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Symptoms » Brain swelling » Glossary
 

Glossary for Brain swelling

Medical terms related to Brain swelling or mentioned in this section include:

  • ADANE: A potentially fatal inherited neurological disease involving brain lesions. Symptoms tend to occur during childhood after an illness involving a fever. The disease is similar to Leigh syndrome but the course is acute rather than chronic.
  • Aase Smith syndrome: A rare hereditary syndrome characterized by deformities such as cleft palate, joint contractures and hypoplastic anemia.
  • Aase Syndrome: A genetic condition which results in anaemia and some skeletal and joint deformities
  • Aase-Smith I syndrome: A very rare hereditary syndrome characterized by deformities such as joint contractures, anemia, hydrocephalus and cleft palate.
  • Accutane -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the use of Accutane during pregnancy may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Acrocephalopolydactyly: A rare genetic condition characterized by limb abnormalities, extra digits and hydrocephalus. Other additional symptoms are variably present.
  • Acrocephalosyndactyly Syndrome type 5: A rare genetic disorder where some of the skull bones fuse too early which affects the size and shape of the skull and face. Thumb and toe abnormalities are also present. There are three types of Pfeiffer syndrome with varying degrees of severity.
  • Acrocephalosyndactyly type 5 (ACPS 5): A rare genetic disorder where some of the skull bones fuse too early which affects the size and shape of the skull and face. Thumb and toe abnormalities are also present. There are three types of Pfeiffer syndrome with varying degrees of severity.
  • Acutane embryopathy: A rare disorder caused by fetal exposure to retinoids and resulting in mental and physical birth defects.
  • Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis: A rare degenerative brain disease where the patient suffers edema, many small hemorrhages, necrosis of blood vessel walls, demyelination of nerve fibers. Histiocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils also enter the meninges. Symptoms include severe headache, fever, vomiting and sometimes convulsions and unconsciousness. Also called acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.
  • Acute vitamin A toxicity: Acute ingestion of vitamin A can cause symptoms. Symptoms usually only last for a day or two.
  • Acyclovir -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Acyclovir during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Agenesis of the corpus callosum: Congenital absence of connective part of the brain.
  • Alexander Syndrome: Brain myelin disorder causing mental degeneration.
  • Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency: A metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase which results in high levels of oxoglutaric acid in the urine as well as other severe symptoms.
  • Aminopterin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to ? during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Aminopterin and methotrexate -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the use of Aminopterin and methotrexate during pregnancy may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Amitriptyline -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amitriptyline during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Amlodipine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Amlodipine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 1: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 7q11.2.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 10: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 10 is caused by a defect on chromosome 8q12.1.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 2: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19q13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 3: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 1p36.13-p34.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 4: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 5p15.2-14.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 5: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2p13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 6: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are now six different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases an individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 9p21.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 7: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 11q24-q25.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 8: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 8 is caused by a defect on chromosome 14q23.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 9: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2q33.1.
  • Angioneurotic Edema: Involves swelling of deep skin layers and fatty tissues under the skin as well as the mucous membrane. The condition involves recurrent swelling of tissues, abdominal pain and swelling of the voice box. It is often caused by an allergic reaction to drugs or food. It is also called Quincke's disease, giant urticaria, Quincke's edema or angioedema.
  • Anophthalmia -- hypothalamo-pituitary insufficiency: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by small or absent eyes and malformations of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • Anophthalmia -- hypyothalamo-pituitary insufficiency: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by small or absent eyes and malformations of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • Arachnoid Cysts: A rare disorder involving a fluid-filled cysts on the arachnoid membrane which is one of the thin layers of tissue that form a membrane which covers the spinal cord and brain. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the size and location of the cyst.
  • Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, neonatal: A rare inherited urea cycle disorder caused by lack of enzymes (argininosuccinase lyase) needed to turn ammonia into urea resulting in excess ammonia in the body. The neonatal form of the condition can result in death or severe complications if not treated early enough.
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 2: A rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. The extent of the deformity is greater in type 2 than type 1 and hence the symptoms are more severe and are often associated with a myelomeningocele (opening of the spine and spinal cord).
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 3: An extremely rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. Type 3 involves the herniation of brain or brain stem tissue out of the back of the neck or head. The condition generally has a poor prognosis.
  • Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy: A rare genetic disorder characterized by short limbs, underdeveloped iliac wings and a narrow rigid thoracic cage that often results in asphyxiation.
  • Autosomal Recessive Tetra-Amelia: A rare disorder characterized by the absence of all four extremities as well as skeletal, nervous system, craniofacial and other abnormalities. The condition is causes death before or soon after birth.
  • Axial mesodermal dysplasia spectrum: A variable range of defects that occur during fetal development. The defect occurs at a cellular level and affects the way various parts of the body develop.
  • BANF acoustic neurinoma: A type of tumor that affects hearing and is associated with a condition called BANF (bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis). The tumor is benign an occurs in the cells that form the myelin sheath of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the nerve. The tumor may become large enough to compress against various cranial nerves or even the brainstem.
  • BOR-Duane hydrocephalus contiguous gene syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by an eye movement disorder (Duane syndrome), abnormal trapezius muscle (runs from neck to shoulder), hydrocephalus and BOR syndrome (branchio-oto-renal syndrome with branchial, eye and kidney abnormalities).
  • Baker-Vinters syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by premature fusion of skull bones, hydrocephalus and abnormal development of the channel or duct in the middle of the brain that connects the third and fourth ventricles.
  • Basilar impression primary: A congenital bone abnormality where the skull and vertebrae meet which can compress some of the brain structures and result in neurological abnormalities. The defect is often associated with other vertebral abnormalities. In severe cases, the cerebrospinal fluid flow may be obstructed which can cause fluid to build up inside the skull (hydrocephalus).
  • Beemer-Ertbruggen syndrome: A rare lethal syndrome characterized primarily by hydrocephalus, heart malformations, and increased bone density. Only a couple of cases have been reported.
  • Benadryl -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Benadryl during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Biemond syndrome type 2: A rare inherited condition characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and underdeveloped genitals.
