Glossary for Blood abnormalities
Medical terms related to Blood abnormalities or mentioned in this section include:
- Abdominal symptoms: Symptoms affecting the abdomen or digestive tract
- Abnormal blood test symptoms: Abnormal results from diagnostic blood tests.
- Acute lymphocytic leukemia: A malignant disease that starts suddenly and progresses quickly. It is characterized by a high number of immature cells in the organs, bone marrow and blood. Symptoms include fever, pallor, anorexia, fatigue, anemia, hemorrhage, bone pain, splenomegaly and frequent infections. Also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- Agammaglobulinemia: A rare genetic disorder, which inhibits the normal growth of B cells and results in immunoglobulin deficiency.
- Anemia of chronic disease: Anemia of chronic disease is a low number of red blood cells that occurs with a long-term, ongoing disease.
- Antithrombin Deficiency: Antithrombin deficiency refers the deficiency or impaired activity of a substance that inactivates enzymes involved in blood coagulation. Antithrombin prevents the blood from clotting too readily and if its activity is impaired then the blood becomes more prone to clotting which can result in severe problems. Severity of the condition can vary amongst patients and the symptoms can vary considerably depending on the location of blood clots and size of the blood clot.
- Aplastic anemia: A blood disorder where the bone marrow produces insufficient new blood cells.
- Bernard-Soulier Syndrome: A congenital bleeding disorder marked by inability of platelets to coagulate or by insufficient platelets. The platelets that are present are often large.
- Binswanger Disease: Multi-infarct dementia, caused by damage to deep white matter.
- Binswanger's Disease: A type of senile dementia characterized by chronic cerebrovascular disease.
- Bleeding symptoms: Any type of bleeding symptoms.
- Blood conditions: Conditions that affect the blood
- Blood symptoms: Symptoms affecting the blood and its blood cells.
- Bone Marrow Conditions: Medical conditions affecting the bone marrow
- COPD: Severe obstruction of bronchial air flow typically from bronchitis and/or emphysema.
- Cancer: Abnormal overgrowth of body cells.
- Carbohydrate deficiency glycoprotein syndrome type II: Congenital disorders of glycosylation is a group of very rare inherited metabolic disorder where defective carbohydrate compounds are attached to glycoproteins and thus impairing glycoprotein function. Type 2 is caused by a genetic defect which involves the gene for a particular enzyme (Golgi localized N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase II). Type 2 tends to have more severe psychomotor retardation than type 1 but there is no peripheral neuropathy or underdeveloped cerebellum.
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A cancer of the blood and bone marrow where too many abnormal lymphocytes (white blood cells) are produced which eventually crowds out healthy blood cells in the body.
- Clotting symptoms: Symptoms affecting the blood's ability to clot
- DIC: DIC s a syndrome triggered by a number of medical conditions including malignancy, infection and liver disease, and results in consumption of clotting factors in the blood.
- Decreased protein C: A protein which is necessaryto prevent theclotting cascade and is autosomal dominant with regards to inheritance
- Decreased protein S: A protein which is necessary to prevent the clotting cascade
- Deep vein thrombosis: The formation of a thrombosis in the deep veins usually within the legs
- Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
- Hemoglobinopathy: A disease of the blood characterized by abnormal hemoglobin in the blood. The abnormality usually arises from a genetic defect which results in the hemoglobin have an abnormal structure. Sickle-cell disease and thalassemia are examples of hemoglobinopathies. Symptoms may vary from unnoticeable to severe with anemia being the most common symptom.
- Hemolytic anemia: A condition which is characterized by anaemia due to the destruction of red blood cells
- Hemophilia: Blood disease usually genetic causing failure to clot.
- High white cell count: A raised white cell count
- Homocystinuria: A rare inherited metabolic disorder involving the amino acid methionine and resulting in a harmful accumulation of homocysteine in the body.
- Hypergammaglobulinemia: An increase in the level of any of a number of gamma globulins. This can result from conditions such as chronic bacterial infections, multiple myeloma, lymphomas, dysproteinemias, liver disease and chronic granulomatous inflammations. The exact symptoms depend on the type of gamma globulins involved and the severity of the condition.
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is a condition in which there is excessive bleeding and bruising due to a low number of platelets, blood cells that are important to the clotting process, that has no known cause.
- Infection: Infections as a symptom.
- Iron deficiency anemia: Iron-deficiency anemia is a blood condition characterized by low levels of iron in the body which leads to a reduction in the number of red blood cells.
