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Symptoms » Cognitive impairment » Glossary
 

Glossary for Cognitive impairment

Medical terms related to Cognitive impairment or mentioned in this section include:

  • 10q Partial Trisomy: A very rare genetic disorder characterized by the duplication of genetic material from the long arm (q) of chromosome 10 - the genetic material occurs three times in body cells instead of the normal two. The type and severity of symptoms may vary considerably depending on the exact location and size of the duplicated genetic material.
  • 11q Partial Trisomy: A very rare genetic disorder caused by a duplication of part of chromosome 11q. The characteristic symptoms of the disorder are delayed growth before and after birth, mental retardation (varying severity) and skull and facial defects. The type and severity of symptoms that can occur are variable.
  • 14q+ syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder involving duplication of genetic material from the long arm (q) of chromosome 14 resulting in various abnormalities.
  • 18p minus syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome 18 is missing which is characterized by mental and growth deficiencies, drooping upper eyelid and prominent ears. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the amount of genetic material that is missing.
  • 1q deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder where part of the long arm (q) of chromosome 1 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
  • 2-Hydroxyglutaricaciduria: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by high levels of a certain chemical (2-Hydroxyglutaric) which causes a serious progressive neurological disease and damage to the brain. The features of this disorder are variable and some cases are milder than others.
  • 2-Methylbutyric Aciduria: A very rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency prevents the break down of certain proteins into energy and results in a harmful accumulation of acids in the blood and body tissues. More specifically, there is a deficiency of an enzyme (2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) needed to convert the amino acid isoleucine into energy. 2-methylbutyrylglycine levels build up in the body and may cause damage. Symptoms vary according to the degree of enzyme deficiency - can range from asymptomatic to life-threatening.
  • 2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: A very rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency prevents the break down of certain proteins into energy and results in a harmful accumulation of acids in the blood and body tissues. More specifically, there is a deficiency of an enzyme (2-methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) needed to convert the amino acid isoleucine into energy. 2-methylbutyrylglycine levels build up in the body and may cause damage. Symptoms vary according to the degree of enzyme deficiency - can range from asymptomatic to life-threatening.
  • 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by the absence of a small portion of genetic material. A small section of chromosome 22 is missing at a location called q11.2. Chromosome 22 is one of 23 pairs of chromosomes that exist in humans.
  • 2p21 deletion syndrome: This syndrome is a more severe form hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome as a larger portion of genetic material from chromosome 2p21 is deleted. It is characterized by infant seizures, reduced muscle tone, developmental delay, lactic acidosis and unusual facial appearance.
  • 2q deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder where part of the long arm (q) of chromosome 2 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
  • 3 alpha methylglutaconicaciduria, type 3: A rare genetic condition where a gene mutation prevents the production of certain protein which leads to a build-up of an acid (3-methylglutaconic acid) which can have a negative impact on the body. The condition is characterized mainly by damage to the optic nerve.
  • 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type V: A rare genetic disorder where the body's cells are unable to make sufficient energy resulting in an accumulation in the body of 3-methylglutaconic acid.
  • 3C syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by cardiac malformations, cerebellar hypoplasia and cranial dysmorphism which gives the disease it's name.
  • 3q deletion: A rare chromosomal disorder where part of the long arm (q) of chromosome 3 is deleted resulting in various abnormalities which are determined by the size of the deleted portion.
  • 4-hydroxyphenylacetic aciduria: A urinary abnormality usually caused by the deficiency of a particular enzyme (4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid oxidase). The urine contains excess 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid.
  • 46,XX chromosome 7 deletion p13: A chromosomal disorder where a small portion of chromosome 7 is deleted which results in a range of abnormalities.
  • 47 XYY syndrome: A genetic condition where males have an extra Y chromosome in each of their cells. Normally male cells have one X and one Y chromosome. This is not usually an inherited condition but a defect that occurs during cell division. Often the condition is asymptomatic.
  • 47,XXX syndrome: A genetic condition where females have an extra X chromosome in each of their cells. Normally female cells have two X chromosomes. This is not usually an inherited condition but a defect that occurs during cell division. Often the condition is asymptomatic.
  • 49,XXXXX syndrome: A rare chromosomal disorder that affects only females and involves body cells having five copies of the X chromosome instead of the normal two.
  • 49,XXXXY syndrome: A rare sex chromosome abnormality where there are three extra copies of the X chromosome.
  • 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder where insufficient levels of tetrahydropterin leads to a build up of phenylalanine in the blood which can cause toxic side effects such as nerve damage or even brain damage. The condition does not usually cause any significant symptoms.
  • ADANE: A potentially fatal inherited neurological disease involving brain lesions. Symptoms tend to occur during childhood after an illness involving a fever. The disease is similar to Leigh syndrome but the course is acute rather than chronic.
  • ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. The related description Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be a more modern description of the disease.

    Misdiagnosis of ADD is a well-known controversy in the sense that cases of hyperactivity in children may be over-diagnosed. There is a tendency for parents to seek and doctors to prescribe the drug Ritalin even in cases where the diagnosis of ADD or ADHD may be incorrect. Alternative diagnoses include normal child behavior (i.e. just an active child), food intolerances, or other behavioral disorders (see misdiagnosis of ADD).

    On the other hand, ADD is under-diagnosed in adults, with a large number of adults having ADD without knowing it; see misdiagnosis of Adult ADD.