  • Bleeding in the brain: A condition which is characterized by the abnormal loss of blood from blood vessels located in the brain
  • Bobble-head doll syndrome: A rare condition where a child's head bobs up and down continuously due to either fluid on the brain or a large cyst in the third ventricle of the brain.
  • Bone marrow failure -- neurologic abnormalities: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of bone marrow failure and neurological abnormalities.
  • Braddock Jones Superneau syndrome: A very rare disorder characterized primarily by the premature fusion of skull bones (sagittal), the Dandy-Walker malformation and a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus). The Dandy-Walker malformation is where a cyst develops in the back of the brain and interferes with the movement of fluid through the brain resulting in an accumulation of fluid.
  • Brain abscess: abscess in the brain may involve any of the lobes of the brain
  • Brain compression: Internal compression of the brain
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Brain swelling: Swelling or enlargement of the brain
  • Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
  • Bromocriptine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Bromocriptine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Brown-Symmers disease: A rare form of brain inflammation that occurs in children and can quickly lead to death. Symptoms usually start suddenly.
  • Budesonide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Budesonide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • CMV antenatal infection: A rare condition where a fetus becomes infected with the cytomegalovirus through the mother.
  • Campomelic dwarfism: A rare genetic disorder characterized by bowed tibia, underdeveloped shoulder blades and a flat face.
  • Campomelic dysplasia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by bowed tibia, underdeveloped shoulder blades and a flat face.
  • Canavan leukodystrophy: A rare inherited disorder where a chemical imbalance in the brain leads to spongy degeneration of the central nervous system which results in progressive mental deterioration and associated symptoms.
  • Carbon Monoxide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Carbon Monoxide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cardiofaciocutaneous Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects skin anomalies and frontal bossing.
  • Cat Eye Syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving abnormalities of chromosome 22 and characterized by coloboma of the iris, down-slanting palpebral fissures and anal atresia.
  • Cennamo-Gangemi syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by small eyes, congenital cataracts and hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid in the brain).
  • Cerebellum agenesis -- hydrocephaly: A rare brain disorder which manifests as reduced muscle tone, ataxia, cataracts and mental retardation.
  • Cerebral astrocytoma, adult: A very rare tumor that occurs in adults and develops in brain cells called astrocytes. The part of the brain involved is the cerebrum at the top of the head which controls functions such as reading, writing, thinking, learning, speech, emotion and voluntary movement.
  • Cerebral sarcoma: A type of brain tumor that can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. The tumor arises from blood vessels in the brain. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Cerebral ventricle neoplasm: A tumor that occurs in the fluid-filled spaces of the brain called the ventricles. Symptoms vary depending on the size and exact location of the tumor and whether it is cancerous or not.
  • Cerebrovascular symptoms: Symptoms related to the brain's arteries
  • Chemical poisoning -- 1,4-Dioxane: 1,4-Dioxane is a chemical used mainly as a reagent in laboratries and as a solvent in chemical processing. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Acetylsalicylic Acid: Acetylsalicylic Acid is also known as aspirin and is primarily used to relieve pain, fever and inflammation. Excessive exposure to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ethylene Glycol: Ethylene Glycol is a chemical used mainly in antifreeze, coolants and as a solvent. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. Symptoms tend to occur in three phases: the first 12 hours involves inebriation, seizuresand brain swelling; the second and third day involves deterioration of lung and heart function and the third stage involves kidney damage and possibly failure. Death can occur during any of the stages.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Thallium Sulfate: Thallium Sulfate is a chemical used mainly in the manufacture of switches and closures in the semiconductor industry. It has historically also been used as a rodenticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chiari Malformation: Protrusion of the brain down the spinal column.
  • Chlorpheniramine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Chlorpheniramine (an antihistamine medication) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cholestyramine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cholestyramine (cholesterol-lowering drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cholybar -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cholybar (cholesterol-lowering drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Chromosome 1, 1p36 deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where deletion of a portion of chromosome 1 causes various abnormalities such as heart problems, mental retardation, developmental delay, facial dysmorphism and short stature. The symptoms are variable depending on the exact location of chromosomal deletion.
  • Chromosome 12, trisomy 12q: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of the long arm (q) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. In most cases, death occurs during infancy. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is duplicated.
  • Chromosome 12q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of the long arm (q) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. In most cases, death occurs during infancy.
  • Chromosome 13 ring syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where genetic material from one or both ends of chromosome 13 is missing and the two broken ends have rejoined to form a ring. The resulting type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount and location of genetic material missing.
  • Chromosome 13, Partial Monosomy 13q: A rare chromosomal disorder where the long arm (q) of chromosome 13 is deleted resulting in various physical, neurological and developmental abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount and location of the deleted genetic material.
  • Chromosome 13q deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder where the long arm (q) of chromosome 13 is deleted resulting in various physical, neurological and developmental abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount and location of the deleted genetic material.
  • Chromosome 13q deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where the long arm (q) of chromosome 13 is deleted resulting in various physical, neurological and developmental abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount and location of the deleted genetic material.
  • Chromosome 14 uniparental disomy syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where two homologues are obtained from one parent.
  • Chromosome 15q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 15. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 15q, trisomy: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 15. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 16q, partial deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of genetic material from the long arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the lost genetic material.
  • Chromosome 17p, partial duplication: A rare chromosomal disorder involving an extra copy of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 17. The type and severity of symptoms are determined by the amount and location of the duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 1q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 1 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 2, monosomy 2q24: A genetic disorder characterized by the deletion of a portion of the long arm of chromosome 2.
  • Chromosome 22, trisomy: A very rare disorder where there is an extra copy of chromosome 22 in all the body cells. The condition is usually fatal soon after birth or during the fetal stage.
  • Chromosome 22q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where the long arm of chromosome 22 is duplicated.
  • Chromosome 4, Monosomy 4q: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 4 is missing resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 5, Trisomy 5p: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of all or part of the short arm (p) of chromosome 5 rather than the normal two. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and size of the genetic material duplicated.
  • Chromosome 5p duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of all or part of the short arm (p) of chromosome 5 rather than the normal two. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and size of the genetic material duplicated.
  • Chromosome 6, trisomy 6p: A very rare chromosomal disorder where a part of the short arm (p) of chromosome 6 is duplicated resulting in various abnormalities depending on the location and length of missing genetic material.
