metabolism.
- Wilson's disease: Wilson disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a neurodegenerative disease of copper metabolism.
- Wrist symptoms: Symptoms of the wrist area and joint
Conditions listing medical symptoms: Athetosis:
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