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: A term given to HIV patients who have a low CD4 count (below 200) which means that they have low levels of a type of immune cell called T-cells. AIDS patients tend to develop opportunistic infections and cancers. Opportunistic infections are infections that would not normally affect a person with a healthy immune system. The HIV virus is a virus that attacks the body's immune system.
  • ATR-X syndrome: A rare X-linked disorder that affects males and is characterized by mental retardation and alpha thalassemia.
  • ATR16: A rare disorder characterized by alpha thalassemia and mental retardation.
  • Aarskog Syndrome: A rare genetic condition characterized by facial, hand, genital and growth abnormalities.
  • Abdominal Aneurysm: Dilatation of a section of the abdominal aorta, usually due to a weakness in the wall of the artery
  • Abnormal thinking: Abnormal thinking is any type of thought process that is considered deviant or outside of what is expected, usual, understandable, or typical.
  • Abnormal thinking in pregnancy: Abnormal thinking in pregnancy is a deviation from the woman's usual, expected thought processes or attitude.
  • Abscess: This is an area of puss collected in a cavity which is constituted by necrotised tissue
  • Absence of septum pellucidum and septo-optic dysplasia: A rare birth defect where a thin membrane in the middle of the brain is missing. This brain abnormality is never present on it's own but is a characteristic of septo-optic dysplasia where the patient also has optic disk abnormalities and pituitary deficiencies.
  • Absence of septum pellucidum with porencephalia syndrome: A rare syndrome present at birth and characterized by the absence of the thin membrane in the middle of the brain (septum pellucidum) as well as abnormal cavities in the brain (porencephaly). The syndrome also involves other structural brain abnormalities.
  • Absent corpus callosum -- cataract -- immunodeficiency: A rare syndrome characterized by immunodeficiency, cleft lip or palate, cataract, reduced pigmentation and brain abnormalities.
  • Absent patellae -- scrotal hypoplasia -- renal anomalies -- facial dysmorphism -- mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized by absent kneecaps, underdeveloped scrotum, kidney anomalies, unusual facial appearance and mental retardation.
  • Acalculia: An inability of being able to perform basic mathematical calculations
  • Acanthamoeba infection: Infection with a microscopic, free-living ameba that is readily found in the environment - soil, air and water. Most people exposed to the ameba will not become infected but when infections do occur, they tend to affect the eyes, central nervous system or can cause widespread infection throughout the body.
  • Acanthamoeba infection of the central nervous system: Infection by an amoebic organism called Acanthamoeba. Infection usually occurs when the amoeba enters through a break in the skin or through the nose. Infection can be localized or systemic where it can involve the central nervous system and cause potentially fatal meningoencephalitis. Infection of the eye can occur by cleaning contact lenses in contaminated water.
  • Acanthocytosis: A rare disorder where most of the red blood cells are abnormal with spiny projections due to lipid abnormalities. The blood abnormality is seen in conditions such as abetalipoproteinemia, severe liver disease and severe malnutrition. Symptoms and prognosis depend on the underlying disorder.
  • Accutane -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that the use of Accutane during pregnancy may cause a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Aceruloplasminemia: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a lack of the protein ceruloplasmin in the blood resulting in a buildup of iron in the liver, brain and pancreas. This in turn causes diabetes and degeneration of the neural system causing tremors and walking abnormalities.
  • Achondroplasia: A rare disease characterized by abnormal bone growth which results in short stature with short arms and legs, large head and characteristic facial features.
  • Achrestic anemia: Achrestic anemia is a form of anemia similar to that caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency but it doesn't respond to treatment with Vitamin B12. The condition tends to progress slowly and can result in death if not treated. There are a variety of possible causes.
  • Achromatopsia: Patients who have achromatopsia (sometimes called achromatopia) do not have normal "cone vision.". Although the term may refer to acquired disorders such as color agnosia and cerebral achromatopsia, it typically refers to an autosomal recessive congenital color vision disorder, the inability to perceive color AND to achieve satisfactory visual acuity at high light levels (typically exterior daylight).
  • Acid-Base Imbalance: A disruption to the normal acid-base equilibrium in the body. There are four main groups of disorder involving an acid-base imbalance: respiratory acidosis or alkalosis and metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Obviously the severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
  • Acidemia, methylmalonic: An inborn error of metabolism where amino acids in the body aren't metabolized properly resulting in high levels of the acid throughout the body.
  • Acidemia, propionic: An inherited genetic disorder where the body is incapable of processing some proteins and fats resulting in the accumulation of certain substances in the body which causes the symptoms of the condition. The condition can be life threatening.
  • Acrocallosal Syndrome (Schinzel Type): A rare condition characterized by absence of portion of the brain (corpus callosum), mental deficiency, duplicated toes, mental deficiency and other abnormalities.
  • Acrocephalopolydactyly II: A rare genetic disorder characterized by head, hand and genital anomalies as well as mental retardation.
  • Acrocephalopolysyndactyly, type 2 (ACPS 2): A rare genetic disorder characterized by premature closing of skull bones, craniofacial abnormalities, heart defects, growth retardation and other disorders.
  • Acrocephalosyndactyly type 3 (ACPS 3): A rare genetic disorder characterized by premature joining of certain skull bones during development which has an impact on the shape of the head and face. Features include brachycephaly, ear deformities as well as craniofacial, finger and bone abnormalities.
  • Acrocephaly -- pulmonary stenosis -- mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized by a pointy skull, narrowed pulmonary valve and mental retardation.
  • Acrodynia: A disease occurring in infants or young children. Symptoms include edema, pruritis, skin rash, extremities are pink, cheeks and nose are scarlet, profuse sweating, digestive disturbance, photophobia, polyneuritis, irritability, listlessness, apathy and failure to thrive.
  • Acrodysostosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by short hands, small nose, mental deficiency and hand and foot deformities.
  • Acrofacial dysostosis Catania form: One of a group of disorders characterized by defective limb and facial development. The Catania form is very rare.
  • Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by abnormalities of the bones of the skeleton as well as mental retardation. Various facial, eye and urogenital anomalies are also present.
  • Acromesomelic dysplasia Hunter Thompson type: A rare genetic syndrome characterized by various severe developmental abnormalities of the skeletal bones.
  • Acropectorovertebral dysplasia: A rare inherited genetic disorder characterized by abnormalities involving the fingers, toes, palate and chest bones.
  • Acrosphenosyndactylia: A rare condition characterized by abnormalities in the appearance of the face and head as well as finger and toe abnormalities. The bones of the skull fuse together too early which prevents it from growing normally. Various toes and fingers may be fused together.
  • Actinomycetales infection: A bacterial infection from the order of Actinobacteria. The range of symptoms is variable depending on which bacteria from the order is involved.
  • Acute Alzheimers-like concentration difficulty: maybe to due to various causative agents
  • Acute Alzheimers-like confusion symptoms: unalterable confusion state
  • Acute Alzheimers-like memory loss: also known as dementia
  • Acute Alzheimers-like symptoms: symptoms such as dementia
  • Acute Bokhoror: A brain disease caused by an unknown pathogen which is probably from the Picornavirus family of viruses. Mode of transmission is uncertain but genetic susceptibility may be involved. The incubation period appears to be an average of 15 years. The disease can be classified according to rate of progression: acute or subacute, slowly progressive and chronic. Death is common in the acute phase of the infection which can last from four days to four months.
  • Acute Pesticide poisoning -- xylene: Xylene is an ingredient used in certain insecticides. Exposure to the chemical can cause a range of symptoms depending on the level and route of exposure. Exposure can occur through inhalation, ingestion, the skin or eyes. Acute exposure involves a exposure over a short period of time whereas chronic exposure occurs over a longer period of time.
  • Acute VE: A brain disease caused by an unknown pathogen which is probably from the Picornavirus family of viruses. Mode of transmission is uncertain but genetic susceptibility may be involved. The incubation period appears to be an average of 15 years. The disease can be classified according to rate of progression: acute or subacute, slowly progressive and chronic. Death is common in the acute phase of the infection which can last from four days to four months.
  • Acute Viliuisk Encephalitis: A brain disease caused by an unknown pathogen which is probably from the Picornavirus family of viruses. Mode of transmission is uncertain but genetic susceptibility may be involved. The incubation period appears to be an average of 15 years. The disease can be classified according to rate of progression: acute or subacute, slowly progressive and chronic. Death is common in the acute phase of the infection which can last from four days to four months.
  • Acute Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis: A brain disease caused by an unknown pathogen which is probably from the Picornavirus family of viruses. Mode of transmission is uncertain but genetic susceptibility may be involved. The incubation period appears to be an average of 15 years. The disease can be classified according to rate of progression: acute or subacute, slowly progressive and chronic. Death is common in the acute phase of the infection which can last from four days to four months.
  • Acute Vilyuisk Encephalitis: A brain disease caused by an unknown pathogen which is probably from the Picornavirus family of viruses. Mode of transmission is uncertain but genetic susceptibility may be involved. The incubation period appears to be an average of 15 years. The disease can be classified according to rate of progression: acute or subacute, slowly progressive and chronic. Death is common in the acute phase of the infection which can last from four days to four months.
  • Acute Vilyuisk Encephalomyelitis: A brain disease caused by an unknown pathogen which is probably from the Picornavirus family of viruses. Mode of transmission is uncertain but genetic susceptibility may be involved. The incubation period appears to be an average of 15 years. The disease can be classified according to rate of progression: acute or subacute, slowly progressive and chronic. Death is common in the acute phase of the infection which can last from four days to four months.