  • Chromosome 6p deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where part or all of the short arm (p) of chromosome 6 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
  • Chromosome 7, trisomy 7q: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 7 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 7q duplication syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 7 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Chromosome 8, monosomy 8q: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 8 resulting in various abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Chromosome 8p deletion syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of the short arm (p) of chromosome 8 resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 9, Tetrasomy 9p: A rare chromosomal disorder where there is four copies of the short arm of chromosome 9 instead of the normal two resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 9, Trisomy 9p (Multiple Variants): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by mental retardation, head and face malformations and various other abnormalities.
  • Chromosome 9p tetrasomy syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where there is four copies of the short arm of chromosome 9 instead of the normal two resulting in various abnormalities.
  • Chronic vitamin A toxicity: Chronic excessive ingestion of vitamin A can cause symptoms.
  • Clomiphene -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Clomiphene during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cloverleaf skull micromelia thoracic dysplasia: A rare disorder characterized by a cloverleaf skull deformity, small limbs and bone abnormalities of the chest and spine. The disorder is lethal.
  • Cocaine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cocaine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Codeine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Codeine (an opiate drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Coffin-Lowry syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by down slanting space between eyelids, bulbous nose, soft hands and tapering fingers.
  • Colestyramine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Colestyramine (cholesterol-lowering drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Complex 1 mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency: A rare genetic defect where an enzyme deficiency (NADH CoQ) disrupts cellular processes and causes various organic acid disorders. Any of a variety of the components of the enzyme may be missing or defective and hence the clinical presentation and severity may vary. Presentation may range from infantile death to various disorders such as Leigh's disease, Parkinson's disease and cardiomyopathy.
  • Cone shell poisoning: A number of species of cone shells are capable of envenomating humans. The toxin is a neurotoxin and thus primarily affects the nervous system. Cone shells are found mainly in shallow waters of the Indian and Pacific oceans. The toxicity varies amongst species with some delivering a benign stink whereas others are capable of causing death. The cone snails a proboscis on the end of which is a poison-filled barb.
  • Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Fetal infection with toxoplasmosis.
  • Corpus callosum agenesis -- blepharophimosis -- Robin sequence: A very rare syndrome characterized by abnormal brain development, various facial anomalies, heart defects and other symptoms.
  • Corpus callosum dysgenesis X-linked recessive: Partial or complete lack of development of the structure that divides two sides of the brain (corpus callosum). As the condition is X-linked, it only occurs in males.
  • Corpus callosum, agenesis of, blepharophimosis Robin type: A very rare syndrome characterized by abnormal brain development, various facial anomalies, heart defects and other symptoms.
  • Cortical hyperostosis-syndactyly: A rare genetic disorder characterized by webbed fingers and thickening and overgrowth of bones.
  • Corticotropin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Corticotropin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia: A very rare bone disorder where excess calcium is deposited mainly in the skull bones which can result in compression of various nerves in the skull and even the brain.
  • Craniofacial conodysplasia: A rare disorder characterized by neurological symptoms and abnormally-shaped bones in the hands and feet. The neurological symptoms are caused by a buildup of fluid inside the skull as well as compression of the spinal cord at the neck-skull junction.
  • Craniosynostosis: A defect involving the fusion of one or more bones in the skull before it has finished growing which affects the head size and shape and can affect the growth of the brain. The defect is often associated with other conditions. Symptoms are determined by which skull bones are prematurely fused.
  • Craniosynostosis -- alopecia -- brain defect: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a malformed skull, lack of hair and a brain defect.
  • Craniosynostosis, sagittal, with Dandy-Walker malformation and hydrocephalus: A very rare disorder characterized primarily by the premature fusion of skull bones (sagittal), the Dandy-Walker malformation and a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus). The Dandy-Walker malformation is where a cyst develops in the back of the brain and interferes with the movement of fluid through the brain resulting in an accumulation of fluid.
  • Craniotelencephalic dysplasia: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by premature fusion of various skull bones and abnormal brain development.
  • Cyclophosphamide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cyclophosphamide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cysticercosis: An infectious disease caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. If the larvae are ingested then a mild or asymptomatic tapeworm infection occurs. However, ingested eggs pass into the bloodstream where they can then enter various tissues and form the cysts that characterize cysticercosis.
  • Czeizel syndrome: A rare lethal syndrome characterized by cleft palate, uterus abnormalities and omphalocele (protrusion of abdominal organs such as intestine through the navel).
  • Czeizel-Losonci syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by missing fingers, ureter abnormalities, webbed fingers and toes and abnormal spinal development.
  • Dandy-Walker -- facial hemangioma: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a brain malformation (Dandy-Walker) and a hemangioma on the face (mass of dilated blood vessels).
  • Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital brain malformation characterized by increased fluid in the brain.
  • Dandy-Walker malformation postaxial polydactyly: A very rare syndrome where the Dandy-Walker malformation is associated with extra fingers and toes.
  • Del (2) (q12-q14): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in two reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del (2) (q21-q23): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in the few reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del (2) (q32.1-q34): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del (2) (q33.1-q33.3): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del (2) (q34-qter) and dup (2) (pter-p24): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in two reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del (2q36): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del (3) (q12-q21): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in a few reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Del(1) (23-q25): A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (23q-q25) of chromosome one is missing.
  • Del(1) (q24-q25.3): A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q24-q25.3) of chromosome one is missing. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Del(1) (q41-qter): A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q41-qter) of chromosome one is missing. The type and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Del(1q32): A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (1q32) of chromosome one is missing.
  • Deletion 13q: A rare chromosomal disorder where the long arm (q) of chromosome 13 is deleted resulting in various physical, neurological and developmental abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount and location of the deleted genetic material.
  • Deletion 2q24: A genetic disorder characterized by the deletion of a portion of the long arm of chromosome 2.
  • Deletion 8q: A rare chromosomal disorder involving deletion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 8 resulting in various abnormalities. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is deleted.
  • Diencephalic Syndrome: A condition characterized by dysfunction of the diencphalon of the brain
  • Diflucan -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Diflucan (an antifungal drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dimedrol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dimedrol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dinno-Shearer-Weisskopf syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by long limbs, tall stature, large head, ataxia and facial anomalies.