- Kawanism: Kava can be used as a herbal agent to treat anxiety, restlessness, stress and sleeping problems due to anxiety. The herbal agent contains chemicals including alpha-pyrone which can cause various symptoms if it is taken for long periods of time.
- Kidney symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both kidneys.
- Leukocytosis: Increased concentration of white blood cells in the blood.
- Leukopenia: decreased concentration of white blood cells in the blood.
- Liver symptoms: Symptoms affecting the liver
- Lymphoma: Any neoplastic disorder that occurs in lymphoid tissue
- Metabolic disorder: occurs when abnormal chemical reactions occur in the body
- Methaemoglobinaemia: The presence of methaemoglin in the a persons blood
- Methylmalonic acidemia -- homocystinuria: A rare inborn error of metabolism which results in impaired vitamin B12 metabolism. There are a number of forms of this condition with variable severity.
- Mononucleosis: Common infectious virus.
- Myeloma: A primary malignancy of the plasma cells
- Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
- Niemann-Pick disease: A rare inherited biochemical disorder involving the deficiency of an enzyme (acid sphingomyelinase) needed to break down certain lipids which results in an accumulation of these lipids in the body.
- Niemann-Pick disease, type B: Niemann-Pick disease is an inherited metabolic disorder where lipids are not able to be metabolized adequately and hence build up and cause damage in various parts of the body such as the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow and brain. The different types of the disease are due to different genetic mutations. Type B is a chronic form of the condition with no neurological involvement and patients can survive into adulthood.
- Osteopetrosis, intermediate form: A recessively inherited bone disease characterized bybrittle bones with increased density. The intermediate form is less severe than the infantile form but more severe than the adult form.
- Paraneoplastic syndromes:
- Pernicious anemia: A megaloblastic anaemia due to malabsorption of the vitamin B12
- Pregnancy symptoms: Symptoms related to pregnancy.
- Pulmonary embolism: The occurrence of an embolism which blocks blood vessels in the lungs
- Red blood cell symptoms: Symptoms affecting red blood cells in the blood.
- Respiratory symptoms: Symptoms affecting the breathing systems.
- Schridde syndrome: A rare disorder involving a fetal blood abnormality which usually results in death.
- Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which are crescent-shaped rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormally shaped red blood cells are unable to function normally and tend to undergo premature destruction which leads to anemia. If the genetic defect which causes the condition is inherited from both parents the condition can be quite severe whereas if it is inherited from only one parent, often there are no symptoms. The abnormally shaped red blood cells can cause problems when they clump together and block blood vessels.
- Skin symptoms: Symptoms affecting the skin.
- Thalassemia: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal synthesis of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin consists of two main protein chains called alpha and beta. There are two subtypes of the disorder (alpha and beta) depending on what portion of the hemoglobin is abnormally synthesized. Each of these subtypes can be further classified depending on the number of thalassemia genes involved. A total of four genes is needed to make each ? protein chains and two genes are needed to make each ? chain. The main symptom is anemia, the severity of which can vary amongst patients depending on how many defective genes are involved.
- Thrombocytopenia: Decreased concentration of platelets in the blood.
- Thrombocytosis: An increased number of platelets in the blood.
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, acquired: A rare blood condition where small blood clots form in blood vessels which reduces the number of blood platelets and results in kidney failure, neurological symptoms and anemia. The condition may be familial or acquired - symptoms tend to recur regularly in the familial form.
- Transplacental infections: An infection that passes from the mother to the fetus via the placenta. A large variety of infections can occur like this and the type and severity of symptoms can vary greatly depending on the type of infection and the stage of fetal development at which infection occurs. Examples of transplacental infections include cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, hepatitis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis and rubella.
- Vitamin B12 Deficiency: A deficiency of Vitamin B12 primarily causes anemias the body is unable to make sufficient quantities of normal red blood cells. Severe cases can lead to permanent nervous system problems. The vitamin B12 deficiency can result from absorption problems, insufficient dietary intake, certain medications (e.g. metformin), inherited conditions (e.g. transcobalamin deficiency) and certain chronic parasitic intestinal infestations.
- Vitamin K deficiency: Deficiency of vitamin K
- Von Willebrand disease: A rare inherited blood coagulation disorder characterized by a deficiency or defect in plasma protein called the von Willebrand factor which leads to bleeding problems
- Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome: The malignant form of cerebrospinal meningitis
- Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: An inherited immune system disorder that affects only males and is characterized by recurring infections, eczema and reduced level of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia).
Conditions listing medical symptoms: Blood abnormalities:
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