  • Acute concentration difficulty in adults: maybe to due to various causative agents
  • Acute concentration difficulty with headache-like symptoms: is mostly due to an organic cause
  • Acute difficulty concentrating at work: is mostly related to stress
  • Acute difficulty concentrating for long periods: concentrating difficulty which occurs only during particular periods
  • Acute episodes of Alzheimers-like symptoms: symptoms of Alzheimer's disease such as dementia can occur in bouts
  • Acute episodic concentration difficulty: concentrating difficulty which occurs only during particular periods
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: A rare complication of pregnancy that can occur in the second half of the pregnancy. It is characterized by excessive fatty deposits in the liver which can be fatal without prompt diagnosis and treatment which involves delivering the baby as soon as possible.
  • Acute feeling of having difficulty concentrating: maybe due to stress or an underlying neurological lesion
  • Acute forgetfulness: also known as dementia
  • Acute forgetfulness in pregnancy: Acute forgetfulness in pregnancy is the tendency to have difficulty remembering details over the short term.
  • Acute fulminant multiple sclerosis: Malignant Multiple Sclerosis, is a particularly aggressive form of the disease. Thankfully very rare, this highly aggressive form is defined by its swift and relentless decline to significant disability or even death, often within a few weeks or months after the onset of the initial attack. It is characterized by widespread and progressive cerebral white matter destruction or by severe pathological involvement of clinically strategic regions such as brainstem, resulting in bulbar paralysis.
  • Acute headache: Headache, or cephalgia, is defined as diffuse pain in various parts of the head, with the pain not confined to the area of distribution of a nerve.
  • Acute intermittent forgetfulness: Acute intermittent forgetfulness is difficulty with remembering that occurs off and on.
  • Acute intermittent forgetfulness in pregnancy: Acute intermittent forgetfulness in pregnancy is the tendency to have difficulty remembering details over the short term.
  • Acute intermittent porphyria: A rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by a disturbed porphyrin metabolism resulting in increased production of porphyrin or its precursors. Symptoms include abdominal pain, photosensitivity and neurological disturbances such as seizures, coma, hallucinations and respiratory paralysis.
  • Acute leukaemia of ambiguous lineage: A term used to describe a type of leukemia (a blood cancer) where the leukemic cells cannot be determined as myeloid or lymphoid or where both types of cells are present.
  • Acute megacaryoblastic leukemia: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. More specifically, it involves the rapid proliferation of megakaryoblasts (premature form of megakaryocytes).
  • Acute mountain sickness: A condition that occurs when an un-acclimatized person climbs to high altitudes.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 1: A form of blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of immature blood cells (blast cells).
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 2: A form of blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 3: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the rapid proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 3 involves the proliferation of promyelocytes.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 4: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the rapid proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 4 involves the rapid proliferation of myelocytes and monocytes.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 5: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 5 involves the rapid proliferation of monoblasts (immature precursors of monocytes) in particular.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 6: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the rapid proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 6 involves the proliferation of the immature precursors of red blood cells called erythroblasts.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 7: A rare form of malignant bone marrow cancer involving the proliferation of immature precursors of blood cells. Type 7 involves the rapid proliferation of megakaryoblasts (premature form of megakaryocytes) in particular.
  • Acute myelocytic leukemia: A malignant cancer of blood-forming tissues resulting in a high number of immature leukocytes. Symptoms include soft bleeding gums, anemia, fatigue, fever, dyspnea, moderate splenomegaly, joint and bone pains and frequent infections. Also called acute granulocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, splenomedullary leukemia, splenomyelogenous leukemia.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes related to alkylating agent: The use of alkylating agents to treat cancer can result in leukemia in some patients.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes related to topoisomerase type II inhibitor: The use of topoisomerase type II inhibitors to treat cancer can result in leukemia in some patients.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, therapy related: Certain cancer therapies can result in the development of leukemia in some patients. These therapies includes topoisomerase type II inhibitors and alkylating agents.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia: A form of rapidly progressing blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia, adult: A form of blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets.
  • Acute non lymphoblastic leukemia: A form of rapidly progressing blood cancer resulting in the rapid proliferation of granulocytes and monocytes, red blood cells and platelets. It is one of the most common forms of leukemia in adults but can occur in children.
  • Acute seasonal concentration difficulty: concentrating difficulty which occurs only during particular periods
  • Addiction symptoms: Symptoms related to addiction (physical or mental addiction)
  • Adducted thumb syndrome recessive form: A rare recessively inherited disorder characterized mainly by a small head, arthrogryposis (joint contractures), cleft palate and various other abnormalities.
  • Adducted thumbs -- arthrogryposis, Christian type: A rare recessively inherited disorder characterized mainly by a small head, arthrogryposis (joint contractures), cleft palate and various other abnormalities.
  • Adducted thumbs Dundar type: A rare disorder characterized by a thumb abnormality as well as mental retardation, foot defects and other anomalies.
  • Adenosine triphosphatase deficiency, anaemia due to: Deficiency of a chemical (adenosine triphosphate) resulting in anemia.
  • Adhd: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental and behavioral disorder characterized by behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, concentration difficulty, and other mental symptoms. Typically, ADHD and associated hyperactivity is known as a childhood disorder, although ADD/ADHD in adults is known to be under-diagnosed. It is distinguished from Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) which has a reduced focus on hyperactivity type symptoms.
  • Adhesive abuse: Adhesive abuse is the use of various inhalants for the purpose of achieving a "high". They are often used as a cheap, readily available alternative to street drugs but they can cause serious damage to the body. Adhesives include household glues, rubber cement and model aeroplane glue. These adhesives can be abused by sniffing them, spraying directly into the mouth, heating them and then inhaling them or injecting them directly into the body.
  • Adhesive addiction: Adhesive addiction refers to the compulsive need to abuse adhesives (e.g. sniffing them). Sufferers have withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stop the habit and feel unable to stop the habit despite knowing the harm it is causing their health. Aerosols are very damaging to the body and can readily result permanent brain damage and even death. Death can occur through chronic use and in rare cases can occur after one session of use. Children and teenagers are particular at risk for this type of addiction - it is readily available and users feel it gains them greater acceptance from their peers. Adhesives includes household glue, rubber cement and model airplane glue.
  • Adolescent depression: It isnot unusual for young people to experience "the blues" or feel low occasionally. Adolescence is always an unsettling time, with the many physical, emotional, psychological and social changes that accompany this stage of life.
  • Adrenal Cancer: A malignant cancer that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids. Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: A tumor that develops in the adrenal gland. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids.
  • Adrenal adenoma, familial: A benign tumor that develops in the adrenal gland and tends to run in families. The tumor may be nonfunctioning (does not produce hormones) or functioning in which case excessive levels of hormones can cause a variety of symptoms depending on which hormone is involved. Adrenal hormones made in the cortex (outer part of the gland) are aldosterone, corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . Adrenalin and noradrenalin are the hormones made in the medulla (central part of the adrenal gland).
  • Adrenal crisis: A potentially fatal condition where the adrenal cortex slows or stops functioning resulting in reduced glucocorticoids, decreased extracellular fluid volume and hyperkalemia. Symptoms include shock, coma, low blood pressure, weakness and loss of vasomotor tone. Also called addisonian crisis.
  • Adrenal gland hyperfunction: Excessive activity of the adrenal gland which causes excessive production of one or more adrenal hormones (aldosterone, corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The increased adrenal gland activity may be caused by an adrenal gland tumor or by excessive stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal gland hypofunction: Reduced adrenal gland activity due to damage to the adrenal gland or lack of stimulation of the gland. Pituitary hormones stimulate adrenal gland activity.
  • Adrenal hypofunction: A condition which is characterized by a lack of production of hormones from the adrenal gland.
  • Adrenal incidentaloma: A tumor of the adrenal gland that is discovered incidentally while performing an imaging examination for reasons other than an adrenal tumor. The tumor may be asymptomatic or can causes excessive secretion of adrenal hormones and resulting symptoms. The tumor may also be malignant or benign.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma: A condition which is characterized by malignancy which affects the adrenocortex.
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy: A rare hereditary metabolic disease that only occurs in male children and is characterized by adrenal atrophy and extensive cerebral demyelination causing progressive loss of mental functioning, aphasia, apraxia and sometimes blindness. The patient usually dies within 5 years.
  • Adult ADD: Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a mental disorder with symptoms such as hyperactivity, inattention, poor concentration, and other similar symptoms. The disorder is called "ADHD" in modern times; see more details about Adult ADHD.