  • Diphenhydramine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Diphenhydramine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dridol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dridol (an antinausea and antipsychotic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Droperidol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Droperidol (an antinausea and antipsychotic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dropletan -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dropletan (an antinausea and antipsychotic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Dup (1) (q23-qter) and del (3)(pter-p25): A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q23-qter) of chromosome one and the short arm of chromosome 3 (pter- p25) is duplicated. In the reported case, the infant died soon after birth.
  • Dup (1) (q32-qter) and del (7)(q32-qter): A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (q32-qter) of chromosome one is duplicated and the long arm of chromosome 7 (q32) is deleted. There have only been a couple of reported cases and symptoms may vary somewhat between patients.
  • Dup (2) (p25-p21): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Dup (2) (pter-p13)): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in the few reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree though early death is quite common.
  • Dup (3) (p22-p14): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in two reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Dup (3) (q22.1-q24): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in two reported cases. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Duplication 12q: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of the long arm (q) of chromosome 12 rather than the normal two resulting in various abnormalities. In most cases, death occurs during infancy. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount and exact location of the genetic material that is duplicated.
  • Duplication 5p: A rare chromosomal disorder where there are three copies of all or part of the short arm (p) of chromosome 5 rather than the normal two. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the location and size of the genetic material duplicated.
  • Duplication 6p: A very rare chromosomal disorder where a part of the short arm (p) of chromosome 6 is duplicated resulting in various abnormalities depending on the location and length of missing genetic material.
  • Duplication 7q: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of the long arm (q) of chromosome 7 which results in various abnormalities depending on the size and location of the portion of duplicated genetic material.
  • Ectodermal dysplasia -- mental retardation -- central nervous system malformation: A rare syndrome characterized by severe mental retardation, hypothyroidism, abnormal brain development and hair, teeth and nail abnormalities.
  • Enalapril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Encephalocele anterior: Protrusion of a portion of the brain tissue through a skull defect in the anterior portion of the skull. The severity of symptoms depends on the exact location and size of the deformity.
  • Encephalocele frontal: Protrusion of a portion of the frontal brain tissue through a skull defect. The severity of symptoms depends on the exact location and size of the deformity.
  • Encephaloceles: Improper protrusions of parts of the meninges and brain.
  • Endocrine-Cerebroosteodysplasia: A rare condition observed in six members from two families. The condition is severe with all affected individuals dying before, during or soon after birth. A number of the pregnancies were voluntarily terminated due to the detected malformations. Endocrine-Cerebroosteodysplasia primarily involves brain, skeletal and endocrine abnormalities.
  • Endodermal sinus tumor: A form of malignant germ cell tumor that occurs mainly in young children. They can occur in the testis, ovaries, uterus, abdomen, thorax, tailbone region, vagina, liver, retroperitoneum and pineal ventricle of the brain. Symptoms will vary depending on the exact location of the tumor.
  • Ependymoma: A tumor that occurs in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Symptoms vary according to the aggressiveness, size and exact location of the tumor.
  • Ergotamine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ergotamine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Erythromycin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Erythromycin (an antibiotic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ethisterone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethisterone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ethosuximide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ethosuximide (antiseizure medication) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Extradural hematoma: Bleeding in the skull outside the brain
  • Face symptoms: Symptoms affecting the face
  • Famotidine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Famotidine (used to treat and prevent ulcers) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Faye-Petersen-Ward-Carey syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by excess fluid in the skull, a blood disorder and bone and bone abnormalities.
  • Ferlini-Ragno-Calzolari syndrome: A rare syndrome reported in only a few families and characterized by skeletal problems, excessive fluid inside the skull and neurological problems.
  • Fluconazole -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Fluconazole (an antifungal drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Flucytosine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Flucytosine (an antifungal drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Fluorouracil -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Fluorouracil (a chemotherapy drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Fried syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, buildup of fluid inside the skull and an unusual facial appearance. The disorder is inherted in a X-linked manner.
  • Game-Friedman-Paradice syndrome: A rare condition characterized by retarded growth, hydrocephaly, underdeveloped lungs and various other anomalies. The condition was observed in four offspring from one family.
  • Ganglioglioma: A type of tumor that develops in the central nervous system. The tumor originates from glial and nerve cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Glioma Susceptibility: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. There have been at least 8 genetic defects linked to an increased glioma susceptibility.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 1: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3p25.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 2: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 10q23.31.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 3: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 13q12.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 4: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q23-q26.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 5: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 9p21.3.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 6: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20q13.33.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 7: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q24.21.
  • Glioma Susceptibility 8: A glioma is a rare type of tumor that occurs from glial cells that make up the central nervous system. These tumors usually occur in the brain but can also occur in the spinal cord and other nerves such as the optic nerve. Symptoms depend on the size and location of the tumor. Some people have particular genetic anomalies which makes them more susceptible to developing a glioma. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 5p15.33.
  • Gliomatosis cerebri: A rare, aggressive type of malignant brain tumor. Cancerous glial cells infiltrate various parts of the brain and can result in a variety of symptoms.
  • Gliosarcoma: A type of brain tumor that originates from glial cells. The tumor may grow rapidly and symptom will vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Glycine synthase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder characterized by high blood glycine levels which is toxic to the body. The severity of the condition varies according to the degree of deficiency and age of onset. The classical neonatal form is generally quite severe, the atypical mild form which generally includes symptoms such as aggressiveness, behavioral problems and speech problems. The transient neonatal form involves high blood glycine levels at birth which then returns to normal within a couple of months - there was no neurological or developmental impairment.
  • Glycine synthase deficiency, type 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by high blood glycine levels. It is caused by a defect in the P protein (pyridoxal phosphate-dependent glycine decarboxylase) in the energy creating center of cells (mitochondria).
  • Glycine synthase deficiency, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by high blood glycine levels. It is caused by a defect in the T protein (tetrahydrofolate-requiring enzyme) in the energy creating center of cells (mitochondria).
  • HARD syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a smooth brain surface and eye, genitourinary and other abnormalities.
  • HARD syndrome (Hydrocephalus -- agyria -- retinal dysplasia): A rare genetic disorder characterized by a smooth brain surface and eye, genitourinary and other abnormalities.
  • Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by early tooth loss, relaxed joints, small stature and bone abnormalities.
  • Head injury: Any injury that occurs to the head
  • Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
  • Hemangioblastoma: A benign tumor that tends to occur in the central nervous system such as the brain and spinal cord. The tumor arises from the stem cells that develop into blood vessels or blood cells (hemangioblasts). Symptoms vary depending on the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: A very rare severe condition characterized by sudden severe shock, brain disease and liver and kidney dysfunction which occurs in infants. The cause is unknown.
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Margosa oil: Margosa oil can be used as a herbal agent to treat parasitic infestations. The herbal agent contains various chemicals which can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Holoacardius amorphus: A very rare disorder where a twin in the womb doesn't have it's own heart. This second twin is often a very malformed, shapeless mass that acts as a parasite by utilizing the placenta of the normal twin.
  • Hydranencephaly: A very rare condition where fluid replaces a portion of the brain.
  • Hydrocephalus: A condition which is characterized by marked dilatation of the cerebral ventricles
  • Hydrocephalus -- Skeletal Anomalies -- Mental Disturbance: A very rare condition reported in only a few families and characterized by a buildup of fluid inside the brain, skeletal anomalies and mental disturbance.
  • Hydrocephalus -- costovertebral dysplasia -- Sprengel anomaly: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by hydrocephaly and upwardly displaced shoulder blade (Sprengel anomaly).
  • Hydrocephalus -- craniosynostosis -- bifid nose: A very rare disorder characterized mainly by a buildup of fluid inside the skull, premature fusion of skull bones and a bifid nose.
  • Hydrocephalus -- growth delay -- skeletal anomalies: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by retarded growth, buildup of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) inside the skull and various skeletal anomalies.
  • Hydrocephalus -- growth retardation -- skeletal anomalies: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by retarded growth, buildup of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) inside the skull and various skeletal anomalies.
  • Hydrocephalus autosomal recessive: A rare, recessively inherited disorder where there is an abnormal buildup of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) inside the skull.
  • Hydrocephalus due to congenital stenosis of aqueduct of sylvius: A very rare disorder where there is a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid inside the skull due to a narrow canal that connects the third and fourth ventricles of the brain.
  • Hydrocephalus obesity hypogonadism: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by obesity, buildup of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus) and impaired sex hormone production.
  • Hydrocephalus skeletal anomalies: A condition characterized by the association of hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid inside the brain) and skeletal anomalies.
  • Hydrocephaly: A condition which is characterized by marked dilatation of the cerebral ventricles
  • Hydrocephaly tall stature joint laxity: A very rare disorder characterized mainly by the association of excessive fluid in the skull (hydrocephaly), tall stature and loose joints. Various other anomalies may also be present.
  • Hydrocephaly tall stature joint laxity and kyphoscoliosis: A very rare disorder characterized mainly by the association of excessive fluid in the skull (hydrocephaly), tall stature, loose joints and kyphoscoliosis. Various other anomalies may also be present.
  • Hydroxychloroquine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Hydroxychloroquine (an antimalarial drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hydroxyprogesterone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Hydroxyprogesterone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hydroxyzine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Hydroxyzine (an antihistamine) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Hypothalamic hamartomas: A benign congenital tumor that develops on or near the hypothalamus.
  • Inapsine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Inapsine (an antinausea and antipsychotic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Increased intracranial pressure: Increased pressure inside the skull due to brain swelling or fluid accumulation
  • Indigo Carmine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Indigo Carmine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Infantile hypophosphatasia: An inherited bone disorder due to an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a deficiency of alkaline phosphate. The condition becomes noticeably during infancy and involves a period of normal development (about 6 months) followed by deterioration due to bone demineralization.
  • Infantile sialic acid storage disorder: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of sialic acid in the tissues and excretion of sialic acid in the urine. The disorder results in death within the first few years of life - usually in infancy.
  • Infectious meningitis: Infectious meningitis is meningitis caused by bacterial, viral, or protozoan infection. Most of the agents known to cause meningitis are infectious, but very few people exposed to them will get meningitis. Those at greatest danger include people with AIDS, infants, transplant patients, and others whose immune systems may be compromised.
  • Iniencephaly: A rare type of neural tube defect where the head is positioned in a backward bent angle and the spine is malformed.
  • Interferon Beta -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Interferon Beta during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Intermediate cystinosis: Cystinosis is a condition where excess amino acid cystine builds up to harmful levels in the body. The intermediate form of cystinosis starts later than the nephropathic form but the symptoms are the same.
  • Intracranial arachnoid cysts: A rare disorder involving a fluid-filled cysts on the arachnoid membrane which is one of the thin layers of tissue that form a membrane which covers the brain. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the size and location of the cyst.
  • Intracranial germ cell tumour: A brain tumor that arises from germ (sex) cells. This type of tumor tends to occur in patients under the age of 30, usually in the second decade. Symptoms depend on the size, exact location and rate of growth of the tumor.
  • Isotretinoin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Isotretinoin (an acne treatment drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Isotretinoin embryopathy like syndrome: A very rare syndrome which causes the same abnormalities and deformities that occur in fetal exposure to maternal use of isotretinoin.
  • Jeune syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by short limbs, underdeveloped iliac wings and a narrow rigid thoracic cage that often results in asphyxiation.
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs in children and young adults. The tumor is derived from a type of cell called an astrocyte and it can occur in various parts of the brain as well as the optic pathways and the spinal cord. Malignancy is rare. Symptoms may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Kernicterus: Kernicterus refers to neurological damage (brain damage) resulting from the passageof bilirubin through the immature blood brain barrier in infants. It can occur in jaundiced infants but not all jaundiced infants will develop kernicterus.
  • Kleeblattschaedel syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a head the is somewhat cloverleaf shaped.
  • Krause syndrome: A syndrome involving the abnormal development of the eye and cerebral portion of the brain. It most often occurs in premature infants or an infant from a multiple birth. It is believed to possibly result from intercurrent infections in the mother, placental abnormalities and hemorrhages that occur during the second trimester of the pregnancy.
  • L1 Syndrome: L1 Syndrome refers to range of disorders characterized by stiff muscles (spasticity) in the legs, reduced intelligence, excessive fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus) and abnormally bent thumbs. The range and severity of symptoms is highly variable. Disorders which varying forms of L1 Syndrome includes MASA syndrome, X-linked Corpus Callosum agenesis and X-linked Mental Retardation Complicated Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia type 1. The condition tends to produce mild if any symptoms in females in nearly all cases.
  • Lamotrigine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lamotrigine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Larsen syndrome, recessive type: A congenital, genetic disorder characterized by many abnormalities including joint dislocations, bone abnormalities and an unusual face.
  • Lateral body wall complex: A very rare syndrome characterized involving the absence of the whole or part of an arm or leg as well as a severe defect of the abdominal wall. Death often occurs at birth.
  • Lithium -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lithium during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Liver failure: When the liver fails to function
  • Lockwood-Feingold syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by arthritis, skeletal abnormalities and a lack of subcutaneous fat.
  • Lovastatin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lovastatin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis: Rodent-borne viral disease often causing meningitis or encephalitis
  • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • MN1: A rare genetic defect that can cause meningiomas to develop. A meningioma is a tumor of the meninges which is a membrane that encloses the brain and spinal cord The genetic defect occurs on chromosome 22. The tumor is usually slow-growing and benign.
  • Macrocephaly, mental retardation, short stature, spastic paraplegia and CNS malformations: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a large head, short stature and central nervous system problems.
  • Malignant astrocytoma: A very malignant primary brain tumor consisting of astrocytes. The tumor spreads throughout the brain and a third of patients dying in the first year.
  • Malignant germ cell tumor: Malignant tumors that are made up of germ cells which are immature cells that eventually become reproductive system tissues in males and females. The symptoms depend on the location of the tumor which may occur in the ovaries, testes or anywhere along the body's midline such as the chest, head, abdomen, pelvis and lower back.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs. Symptoms will vary depending on the location of the tumor.
  • Marie-Se Syndrome: A sudden buildup of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus) in infants who are given large doses of vitamin A. Symptoms tend to occur about 12 hours after the receiving the vitamin A and usually last for a day or two.
  • Meckel Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder involving numerous abnormalities and characterized by death within the first few weeks.
  • Medulloblastoma: A type of brain tumor.
  • Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a progressive brain destruction that causes mental retardation and incoordination that starts early in life.
  • Megalencephaly -- polymicrogyria -- post-axial polydactyly -- hydrocephalus: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by brain abnormalities, extra digits and a excess fluid inside the skull.
  • Meningioma: A slow-growing tumor of the meninges that is not cancerous. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the tumor.
  • Meningitis: Infection of the membrane around the brain (as a symptom)
  • Meningocele: A condition which is characterized by a protrusion of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord through a defect in the spinal cord
  • Meningococcal A: Meningococcal meningitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningococcal meningitis A is caused by meningococcus A which is mostly common in hyperendemic areas in Africa known as the meningitis belt.
  • Meningococcal C: Meningitis C is a strain of meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Meningoencephalocele: A very rare developmental disorder where a part of the membrane that covers the brain and or part of the brain itself protrudes through an abnormal opening in the skull. The condition may be asymptomatic or if the defect is large, severe neurological abnormalities may result.
  • Meningomyelocele: A very rare developmental disorder where a part of the membrane that covers the spinal cord and part of the spinal cord itself protrudes through an abnormal opening in the bones of the spinal column. The condition may be asymptomatic or if the defect is large, severe neurological abnormalities may result.
  • Mental retardation, Buenos Aires type: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, physical retardation, unusual facial appearance and heart and kidney defects.
  • Methotrimeprazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Methotrimeprazine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Methylmalonicaciduria with homocystinuria, cobalamin F: An inherited organic acid disorder where an enzyme deficiency (cbl F) impairs the body's ability to break down certain proteins (methionine, threonine, isoleucine and valine) consumed in the diet. This results in a buildup of methylmalonic acid and homocystine which results in harmful affects.
  • Metoclopramide -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Metoclopramide during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull: A rare disorder characterized by a cloverleaf skull deformity, small limbs and bone abnormalities of the chest and spine. The disorder is lethal.
  • Microphthalmia, syndromic 7: A rare genetic disorder characterized by eye and skin abnormalities involving irregular red streaks of skin on the head and neck.
  • Midline field defects: Congenital problems that occur along the vertical axis of the body. Defects can involve the brain, spine, heart, genitals and midline of the head and face.
  • Monosomy 1p36: A rare chromosomal disorder where deletion of a portion of chromosome 1 causes various abnormalities such as heart problems, mental retardation, developmental delay, facial dysmorphism and short stature. The range and severity of symptoms is variable with some cases being relatively mild.
  • Monosomy 8q12 21: A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome 8q is missing. The main symptoms include eye, ear and kidney abnormalities as well as mental retardation.
  • Mouth symptoms: Symptoms of the mouth or oral area.
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type 2 Hunter syndrome- severe form: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (iduronidate 2-sulfatase) needed to break it down.
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis type I Hurler-Scheie syndrome: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans) in various body tissues due to insufficient amounts of the enzyme (?-L-diuronidase) needed to break it down.
  • Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency: A condition characterized by multiple sulfatase deficiencies
  • NADH CoQ reductase, deficiency of: A rare genetic defect where an enzyme deficiency (NADH CoQ) disrupts cellular processes and causes various organic acid disorders. Any of a variety of the components of the enzyme may be missing or defective and hence the clinical presentation and severity may vary. Presentation may range from infantile death to various disorders neurodegenerative disorders such as Leigh's disease, Parkinson's disease and cardiomyopathy.
  • Nalidixic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nalidixic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Neomycin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Neomycin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Neonatal bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis that occurs in an infant under 3 months of age. Bacterial meningitis is a bacterial brain infection.
  • Nephropathic cystinosis: Cystinosis is a condition where excess amino acid cystine builds up to harmful levels in the body. The nephropathic form of cystinosis usually starts during infancy and can result in severe complications if untreated.
  • Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
  • Neurocutaneous melanosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by melanosis of the skin and central nervous system deterioration.