    ADD can be undiagnosed into adulthood and the adult will have varying levels of dysfunction in their work, home and social lives. Affected adults have issues with as difficulting focusing on work tasks, boredom, distractedness, and so on. See symptoms of Adult ADHD.

  • Adult ADHD: Adult ADHD, (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder with an onset in childhood that continues into adulthood. Children do not simply grow out of ADHD, as is often believed. Just the opposite is commonly true - the symptoms of ADHD often get worse as a child grows into adulthood. The predominant behaviors of adult ADHD are the same as in children and include:
    • Inattentiveness
    • Hyperactivity
    • Impulsivity

    These behaviors result in difficulties with:

    • Concentration
    • Remaining focused on a task or activity
    • Controlling behavior
    • Hyperactivity or over-activity

    The symptoms of adult ADHD can be treated, but there currently is no cure for the disorder. Most people with ADHD can be successfully treated and lead normal, productive lives at home, work, school and with friends and family. The cause or causes of ADHD are not yet known, although researchers believe that genes may be one factor in the development of the disease. It is most likely that the disorder is the result of a combination of elements, including environmental factors, traumatic head injuries, nutrition, and social influences.

  • Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease: A condition which is a glycogen storage disease causing hepatosplenomegaly and failure to thrive
  • Advanced circadian rhythm disorder: A circadian rhythm sleep disorder where a person’s body clock runs faster than normal which results in a shortened sleep period with early awakening.
  • Aerosol abuse: Aerosol abuse is the use of various inhalants for the purpose of achieving a "high". They are often used as a cheap, readily available alternative to street drugs but they can cause serious damage to the body. Aerosols include air fresheners, hair spray, spray pain and deodorants. These aerosols can be abused by sniffing them, spraying directly into the mouth, heating them and then inhaling them or injecting them directly into the body.
  • Aerosol addiction: Aerosol addiction refers to the compulsive need to abuse aerosol (e.g. sniffing them). Sufferers have withdrawal symptoms when attempting to stop the habit and feel unable to stop the habit despite knowing the harm it is causing their health. Aerosols are very damaging to the body and can readily result permanent brain damage and even death. Death can occur through chronic use and in rare cases can occur after one session of use. Children and teenagers are particular at risk for this type of addiction - it is readily available and users feel it gains them greater acceptance from their peers. Aerosols includes spray pain, air freshener, deodorants and hair sprays.
  • Affective Disorders, Psychotic: A mental disorder involving mood disturbance and psychotic symptoms.
  • African Sleeping sickness: A disease caused by parasites (Trypanosome brucei gamiense or T. brucei rodesiense) and transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly which is found only in Africa. Causes symptoms such as fever, chills, headache, anemia, edema of hands and feet, enlarged lymph glands, lethargy, sleepiness, convulsions and coma. Also called African trypanosomiasis and sleeping sickness.
  • Age-related macular degeneration: Deterioration of the central field of vision.
  • Agenesis of the corpus callosum: Congenital absence of connective part of the brain.
  • Agenesis of the corpus callosum -- mental retardation -- coloboma -- micrognathia: A rare inherited disorder characterized by mental retardation, coloboma, small jaw and a brain anomaly.
  • Aging: The medical conditions from getting older.
  • Aging brain syndrome: Aging processes in the brain can cause various psychological and neurological symptoms.
  • Agnosia: is a loss of ability to recognize objects, persons, sounds, shapes, or smells while the specific sense is not defective nor is there any significant memory loss
  • Agnosia in children: Agnosia in children is a condition in which a child is unable to recognize and identify objects or persons.
  • Aguecheek disease: Patients with liver disease who develop symptoms of dementia after eating lots of protein (meat has a high protein level) due to an intolerance to the nitrogenous compounds in the protein.
  • Agyria pachygyria polymicrogyria: A very rare disorder characterized by abnormal brain development.
  • Agyria-pachygyria type 1: Abnormal brain development where the brain fails to develop normally during the fetal stage.
  • Aicardi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder where the structure connecting the two halves of the brain fails to develop which results in seizures and eye abnormalities .
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome: A rare inherited progressive disease that affects the brain and immune system.
  • Air embolism: A condition where an air bubble enters the cardiovascular system (via injection, intravenous therapy, surgery or puncture wound) and obstructs the blood flow.
  • Akesson syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by excessive skin folds and furrows on the scalp, mental retardation the failure of the thyroid to develop.
  • Al Gazali Aziz Salem syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by heart disease, short stature and a webbed neck.
  • Al Gazali Sabrinathan Nair syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by bone and eye problems, seizures and mental retardation.
  • Al Murrah-induced lead poisoning: Al Murrah is a folk remedy used mainly by Saudi Arabian people to treat problems such as stomach pain, diarrhea and colic. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Alagille syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the liver and characterized by the absence of some or all of the liver bile ducts that transport bile within the liver.
  • Alarcon-induced lead poisoning: Alarcon is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Albayaidle-induced lead poisoning: Albayaidle is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican and Central American people to treat digestive or stomach problems such as vomiting and colic. It is also used to treat apathy and lethargy. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Albayalde-induced lead poisoning: Albayalde is a folk remedy used mainly by Mexican and Central American people to treat digestive or stomach problems such as vomiting and colic. It is also used to treat apathy and lethargy. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Albers-Schonberg disease -- malignant recessive form: A rare disorder characterized primarily by increased bone density as old bone is not resorbed and replaced with new bone - is also known as marble bone disease. The malignant infantile form is the most severe form of this disorder and death usually occurs in the first decade of life.
  • Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy: A rare genetic disorder where the body fails to recognize and respond to the parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid hormone is involved in controlling the blood levels of calcium and phosphate.
  • Alcohol Withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when alcohol consumption is discontinued or reduced. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Alcohol abuse: Excessive alcohol as a symptom of other conditions
  • Alcohol drinking: The consumption of a drink containing alcohol. Alcohol consumption can cause varying degrees of impairment depending on the amount consumed. Consuming very large amounts of alcohol can lead to death.
  • Alcohol intoxication: excess intake of alcohol can lead to serious consequences
  • Alcohol use: Use of alcohol (as a symptom)
  • Alcohol-Induced Disorders: Disorders caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The symptoms are variable depending on the disorder involved. Some of the disorders are: alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, alcohol intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, alcohol intoxication delirium, alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol-induced persisting dementia, alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder, alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, alcohol-induced mood disorder, alcohol-induced anxiety disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, alcohol-induced sleep disorder, liver damage, liver cancer and esophageal cancer.
  • Alcohol-induced pseudo-Cushing syndrome: The excessive consumption of alcohol can result in symptoms similar to a condition called Cushing's syndrome. When alcohol consumption is stopped, symptoms regress.
  • Alcoholic Neuropathy: Neurological changes due to nerve damage from long-term alcohol consumption
  • Alcoholism: High dependence on excessive amounts of alcohol.
  • Aldred syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by the presence of mental retardation and retinitis pigmentosa the starts earlier than normal. Female carriers tend to have only vision symptoms without mental retardation.
  • Alertness: A state of function in which someone is watchfull
  • Alexander Syndrome: Brain myelin disorder causing mental degeneration.
  • Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome: A very rare inherited disorder characterized primarilty by mental retardation.
  • Allergic encephalomyelitis: An autoimmune brain and spinal cord disease that can be induced in laboratory animals in experimental settings. The disease involves inflammation and degeneration of nerve myelin sheaths and it may be acute or chronic.
  • Allergic irritability syndrome: Symptoms such as irritability and poor concentration associated with nose, ear and sinus symptoms caused by allergies such as hayfever.
  • Alopecia mental retardation hypogonadism: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, abnormal gonad functioning and a total lack of hair at birth. After childhood, sparse hair growth may occur.
  • Alopecia mental retardation syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized primarily by a lack of hair and mental retardation.
  • Alopecia, epilepsy, oligophrenia syndrome of Moynahan: A rare condition characterized by alopecia, epilepsy, mental retardation and a small head.
  • Alopecia, epilepsy, pyorrhea, mental subnormality: A rare syndrome characterized by alopecia, epilepsy, mental retardation and pus-producing gum and tooth inflammations.
  • Alopecia, mental retardation and neurological problems: A rare, newly described syndrome characterized by baldness, mental retardation and neurological problems.
  • Alopecia-contractures-dwarfism-mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized primarily by mental retardation, short stature, lack of hair and contractures.
  • Alpers Syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by liver disease, seizures and progressive, episodic psychomotor retardation.
  • Alpha-Mannosidosis: A rare condition which is characterized by a lysosomal storage defect.
  • Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase deficiency: A metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase which results in high levels of oxoglutaric acid in the urine as well as other severe symptoms.
  • Alpha-mannosidosis type II: A rare inherited metabolic disorder involving a deficiency of an enzyme (alpha-mannosidosase) which results in the accumulation of certain chemicals in the body which leads to progressive damage. This form of the condition is less severe than type I (infantile form).
  • Alpha-mannosidosis, adult-onset form:
  • Alpine syndrome: A condition that occurs in some people who go to low altitude winter resorts (1500 metres). It tends to mostly affect people who have been fasting when they arrive.
  • Alport Syndrome: A rare hereditary disorder involving the progressive deterioration of parts of the kidney resulting in chronic kidney disease.
  • Alport syndrome -- mental retardation -- midface hypoplasia -- elliptocytosis: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of Alport syndrome, mental retardation, underdeveloped midface and a blood abnormality (elliptocytosis). Alport syndrome is an inherited condition involving progressive kidney damage and hearing loss.
  • Altered mental state: A change in the normal mental state of a person.
  • Altered mental status: linked to confusion, delirium, obtundation, stupor, and coma
  • Alternating Hemiplegia: Episodes of one-sided paralysis.
  • Aluminium poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to aluminium.
  • Aluminium toxicity: High body levels of aluminium resulting in symptoms. Usually occurs in patients with renal impairment.
  • Alzheimer disease 10: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 10 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Alzheimer disease 12: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 12 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 8p12-q22.
  • Alzheimer disease 13: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 14: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q25. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 15: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q22-q24. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 16: Alzheimer disease 16 (late-onset) is a form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome Xq21.3. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 2, late-onset: Alzheimer disease 2 (late-onset) is a form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 19q13.2. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 3, (early-onset Alzheimer disease): Alzheimer disease 3 is an early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease 5: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 5 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 12p11.
  • Alzheimer disease 6: A genetic form of Alzheimer's. Type 6 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10q24.
  • Alzheimer disease 7: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 7 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 10p13.
  • Alzheimer disease 8: An inherited form of Alzheimer's. Type 8 is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 20p.
  • Alzheimer disease 9: A genetic form of Alzheimer's. Type 9 has a late onset and is caused by a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.2.
  • Alzheimer disease type 1: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. Type 1 has an early onset (starts before the age of 65). It is caused by mutations in the APP gene which results in the production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer disease type 2: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. Type 2 has a late onset - starts after the age of 65. It is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic mutations and environmental and lifestyle factors. The condition occurs when there is excessive production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer disease type 4: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. Type 4 has an early onset (starts before the age of 65). It is caused by mutations in the PSEN2 gene which results in the production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer disease, early-onset, with cerebral amyloid angiopathy: An early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 21q21. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. The familial form is very rare and is completely inherited and has an early onset (usually in the 4th decade). It occurs when there is excessive production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 1: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 21q. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 11: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 9p22.1. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 3, with spastic paraparesis and apraxia: This form of Alzheimer's is an early-onset form of Alzheimer's that is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3. It is characterized by features which are atypical for Alzheimer's - spastic paraparesis which occurs before the dementia symptoms and apraxia. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 3, with spastic paraparesis and unusual plaques: This form of Alzheimer's is an early-onset form of Alzheimer's that is linked to a defect on chromosome 14q24.3. It is characterized by features which are atypical for Alzheimer's - spastic paraparesis which occurs before the dementia symptoms and unusual plaques in the brain. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, 4: An inherited form of Alzheimer's disease that is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q31-q42. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder involving degeneration of the brain. The disease mainly affects brain functions involving thinking, memory, personality and behaviour.
  • Alzheimer disease, familial, type 3: A degenerative brain disease characterized primarily by progressive dementia. Type 3 has an early onset (starts before the age of 65). It is caused by mutations in the PSEN1 gene which results in the production of a toxic protein (amyloid beta peptide) in the brain which collects into clumps (amyloid plaques) in the brain. These plaques cause damage to nerve cells in the brain.
  • Alzheimer's disease: A progressive degenerative disease of the brain of unknown cause
  • Alzheimer's disease without Neurofibrillary tangles: A form of Alzheimer's that involves only plaques and no neurofibrillary tangles. This form tends to have an older age of onset and death and a shorter disease duration.
  • Alzheimer's-like symptoms: symptoms such as dementia
  • Alzheimers-like concentration difficulty: maybe to due to various causative agents
  • Alzheimers-like confusion symptoms: unalterable confusion state
  • Alzheimers-like memory loss: also known as dementia
  • Ambien overdose: Ambien is a prescription drug mainly used to treat insomnia. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Ambien withdrawal: Symptoms that occur when Ambien (Zolpidem) use is discontinued or reduced. Ambien is a sedative hypnotic drug. Symptoms may vary depending on the level of dependence.
  • Amelo-cerebro-hypohidrotic syndrome: A rare syndrome involving degeneration of the central nervous system, seizures and abnormal tooth development.
  • Aminoacidopathies: Any of a group of inborn errors of metabolism which results in the build up in the body of one or more amino acids in the blood and/or urine. The range and severity of symptoms is hugely variable.
  • Amish brittle hair syndrome: A rare inherited condition characterized by brittle hair, mental and physical impairment, decreased fertility and short stature.
  • Amnesia: A disorder in which the ability to store and recall new information, as well as past information may be lost.
  • Amnesic disorder: Any condition which affects ones memory
  • Amnesic shellfish poisoning: Rare shellfish poisoning sometimes causing amnesia.
  • Amnestic disorder: Memory decline disorder
  • Amotivational syndrome: An impaired desire to engage in normal social activities and situations due to external factors such as relationships, substance or events.
  • Amphetamine abuse: Use of the stimulant drugs known as amphetamines or "speed"
  • Ampola syndrome: A rare genetic disease characterized primarily by mental retardation, facial anomalies, short stature, seizures and finger and toe abnormalities.
  • Amyloid angiopathy: A blood vessel disorder caused by abnormal amyloid deposits in the blood vessel walls of the brain. The deposits can cause the blood vessel to become weak and rupture resulting in intracranial bleeding. Despite the potentially serious consequences the disorder is often asymptomatic until old age.
  • Amyloidosis VI: Amyloidosis involves the abnormal deposit of a substance called amyloid in various parts of the body. In the Icelandic type, the amyloid deposits affect the brain blood vessels and cause hemorrhages.
  • Amyloidosis VII: Amyloidosis involves the abnormal deposit of a substance called amyloid in various parts of the body. In the Ohio type, the amyloid deposits in the leptomeningeal blood vessels, brainstem, spinal cord and eye causing central nervous system dysfunction, brain hemorrhages as well as vision impairment.
  • Amyloidosis of gingiva and conjunctiva mental retardation: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation and abnormal amyloid deposits in the gums and conjunctiva of the eye.
  • Amyloidosis, cerebroarterial, hereditary, Iowa type: An inherited form of amyloidosis caused by a defect in the APP gene on chromosome 21q21. Amyloidosis involves the abnormal deposit of a substance called amyloid in various parts of the body. In this form, the deposits affect the brain arteries.
  • Amyloidosis, cerebroarterial, hereditary, Italian type: Amyloidosis involves the abnormal deposit of a substance called amyloid in various parts of the body. In the Italian type, the amyloid deposits affect the brain blood vessels and cause hemorrhages.
  • Amyloidosis, oculoleptomeningeal: Amyloidosis involves the abnormal deposit of a substance called amyloid in various parts of the body. In this particular type, the amyloid deposits in the leptomeningeal blood vessels, brainstem, spinal cord and eye causing central nervous system dysfunction, brain hemorrhages and vision impairment.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia complex: A nerve degeneration disorder that involves progressive dementia and parkinsonism which ultimately leads to death.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex 2: A nerve degeneration disorder that involves progressive dementia and parkinsonism which ultimately leads to death.
  • Anauxetic dysplasia: A rare disorder characterized by abnormal skeletal and spinal development.
  • Anemia: Reduced red blood cells in the blood
  • Anemia of pregnancy: Anemia of pregnancy is anemia that occurs during pregnancy. Women's bodies have a greater demand for iron during pregnancy and if intake is not sufficient, anemia can result. Anemia in pregnant women can lead to infant problems such as premature birth, fetal death, retarded growth and other problems.
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: A lack of fully functioning red blood cells due to a deficiency of iron. The iron allows the body to make hemoglobin in red blood cells which in turn allows the red blood cell to carry oxygen.
  • Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts: A bone marrow disease which results in insufficient red blood cells in the blood (anemia). The prognosis is poor with death usually occurring within a couple of years. There are two types: type 1 refers to cases where the level of blasts is less than 10% and type 2 refers to cases where the level of blasts is 10-20%. When too many immature blood cells (blasts) are produced by the bone marrow, the condition may progress to acute myeloid leukemia - occurs in about a quarter of cases in type 1 and a third of cases in type 2.
  • Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts, type 1: A bone marrow disease which results in insufficient red blood cells in the blood (anemia). The prognosis is poor with death usually occurring within a couple of years. Type 1 refers to cases where the level of blasts is less than 10% and type 2 refers to cases where the level of blasts is 10-20%. When too many immature blood cells (blasts) are produced by the bone marrow, the condition may progress to acute myeloid leukemia - occurs in about a quarter of cases in type 1.
  • Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts, type 2: A bone marrow disease which results in insufficient red blood cells in the blood (anemia). The prognosis is poor with death usually occurring within a couple of years. Type 1 refers to cases where the level of blasts is less than 10% and type 2 refers to cases where the level of blasts is 10-20%. When too many immature blood cells (blasts) are produced by the bone marrow, the condition may progress to acute myeloid leukemia - occurs in about a third of cases in type 2.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 1: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 1 is caused by a defect on chromosome 7q11.2.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 10: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 10 is caused by a defect on chromosome 8q12.1.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 2: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 2 is caused by a defect on chromosome 19q13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 3: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 3 is caused by a defect on chromosome 1p36.13-p34.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 4: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 4 is caused by a defect on chromosome 5p15.2-14.3.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 5: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 5 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2p13.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 6: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are now six different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases an individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 6 is caused by a defect on chromosome 9p21.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 7: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 7 is caused by a defect on chromosome 11q24-q25.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 8: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 8 is caused by a defect on chromosome 14q23.
  • Aneurysm, intracranial berry, 9: A bulge in a blood vessel in the brain. The bulge can rupture causing a stroke. They usually form as a result of high blood pressure and weak blood vessel walls in the brain. There are five different subtypes of intracranial berry aneurysms with each one caused by a defect in different gene. The defective gene increases and individuals risk for developing intracranial berry aneurysms. Type 9 is caused by a defect on chromosome 2q33.1.
  • Angelman syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a puppet-like gait, fits of laughter and characteristic facial features.
  • Angelman-Like Syndrome, X-linked: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, mutism, facial anomalies, epilepsy and weak eye muscles. Males tended to have severe mental retardation whereas female carriers had mild or no mental retardation. Patients do eventually walk but then often lose this ability by the age of 10 years. Female carriers tend to have mild symptoms and males have severe symptoms - symptoms are variable to some degree.
  • Angiokeratoma -- mental retardation -- coarse face: A rare inherited genetic syndrome characterized by mental retardation, coarse facial features and capillary hemangiomas.
  • Angiomatosis, diffuse corticomeningeal, of Divry and Van Bogaert: A rare condition characterized by diffuse sclerosis and clusters of capillaries in parts of the brain as well as a marbled appearance to the skin.
  • Aniridia -- mental retardation syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation and absent irises.
  • Aniridia -- ptosis -- mental retardation -- obesity, familial: A rare familial disorder characterized by eye abnormalities, mental retardation and obesity.
  • Aniridia -- renal agenesis -- psychomotor retardation: A rare genetic disorder characterized by missing irises of the eye, kidney developmental problems and mental retardation.
  • Aniridia III: A genetic disorder where part or all of the iris of one or both eyes is missing. The iris is the colored part of the eye. There are four forms of the disease: AN-1, AN-II, AN-III and AN-IV. AN-III is associated with mental retardation.