  • Neurocysticercosis: Brain/CNS infection with the tapeworm Cysticercosis
  • Neurological symptoms: Any symptoms that are caused by neurological conditions
  • Neurosyphilis: Syphilis affecting the nervous system.
  • Nitrofurantoin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nitrofurantoin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Norethindrone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Norethindrone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Nytol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Nytol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Ofloxacin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ofloxacin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Oligodendroglioma: Slow-growing brain tumor
  • Optic pathway glioma: A type of tumor that arises in the optic nerve which sends messages from the eye to the brain. These tumors tend to occur mainly in children under the age of 10. The tumor may affect the hormone center of the brain and hence can affect such things as growth and weight.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta type II: A rare lethal form of the genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by fragile bones, blue sclerae and facial and tooth abnormalities.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 2: A rare lethal form of the genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by fragile bones, blue sclerae and facial and tooth abnormalities.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 2A: A rare lethal form of a genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by fragile bones, blue sclerae and facial and tooth abnormalities. Type IIA has a different origin of the genetic mutation but the clinical features are similar. Type IIA involves a defect on the COL1A2 gene. The main difference is that type IIA tends to involve a large head and dark blue eyes.
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta, type IIB: A rare, recessively inherited, lethal form of a genetic connective tissue disorder characterized by fragile bones, blue sclerae and facial and tooth abnormalities. Type IIB has a different origin of the genetic mutation but the clinical features are similar. Type IIB involves a defect on the CRTAP gene on chromosome 3p22. The main difference is that type IIA tends to involve a small head and white or light blue eyes.
  • Osteopetrosis lethal: A severe, lethal form of the brittle bone condition called osteopetrosis.
  • Osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 2: A rare disorder characterized primarily by increased bone density as old bone is not resorbed and replaced with new bone - is also known as marble bone disease. This form is relatively mild with survival possible for a couple of decades in some cases.
  • Partial agenesis of corpus callosum: A rare birth defect where part of the corpus callosum is absent. The corpus callosum is the area that connects the two main halves of the brain (cerebral hemispheres). Severity of symptoms is determined by how much of the structure is missing. Mild cases tend to involve headaches, seizures and speech problems which don't appear for years.
  • Penicillamine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Penicillamine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pepcid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Pepcid (used to treat and prevent ulcers) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pfeiffer Syndrome Type I: A rare genetic disorder where some of the skull bones fuse too early which affects the size and shape of the skull and face. Thumb and toe abnormalities are also present. There are three types of Pfeiffer syndrome with varying degrees of severity. Type I is the mildest of the three Pfeiffer Syndrome subtypes.
  • Pfeiffer Syndrome Type III:
  • Pfeiffer syndrome Type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by premature joining of certain skull bones during development which has an impact on the shape of the head and face. Features include craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular malformations and early death is common.
  • Pineal Teratoma: A type of brain tumor that occurs mainly in the pineal region of the brain.
  • Pinealoma: A slow-growing type of brain tumor that occurs in the pineal gland. The pineal gland produces a hormone called melatonin which is involved in regulating sleep patterns.
  • Pineoblastoma, adult: A rare type of highly malignant brain tumor that usually occurs in children. The tumor develops in the pineal region of the brain.
  • Porencephaly: A central nervous system disorder involving cysts in the brain cortex caused by stroke, infection or genetic anomaly.
  • Pork tapeworm: A tapeworm infection that is caused from pork
  • Prednisone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Prednisone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Progesterone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Progesterone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pseudoaminopterin syndrome: A very rare condtion characterized by mental and physical retardation, skull abnormalities and skeletal defects. The symptoms observed are similar to those caused by aminopterin which was once used to induce abortions but in the pseudo form there is no evidence of exposure to aminopterin.
  • Pseudophosphatasia: A rare condition where infants have all the physical features of infantile hypophosphatasia but alkaline phosphatase activity is normal.
  • Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition involving increased intracranial pressure which can produce symptoms similar to a brain tumor.
  • Questran -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Questran (cholesterol-lowering drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Quinacrine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Quinacrine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Quinine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Quinine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Radiation induced meningioma: A type of brain tumor caused by exposure of the head region to radiation. Radiation is often used to treat a number of conditions, particularly cancer. The tumor can develop years or even decades after the exposure. Symptoms are determined by the exact location and size of the tumor.
  • Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia -- Dandy Walker cyst: A very rare syndrome involving abnormal development of the kidneys, liver and pancreas as well as a brain cyst called a Dandy-Walker cyst.
  • Retinoic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Retinoic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Retinoids embryopathy: Fetal exposure to retinoids has the potential to cause mental and physical birth defects, particularly craniofacial, heart and ear malformations. It is advised that women planning a pregnancy should avoid taking retinoids for two years before the pregnancy.
  • Reye's syndrome: is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver
  • Rhabdoid tumor: An aggressive malignant tumor that occurs in children. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. The tumors often form in the kidneys and then tend to metastasize to the brain and sometimes the lungs.
  • Rhombencephalosynapsis: Abnormal development of the brain where the vermis of the cerebellum is partially or totally absent and the cerebellar hemispheres are joined together. The type and severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the abnormality - symptoms can range from mild ataxia to cerebral palsy and mental retardation. The condition is usually associated with various other abnormalities or syndromes.
  • Rifampin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Rifampin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Rimbaud-Passouant-Vallat syndrome: A type of brain inflammation.
  • Rokitansky Van Bogaert syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by pigmentation abnormalities of the skin and brain which causes various neurological symptoms as well as skin nevi.
  • Rolland-Desbuquois syndrome: A condition characterized by dwarfism, hydrocephalus, facial abnormalities and a narrow chest. Survival is possible past infancy. The condition is a less severe form of Silverman-Handmaker syndrome which is lethal.
  • Sabin-Feldman syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by damage to brain tissue, chorioretinopathy (fluid build up under the retina) and mental retardation. The symptoms of this condition are similar to those of the parasitic infection called toxoplasmosis.
  • Sakati syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by head and digital anomalies as well as other abnormalities.
  • Schizencephaly: A very rare disorder where the brain fails to develop normally and slits or clefts form in the brain. They type and severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of abnormality.
  • Schwartz newark syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by pigmentation anomaly, hydrocephaly, spina bifida and a myelomeningocele.