  • Aniridia cerebellar ataxia mental deficiency: A rare inherited disorder characterized by a partial absence of the iris, mental retardation and impaired coordination of voluntary movements.
  • Aniridia ptosis mental retardation obesity familial type: A rare familial disorder characterized by eye abnormalities, mental retardation and obesity.
  • Anophthalmia -- hand and foot defects -- mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, hand and foot defects and absent eyes.
  • Anophthalmia -- heart and pulmonary anomalies -- intellectual deficit: A rare disorder characterized by absent eyes, heart and lung anomalies and mental retardation.
  • Anophthalmia -- hypothalamo-pituitary insufficiency: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by small or absent eyes and malformations of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • Anophthalmia -- hypyothalamo-pituitary insufficiency: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by small or absent eyes and malformations of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
  • Anophthalmos with limb anomalies: A rare disorder characterized by absent eyes
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Anoxemia: Lack of oxygen in the blood.
  • Anoxia: A condition marked by a lack of oxygen.
  • Ansell-Bywaters-Elderking syndrome: A rare familial syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, rash, eye inflammation and joint disease.
  • Anti-Social Personality Disorder: A psychiatric condition characterized by chronic behavioral and social problems which often involves criminal behaviour.
  • Anton-Vogt syndrome: A congenital disorder where a brain anomaly results in involuntary purposeless movements (choreathetosis). Excitement and activity can make symptoms worse.
  • Anxiety: Excessive worry, anxiety, or fear.
  • Anxiety disorder: A mental condition that is characterized by anxiety and avoidance behaviours
  • Aorta-pulmonary artery fistula: An abnormal opening or connection between the aorta and the main pulmonary artery. It can occur through a traumatic penetrating injury or may be a complication of surgery. Severe cases can lead to heart failure.
  • Aortic arch anomaly with peculiar facies and mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, characteristic facial anomalies and abnormal position of the aorta.
  • Aortic supravalvular stenosis: A rare congenital condition involving increased intestinal calcium absorption and characterized by development delay, distinctive facial features, small nails and short stature.
  • Apallic syndrome: A persistent vegetative state caused by brain damage.
  • Apert syndrome: A rare condition characterized by abnormalities in the appearance of the face and head as well as finger and toe abnormalities. The bones of the skull fuse together too early which prevents it from growing normally. Various toes and fingers may be fused together.
  • Aphasia: inability to produce and comprehend language
  • Aplastic anemia: A blood disorder where the bone marrow produces insufficient new blood cells.
  • Apnea: Periods of absence of breathing
  • Appian-Plutarch syndrome: Symptoms caused by excessive doses of a drug called atropine.
  • Apraxia, oculomotor, Cogan type: A rare inherited condition where the person is unable to move eyes horizontally making it difficult to follow objects.
  • Arachnodactyly -- ataxia -- cataract -- aminoaciduria -- mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by congenital cataracts, ataxia, mental retardation, abnormal amino acid metabolism and long, thin fingers.
  • Arachnodactyly -- mental retardation -- dysmorphism: A very rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, unusual facial features and long, thin fingers and toes.
  • Arachnoid Cysts: A rare disorder involving a fluid-filled cysts on the arachnoid membrane which is one of the thin layers of tissue that form a membrane which covers the spinal cord and brain. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the size and location of the cyst.
  • Arachnoiditis: A progressive disorder where the arachnoid membrane becomes inflamed and the brain and spinal cord may also become inflamed.
  • Arakawa syndrome 1: An inherited metabolic disorder where an enzyme deficiency (glutamate formiminotrransferase) causes mental and physical retardation and degeneration of brain tissue.
  • Arbovirosis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus. The virus is transmitted by arthropods such as insects and ticks. Examples of arboviruses include Yellow Fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The symptoms may vary depending on the type of virus involved. The infection can lead to life-threatening brain inflammation.
  • Arena syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by mental retardation, spastic paraplegia and iron deposits in part of the brain that controls movement (basal ganglia).
  • Arginase deficiency: A very rare urea cycle disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme (arginase) needed to convert ammonia to the urea which can then be removed in the urine. The condition leads to excess build-up of ammonia in the body which is toxic to the nervous system.
  • Arginine-glycine amidinotransferase deficiency: A rare enzyme deficiency which manifests as mental retardation, developmental delay and speech problemss
  • Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, late onset: A rare inherited urea cycle disorder caused by lack of enzymes (argininosuccinase lyase) needed to turn ammonia into urea resulting in excess ammonia in the body. The late onset form of the condition tends to start later in life as there is some level of activity by the defective enzyme. The condition tends to be less severe and can be triggered by a change in diet, illness or some other stress on the body.
  • Argininosuccinase lyase deficiency, neonatal: A rare inherited urea cycle disorder caused by lack of enzymes (argininosuccinase lyase) needed to turn ammonia into urea resulting in excess ammonia in the body. The neonatal form of the condition can result in death or severe complications if not treated early enough.
  • Arima syndrome: A rare disorder characterized mainly by eye and brain abnormalities.
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 2: A rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. The extent of the deformity is greater in type 2 than type 1 and hence the symptoms are more severe and are often associated with a myelomeningocele (opening of the spine and spinal cord).
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation type 4: Arnold-Chiari malformation is a rare malformation where the base of the brain enters into the upper spinal canal. Type 4 actually involves a lack of development of a portion of the base of the brain (cerebellum). The prognosis is very poor with death often occurring during infancy.
  • Arterial occlusive disease, progressive -- hypertension -- heart defects -- bone fragility -- brachysyndactyly: A rare syndrome characterized by narrowing or blockage of a number of arteries (in the kidneys, abdomen, brain and heart) as well as fragile bones, heart defects and finger abnormalities. Fractures and high blood pressure often start during the first years of life.
  • Arteriovenous Malformation: Birth defect of a tangle of veins and arteries.
  • Arthritis -- short stature -- deafness: A very rare syndrome characterized by arthritis, short stature, deafness and numerous other abnormalities.
  • Arthrogryposis -- epileptic seizures -- migrational brain disorder: A rare disorder characterized by congenital joint contractures, epileptic seizures and brain development abnormalities. It can be caused by fetal exposure to alcohol or chemical products.
  • Arthrogryposis IUGR thoracic dystrophy: A very rare syndrome characterized by congenital joint contractures, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and ribcage abnormalities.
  • Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal, X-linked: A rare condition characterized by the presence of contractures at birth as well as various other anomalies. The condition is X-linked.
  • Arthrogryposis, congenital -- myopathic seizures: A rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation and muscle problems.
  • Aspartylglucosaminidase deficiency: A rare glycoprotein metabolism disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called aspartylglucosaminidase. Patients tend to develop normally during the first few years of life and development continues slowly until adolescence when mental retardation becomes progressively worse.
  • Aspartylglucosaminuria: A rare glycoprotein metabolism disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called aspartylglucosaminidase. Patients tend to develop normally during the first few years of life and development continues slowly until adolescence when mental retardation becomes progressively worse.
  • Aspartylglycosaminuria: A rare glycoprotein metabolism disorder caused by a deficiency of an enzyme called aspartylglucosaminidase. Patients tend to develop normally during the first few years of life and development continues slowly until adolescence when mental retardation becomes progressively worse.
  • Asperger Syndrome, Susceptibility to, 1: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 3q25-q27.
  • Asperger Syndrome, Susceptibility to, 2: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p13.
  • Asperger Syndrome, Susceptibility to, 3: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q21-q22.
  • Asperger Syndrome, X-linked, Susceptibility to, 1: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. X-linked type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome Xq13.
  • Asperger Syndrome, X-linked, Susceptibility to, 2: Asperger Syndrome is considered to be a mild form of autism and manifests in symptoms such as problems with social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns and interests. Language and cognition skills are considerable less affected than in autism. Researchers have discovered that there are a number genetic anomalies linked to an increased risk of developing Asperger Syndrome. X-linked type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome Xp22.3.
  • Asperger syndrome: A neuropsychiatric disorder mainly involving the inability to understand and becoming involved in social interaction.
  • Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy: A rare genetic disorder characterized by short limbs, underdeveloped iliac wings and a narrow rigid thoracic cage that often results in asphyxiation.
  • Ataxia -- apraxia -- mental retardation, X-linked: A rare X-linked syndrome characterized mainly by ataxia, apraxia and mental retardation. The symptoms are generally nonprogressive.
  • Ataxia -- diabetes -- goiter -- gonadal insufficiency: A rare disorder characterized by diabetes, goiter, insufficient hormone production by the gonads and progressive ataxia.
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia: A rare inherited childhood disorder involving progressive degeneration of the nervous system.
  • Ataxia deafness reardon type: A rare syndrome observed in a Kuwati family characterized by ataxia, deafness and mental retardation.
  • Ataxia tapetoretinal degeneration: Conditions involving incoordination and an eye anomaly.
  • Ataxia, Hereditary, Autosomal Dominant: A group of rare, dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorder involving degeneration of the brain and spinal cord. The range, progression and severity of symptoms can vary quite considerably depending on the genetic defect involved.
  • Athabaskan brainstem dysgenesis: A rare neurological disorder caused by abnormal brainstem development and function.
  • Atherosclerosis, premature -- deafness -- diabetes mellitus -- photomyoclonus -- nephropathy -- degenerative neurologic disease: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Atherosclerosis- deafness -- diabetes -- epilepsy -- nephropathy: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Ativan overdose: Ativan is a prescription drug mainly used to treat anxiety. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Atkin-Flatiz syndrome: A rare, X-linked syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation and facial anomalies.
  • Atlantic mussel food poisoning: Atlantic mussels contain a toxin called domoic acid which can affect nerve tissue. The mussels are found in the North Atlantic and Pacific coast and the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Atrichia -- mental and growth delay: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by mental retardation, growth delay and the absence of hair.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Behavioral disorder with hyperactivity and/or inattention.
  • Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A condition characterized by attention problems and disruptive behavior. The condition is considered to be a grouping of three other disorders - oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 1: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16p13.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 2: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p11.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 3: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6q12.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 4: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 5p13.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 5: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q21.1.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 6: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q12.11.
  • Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Susceptibility to, 7: ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral developmental disorder that usually occurs in childhood and can continue into adulthood. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to ADHD. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q21.
  • Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause.
  • Atypical pyridoxine-dependent seizures: A form of epilepsy which responds to anticonvulsant therapy for only a period of time but are able to be managed by pyridoxine supplementation after a few months. Seizures may disappear for a few months even after pyridoxine supplementation is ceased.
  • Auditory Processing Disorder: Failure of the brain to correctly process sound.
  • Auditory hallucinations: An auditory perception that has no basis on external stimulation.
  • Auditory perceptual disorder: A hearing disorder where the brain is unable to properly process or interpret auditory information it receives from the hearing organs.
  • Aughton syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by small eyes, cleft palate, mental retardation and dextrocardia (heart located on right side of chest instead of left).
  • Aural atresia -- multiple congenital anomalies -- mental retardation: A rare syndrome characterized by a number of malformations as well as mental retardation.
  • Auralcephalosyndactyly: A very rare syndrome characterized by ear abnormalities, premature fusion of skull bones and syndactyly (fusion of digits).
  • Autism: Childhood mental condition with social and communication difficulties.
  • Autism, Susceptibility to, 15: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 15 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q35-q36.
  • Autism, X-linked, susceptibility to, 1: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. X-Linked type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome Xq13.
  • Autism, X-linked, susceptibility to, 2: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. X-Linked type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome Xp22.3.
  • Autism, X-linked, susceptibility to, 3: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. X-Linked type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome Xp22.3.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 1: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q22.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 10: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 10 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q36.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 11: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 11 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q24.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 12: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 12 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 21p13-q11.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 13: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 13 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 12q14.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 14: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 14 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 16p11.2.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 3: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 13q14.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 4: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 15q11.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 5: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 2q.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 6: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 17q11.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 7: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 7 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 17q21.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 8: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 8 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 3q25-q27.
  • Autism, susceptibility to, 9: A developmental disorder characterized by an impaired ability to communicate with or relate to people or the environment around them and repetitive behavior. The severity of the disorder is variable. Researchers have discovered a number of genetic abnormalities linked to an increased susceptibility of developing autism. Type 9 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 7q31.
  • Autistic conditions: Medical conditions related to autism or autism spectrum disorders.
  • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is characterized by an abnormal immune system response which leads to the destruction of red blood cells and hence anemia. The severity of the condition varies depending on the underlying cause e.g. cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, HIV and lupus. The condition may develop gradually or occur suddenly and cause serious symptoms.
  • Autoimmune Hepatitis: Liver inflammation caused due to autoimmune processes where the body's immune system attacks the liver.
  • Autoimmune limbic encephalitis: Limbic encephalitis is an inflammation of the limbic system which is the part of the brain responsible for basic autonomic functions. In the paraneoplastic type, the inflammation is caused by autoimmune processes.
  • Autoimmune thyroid diseases: Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland.
  • Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, type 11:
  • Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped or absent teeth and craniofacial and eye abnormalities. The range of symptoms that can occur is somewhat variable.
  • Axial mesodermal dysplasia spectrum: A variable range of defects that occur during fetal development. The defect occurs at a cellular level and affects the way various parts of the body develop.
  • Azarcon-induced lead poisoning: Azarcon is a lead-containing tetraoxide salt used mainly by Mexican people to treat digestive or stomach problems including indigestion and diarrhea. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Azotemia, familial: A rare condition where high serum urea level is inherited in a familial pattern. The high level of urea occurs despite normal kidney function.
  • BBB syndrome, X-linked: A rare genetic disorder characterized by defects along the midline of the body. The type and severity of symptoms can vary considerably. There are two subtypes of the disorder: type I is inherited in a X-linked manner and type II is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Females with type I tend to have few if any symptoms - often the only symptom is wide-set eyes.
  • BIDS syndrome: A rare inherited condition characterized by brittle hair (B), mental and physical impairment (I), decreased fertility (D) and short stature (S).
  • BOD syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by small nails, digital abnormalities (mainly of the fifth finger and toe) and various facial anomalies.
  • Ba Bow Sen-induced lead poisoning: Ba Bow Sen is a folk remedy used mainly by Chinese people to treat childhood hyperactivity and to alleviate nightmares. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Back tumour: The presence of tumour growth in the vertebra, whether due to primary malignancies e.g. leukaemic or myeloma infiltration of the bone marrow, or due to secondary metastases from another site e.g. lung or breast.
  • Bacterial toxic-shock syndrome: A very rare, potentially fatal infection caused by toxins produced by bacteria, especially bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. The condition is often associated with tampon use but can originate from other sources.
  • Balance symptoms: Problems with balance or vertigo
  • Bali goli-induced lead poisoning: Bali goli (flat black bean) is a folk remedy used mainly by Indian and Asian people to treat intestinal problems. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Balint's syndrome: A condition involving a variety of visual symptoms such as optic ataxia, agnosia and nystagmus.
  • Balo disease: A rare neurological disorder where the protective sheath around brain nerve fibres are progressively destroyed. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the affected brain area.
  • Balo's concentric sclerosis: Demyelination of the brain producing a variety of symptoms depending on the area of the brain affected.
  • Balo's concentric sclerosis (rare variant of MS): Balo's Concentric Sclerosis is a rare demyelinating disorder characterized pathologically by concentric rings of alternating demyelinated and relatively myelin preserved white matter. The pathogenesis of the concentric lesion may be explained by periodic suppression of demyelination in a rapidly expanding area of inflammation, allowing remyelination or only transient incomplete demyelination to occur.
  • Bamforth syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of an abnormal opening in the roof of the mouth and reduced thyroid functioning.
  • Baneberry poisoning: Baneberries are toxic and can cause a skin reaction on contact or various poisoning symptoms.
  • Bangstad syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by diabetes, goiter, insufficient hormone production by the gonads and progressive ataxia.
  • Bannayan-Zonana syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal polyposis, pigmentation of penis and benign tumor-like growths.
  • Baraitser burn fixen syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by skeletal abnormalities, a skin disorder and an expressionless face.
  • Baraitser-Rodeck-Garner syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by mental retardation, premature fusion of skull bones, kidney anomalies, seizures and facial anomalies.
  • Baraitser-Winter syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by a structural eye defect, droopy eyelids and mental retardation.
  • Barbiturate abuse: Abuse of barbiturate medications
  • Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 1: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 1 is caused by a defect in chromosome 11q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 10: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 10 is caused by a defect in chromosome 12q.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 11: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 11 is caused by a defect in chromosome 9q33.1.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 12: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 12 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 2 is caused by a defect in chromosome 16q21.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 3: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 3 is caused by a defect in chromosome 3p12-q13.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 4: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 4 is caused by a defect in chromosome 15q22.3.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 5: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 5 is caused by a defect in chromosome 2q31.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 6: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 6 is caused by a defect in chromosome 20p12.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 7: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 7 is caused by a defect in chromosome 4q27.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 8: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 8 is caused by a defect in chromosome 14q32.11.
  • Bardet-Biedl syndrome, type 9: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and retinal pigmentation as well as other abnormalities. Type 9 is caused by a defect in chromosome 7p14.
  • Bartonella infections: Infection with bacteria from the Bartonella genus of bacteria. Specific bacteria from within this group are Bartonella bacilliforms (Oroya fever), Bartonella Heneslae (Cat-scratch disease). Other conditions caused by this bacteria are endocarditis, bacteremia and angiomatosis. Symptoms vary depending on the type of bacteria involved and the severity of the infection - immunocompromised patients face greater risk of severe infection.
  • Bartsocas Papa syndrome: A rare condition characterized by webbing of skin as well as various other physical and mental abnormalities.
  • Bartter Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder of kidney metabolism characterized by reduced blood acidity and low potassium levels.
  • Bartter Syndrome type 4: Bartter syndrome is a rare disorder where abnormal kidney metabolism results in low blood acidity an potassium levels. Type 4 also involves sensorineural deafness.
  • Bartter Syndrome type 4A: Bartter syndrome is a rare disorder where abnormal kidney metabolism results in low blood acidity an potassium levels. Type 4A also involves sensorineural deafness.
  • Bartter Syndrome type 4B: Bartter syndrome is a rare disorder where abnormal kidney metabolism results in low blood acidity an potassium levels. Type 4B also involves sensorineural deafness.
  • Bartter's syndrome, antenatal type 1: A rare genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. A defect in the NKCC2 gene impairs the functioning of the Na-Cl cotransporter and leads to electrolyte imbalance. The rate of death is high prior to diagnosis.
  • Bartters syndrome, antenatal , type 2: A rare genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. A defect in the ROMK gene impairs the ATP-regulated potassium channel functioning and leads to electrolyte imbalance.
  • Basal ganglia disease, biotin-responsive: A neurological disease that affects the part of the brain called the basal ganglia. The disease responds well to biotin administration but relapses within a month if the biotin is stopped. If the condition is diagnosed late or there are recurring episodes, the patient may suffer ongoing symptoms such as paraparesis, mild mental retardation or dystonia.
  • Basilar artery insufficiency syndrome: A range of symptoms caused by impaired blood flow through the basilar artery. The symptoms may come and go according to variation in blood flow through the basilar artery. The blood flow may be impaired by such things as thrombosis, narrowed artery and blood vessel spasms. Symptoms vary depending on the exact location and extent of the artery involvement as well as whether the onset is gradual or sudden.
  • Basilar artery migraine: Basilar migraine (BM), also known as Bickerstaff syndrome, consists of headache accompanied by dizziness, ataxia, tinnitus, decreased hearing, nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, diplopia, loss of balance, bilateral paresthesias or paresis, altered consciousness, syncope, and sometimes loss of consciousness.
  • Battaglia Neri syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by mental retardation, small head, epilepsy, coarse facial features and skeletal anomalies. Only two reported cases of this syndrome.
  • Batten Disease: Rare childhood genetic degenerative nerve system disease.
  • Bd syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of mental retardation, small eyes and a movement disorder.
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: An inherited disorder marked by gigantism, exomphalos and macroglossia. Also called EMG syndrome and exophthalmos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome.
  • Behavioral symptoms: Symptoms of personal behavior.
  • Behcet's Disease: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
  • Behcet's syndrome: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
  • Behr syndrome: A rare inherited neurological condition characterized by spastic paraplegia and sometimes optic atrophy.
  • Bell mania: A rare life-threatening neuropsychiatric disorder involving delusions, hyperactivity and periods of fever. Death can occur within days or months without treatment.
  • Bellini-Chiumello-Rinoldi syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by mental retardation, short stature and unusual shaped ends of long bones.
  • Ben-Ari-Shuper-Mimouni syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by abnormal development of the structure separating the two halves of the brain as well as duplicated ureters that collect the urine from the kidney and deliver it to the bladder.
  • Benign astrocytoma: Benign tumors that occur in the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms and severity depends on the location and size of the tumors.
  • Benjamin syndrome: A rare disorder characterized mainly by anemia, bone abnormalities and mental and growth retardation.
  • Benson's syndrome: A rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by defective visual information processing which affects a person's ability to recognize familiar objects and people.
  • Bentham-Driessen-Hanveld syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of undescended testes, long thin fingers and mental retardation.
  • Benzodiazepine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is strong evidence to indicate that exposure to Benzodiazepine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Benzodiazepine abuse: Abuse of benzodiazepine tranquiliser medications
  • Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy: A rare genetic disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus, loss of body fat, hepatomegaly, enlarged genitals, increased skeletal growth and other abnormalities.
  • Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, type 2: A rare genetic disorder characterized by early-onset diabetes mellitus, loss of body fat, serious insulin resistance, high blood triglycerides and fatty liver. Type 2 is distinguished from type 2 by the origin of the genetic defect. Type 2 is caused by a defect on the BSCL2 gene on chromosome 11q13. Type 2 seems to be more severe with some cases resulting in premature death which can occur as early as the first year of life. Type 2 also involves mental retardation which is not seen in type 1.
  • Berlin Breakage syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, reduced immunity and increased risk of cancer. The features of this condition are virtually indistinguishable from the Nigmegen Breakage syndrome.
  • Bessman-Baldwin syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by degeneration of the brain and the macula of the eye.
  • Beta-mannosidosis: A very rare type of inherited glycoprotein storage disease where deficiency of an enzyme called beta-mannosidase results in a build-up of certain sugars (oligosaccharides) which can harm the body.
  • Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency: A metabolic disorder where the deficiency of an enzyme (Beta-ureidopropionase) results mainly in neurological abnormalities such as mental retardation. The symptoms are variable however.
  • Biemond syndrome type 1: A rare inherited condition characterized by mental retardation, finger and toe abnormalities, obesity and eye problems.
  • Biemond syndrome type 2: A rare inherited condition characterized by mental retardation, obesity, polydactyly and underdeveloped genitals.
  • Bing-Neel syndrome: A rare disorder involving infiltration of the central nervous system by abnormal leukemia-like cells (lymphoplasmocytoid cells) that occur in Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. The abnormality increases blood viscosity which impairs its circulation through small brain and eye blood vessels.
  • Binge eating disorder: Excessive overeating but without purging
  • Binswanger Disease: Multi-infarct dementia, caused by damage to deep white matter.
  • Binswanger's Disease: A type of senile dementia characterized by chronic cerebrovascular disease.
  • Bint Al Zahab-induced lead poisoning: Bint Al Zahab is a folk remedy used by various ethnic groups (e.g. Indians, Saudi Arabians) to treat infant colic and to facilitate the passage of meconium in newborns. This folk remedy has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to its relatively high content of lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Bipolar VI: Bipolar VI type is defined as having no depressive symptoms, only manic or hypomanic moods.
  • Bipolar disorder: Cycles of mania and depression; commonly called "manic-depression".
  • Bipolar disorder I: Bipolar I disorder is a mood disorder that is characterized by at least one manic or mixed episode. Most people with bipolar I disorder also suffer from episodes of depression.
  • Bipolar disorder/cyclothymic disorder/hypomania:
  • Bird-headed dwarfism with progressive ataxia, Insulin-resistant diabetes, goiter and primary gonadal insufficiency: A rare disorder characterized by diabetes, goiter, insufficient hormone production by the gonads and progressive ataxia.
  • Bird-headed dwarfism, Montreal type: A rare condition characterized by dwarfism and a characteristic beak-shaped nose.
  • Birth control pill poisoning: Birth control pill contain hormones such as estrogen and progestin and excessive ingestion of the pills can result in relatively minor symptoms - usually there are no serious problems associated with the ingested of many birth control pills at one time. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Birth symptoms: Symptoms related to childbirth.
  • Black nightshade poisoning: The Black Nightshade is a herb which bears small white or purple flowers and dull black berries. The plant originated in South America. The berries contain solanine alkaloid which can be toxic if eaten in large quantities. The leaves and unripe berries are considered toxic whereas the ripe fruit is possibly edible.
  • Blepharophimosis -- ptosis -- syndactyly -- mental retardation: A rare genetic disorder characterized by eye anomalies, webbed fingers and mental retardation.
  • Blepharophimosis syndrome Ohdo type: An extremely rare syndrome characterized primarily by mental retardation and eye anomalies. Only a handful of cases have been reported.
  • Blood cancer: Malignancy of one or several of the different types of cells in the blood
  • Bobble-head doll syndrome: A rare condition where a child's head bobs up and down continuously due to either fluid on the brain or a large cyst in the third ventricle of the brain.
  • Bokhoor-induced lead poisoning: Bokhoor is a traditional used mainly by Saudi Arabian people to calm infants - it involves burning wood and lead sulphide and inhaling the fumes that are produced. This practice has the potential to cause lead poisoning due to the relatively high exposure to lead. Children are more susceptible to the effects of lead. The use of folk remedies is still prevalent in some cultures. Lead poisoning can result in serious illness and even death in severe cases.
  • Bone dysplasia -- corpus callosum agenesis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by abnormal brain development and bone growth abnormalities.
  • Bonneman-Meinecke-Reich syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by calcium deposits in the brain tissue, deficiency of growth hormones and degeneration of the part of the eye called the retina.
  • Bonnemann-Meinecke-Reich syndrome: A rare disorder characterized mainly by growth problems, vision problems and brain disease.
  • Borderline Personality Disorder: Mental condition with behavioral and emotional problems.
  • Borjeson Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by severe mental deficiency, large ears, hypogonadism and other abnormalities.
  • Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by severe mental deficiency, large ears, hypogonadism and other abnormalities.
  • Bork-Stender-Schmidt syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by unusual hair, retinal disease, dental problems and short fingers.
  • Borna disease: An infectious neurological disease that affects warm-blooded animals. There is disagreement as to whether the virus may be the underlying cause of some cases of mental illness in humans.
  • Boscherini-Galasso-Manca-Bitti syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by a range of abnormalities including mental retardation, growth hormone deficiency, congenital heart defect and facial abnormalities.
  • Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome: A rare recessively inherited disorder involving inner and outer ear deformity, eye movement disorder, deafness, cardiovascular malformations and other anomalies. The range and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Bosviel syndrome: A rare condition where a blood blister on the uvula ruptures. It often occurs as a complication of tracheal intubation.
  • Boudhina-Yedes-Khiari syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by short stature, small head, mental deficiency, seizures, hearing loss and skin lesions.
  • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: This is a medical condition caused by the transmission of an infective prion causing an encephalopathy
  • Bowing of legs, anterior, with dwarfism: A very rare syndrome characterized primarily by dwarfism and bowed lower leg bones. Only one or two reported cases of the condition.
  • Brachioskeletogenital syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by
  • Brachmann-De Lange Syndrome: A rare congenital disorder characterized by very small stature, synophrys, thin downturning upper lip and micromelia.
  • Brachycephaly -- deafness -- cataract -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a short head, deafness, cataracts and mental retardation.
  • Brachycephaly -- deafness -- cataract -- microstomia -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a short head, deafness, cataracts and mental retardation.
  • Brachydactyly -- dwarfism -- mental retardation: A very rare syndrome characterized by short fingers, very short stature and mental retardation.
  • Brachydactyly -- mesomelia -- mental retardation -- heart defects: A rare genetic disorder characterized by mental retardation, heart defects, short digits and short limbs.
  • Brachydactyly nystagmus cerebellar ataxia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short digits, nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia.
  • Brachydactyly, mesomelia, mental retardation, aortic dilation, mitral valve prolapse and characteristic face: A rare syndrome characterized by short digits, short limbs, mental retardation, aortic dilation, mitral valve prolapse and a characteristic face.
  • Braddock Jones Superneau syndrome: A very rare disorder characterized primarily by the premature fusion of skull bones (sagittal), the Dandy-Walker malformation and a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus). The Dandy-Walker malformation is where a cyst develops in the back of the brain and interferes with the movement of fluid through the brain resulting in an accumulation of fluid.
  • Brain -- bone -- fat: A rare inherited disease characterized by bone cysts and progressive presenile dementia.
  • Brain Concussion: Trauma resulting in minor injury to the brain which causes a period of interrupted brain function. Simple concussions resolve themselves in about a week whereas more serious ones have persisting symptoms. The onset of symptoms may be delayed.
  • Brain abscess: abscess in the brain may involve any of the lobes of the brain
  • Brain conditions: Medical conditions that affect the brain
  • Brain damage: A condition which is characterized by damage to the brain resulting in a decrease in function
  • Brain disturbance: A brain disturbance is any abnormality in the function or structure of the brain.
  • Brain infection: Inflammation of the parietal layer and the brain tissue.
  • Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
  • Brain tumor: A condition which is characterized by the abnormal growth of tissue within the brain

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Cognitive impairment:

The following list of conditions have 'Cognitive impairment' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

Select from the following alphabetical view of conditions which include a symptom of Cognitive impairment or choose View All.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Cognitive impairment:

The following list of medical conditions have 'Cognitive impairment' or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.

 

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