  • Schwartz, Cohen-Addad, Lambert syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by increased pigmentation and a central nervous system malformation (myelomeningocele).
  • Sclerosteosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by syndactyly and thickening and overgrowth of bone.
  • Sengers-Hamel-Otten syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by obesity, buildup of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus) and impaired sex hormone production.
  • Seow-Najjar syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal tooth enamel, cataracts and a brain abnormality. The brain abnormality involves a narrowed duct (aqueduct of Sylvius) which connects the third and fourth ventricle and allows brain and spinal fluid to pass through.
  • Shaken Baby Syndrome: A condition caused by violent shaking of a baby.
  • Silverman-Handmaker syndrome: A condition characterized by dwarfism, hydrocephalus, facial abnormalities and a narrow chest. The condition results in death during or soon after birth and is a more severe form of Rolland-Debuquois syndrome.
  • Sjogren-Larsson syndrome: A rare inherited neurological and skin disorder characterized by mental retardation, spastic paraplegia and thickened scaly skin (ichthyosis). The condition involves a deficiency of fatty alcohol oxidoreductase which causes an accumulation of long-chain fatty alcohols.
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, type 2: A rare birth disorder where an enzyme deficiency (7-dehydrocholesterol reductase) prevents cholesterol being metabolized properly. The condition causes a variety of physical abnormalities. Type II is a more severe form of the condition.
  • Spina bifida: A congenital condition which is characterized by the abnormal closure of the vertebral arch
  • Spranger-Schinzel-Myers syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by brain malformation, underdeveloped fingers and bone abnormalities. It is believed to be possibly caused by exposure to ergotamine and diazoxide which may be teratogenic.
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage: A condition which is characterized by haemorrhage of blood into the subarachnoid space
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage: subarachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain. This area is called the subarachnoid space
  • Subdural hematoma: A condition which is characterized by a blood clot beneath the dura mater
  • Sucralfate -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Sucralfate during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Sulfasalazine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Sulfasalazine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Sulfatidosis juvenile, Austin type: A very rare metabolic disorder where all the sulfatase enzymes are impaired resulting in a variety of physical and developmental abnormalities.
  • Swelling symptoms: Symptoms causing swelling or enlargement.
  • Swollen head: Swollen head or enlarged head size
  • Systemic monochloroacetate poisoning: Monochloracetate acid is a dangerous chemical which can cause systemic poisoning even if only skin exposure occurs. Exposure to the chemical can be life-threatening with serious symptoms starting within hours of the exposure.
  • Tetra-Amelia, Autosomal Recessive: A recessively inherited malformation syndrome characterized by absence of all four limbs. Various other malformations were also present.
  • Thanatophoric dysplasia:
  • Thanatophoric dysplasia, type 1: A rare lethal genetic disorder characterized by severe skeletal abnormalities, flat vertebrae, large head and low nasal bridge.
  • Thanatophoric dysplasia, type 2: A rare lethal genetic disorder characterized by severe skeletal abnormalities, flat vertebrae, large head and low nasal bridge.
  • Tibial aplasia -- ectrodactyly -- hydrocephalus: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by a build up of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephaly), shin bone abnormalities and a split hand deformity.
  • Toxoplasmosis -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the development of Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Transthyretin amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage. In the transthyretin form, the amyloid protein consists of transthretin. The condition is characterized by slo-progressing peripheral sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy, kidney disease and heart disease. Abnormal amyloid deposits may also occur in the eyes and central nervous system. There are a number of subtypes of the disorder: familial oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and familial amyloid cardiomypathy as well as others. Neuropathic symptoms tend to start in the legs. Symptoms may vary depending on which parts of the body are affected.
  • Traumatic Brain Injury: Brain injury from trauma or accident.
  • Tretinoin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tretinoin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Triazolam -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Triazolam during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Trip (2) (q11.2-q21): A rare chromosomal disorder characterized by various anomalies. The listed symptoms are those observed in one reported case. The manifestations linked to most genetic defects are often variable to some degree.
  • Triploid syndrome: A complete extra set of chromosomes.
  • VACTERL association with hydrocephaly, X-linked: This condition is characterised by the occurrence of hydrocephalus with VACTERYL syndrome.
  • VACTERL hydrocephaly: A rare syndrome characterized by the VACTERL abnormalities (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, congenital cardiac disease, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies, radial dysplasia, limb defects) as well as a buildup of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus).
  • VACTERL with hydrocephalus, X-linked: A rare X-linked syndrome characterized by the VACTERL abnormalities (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, congenital cardiac disease, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies, radial dysplasia, limb defects) as well as a buildup of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus).
  • VACTERYL hydrocephaly: This condition is characterised by the occurrence of hydrocephalus with VACTERYL syndrome.
  • Valproic Acid -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Valproic Acid during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Van Regemorter Pierquin Vamos syndrome: A syndrome which is characterised by multiple congenital abnormalities
  • Vasotec -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Vasotec (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Vein of Galen aneurysm: A rare condition which is characterised by an aneurysm resulting from a intracranial vascular malformation
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by poliosis and hair, skin, eye and ear abnormalities as well as retinal detachment and neurological involvement.
  • Waaler Aarskog syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by hydrocephaly and upwardly displaced shoulder blade (Sprengel anomaly).
  • Walker-Warburg Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by brain malformations and retinal and muscle abnormalities.
  • Warfarin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Warfarin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Warfarin syndrome: Various physical and other abnormalities that can result from the use of the drug Warfarin during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Weaver Johnson syndrome: A syndrome that is characterised by craniosynostosis and cleft lip
  • Wyburn Mason's syndrome: A rare genetic condition mainly involving enlarged brain blood vessels and skin and eye abnormalities.
  • Wyburn-Mason Syndrome: A condition which is characterized by arteriovenous aneurysms on one or both sides of the brain
  • X-linked hydrocephalus spectrum: A rare genetic disorder characterized by hydrocephalus, short flexed thumbs and mental deficiency.
  • Zarontin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Zarontin (antiseizure medication) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Brain swelling:

The following list of conditions have 'Brain swelling' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Brain swelling:

The following list of medical conditions have 'Brain swelling' or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.

 

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