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Symptoms » Encephalitis » Glossary
 

Glossary for Encephalitis

Medical terms related to Encephalitis or mentioned in this section include:

  • Acanthamoeba: Several conditions from infection with ameba.
  • Actinomycosis: A chronic infection usually caused by an organism normally found in human bowels and mouths. The disease usually affects the face and neck and results in deep, lumpy abscesses that emit a grainy pus through multiple sinuses.
  • Addington disease: An epidemic disease which resembles polio and was first recorded in South Africa. The range and severity of symptoms experienced is variable and the disease may persist from a week to 3 months in some cases.
  • American mountain fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Angiostrongyliasis: Infection by a parasitic worm (Angiostrongylus). Infection can occur through eating contaminated raw animals such as snails, slugs, prawns or crabs which act as hosts to these parasites.
  • Arachnoiditis: A progressive disorder where the arachnoid membrane becomes inflamed and the brain and spinal cord may also become inflamed.
  • Arbovirosis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus. The virus is transmitted by arthropods such as insects and ticks. Examples of arboviruses include Yellow Fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The symptoms may vary depending on the type of virus involved. The infection can lead to life-threatening brain inflammation.
  • Aspergillosis: Infection with a fungus called Aspergillus.
  • Bartonella infections: Infection with bacteria from the Bartonella genus of bacteria. Specific bacteria from within this group are Bartonella bacilliforms (Oroya fever), Bartonella Heneslae (Cat-scratch disease). Other conditions caused by this bacteria are endocarditis, bacteremia and angiomatosis. Symptoms vary depending on the type of bacteria involved and the severity of the infection - immunocompromised patients face greater risk of severe infection.
  • Bartonellosis: An infection by Bartonella bacilliformis which is transmitted through sandfly bites. Symptoms include fever, severe anemia, bone pain and skin lesions. Also called Carrion's disease, Oroya fever or verruga peruana.
  • Behcet's Disease: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
  • Behcet's syndrome: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
  • Biotinidase deficiency: A metabolic disorder where the body lacks the enzyme biotinidase needed to process the vitamin called biotin (vitamin H) into carboxylase enzymes.
  • Birth symptoms: Symptoms related to childbirth.
  • Brain infection: Inflammation of the parietal layer and the brain tissue.
  • Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
  • California encephalitis: An uncommon mosquito born virus (California encephalitis virus) which can cause brain inflammation in humans. The severity of symptoms is variable. The incubation period can last from a few days to a week. Infants and children tend to be more severely affected than adults who sometimes have no obvious symptoms.
  • Cardiovirus: A viral disease caused by a virus from the Picornaviridae famiy. Any vertebrate can become infected though humans rarely are.
  • Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect bites or blood transfusions. The disease primarily involves the heart and gastrointestinal system.
  • Chickenpox: Common viral infection.
  • Cholesteatoma: Uncommon middle ear condition
  • Colorado tick encephalitis: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Colorado tick fever: A tickborne condition caused by an arenavirus
  • Confusion: Mental confusion and impaired thinking.
  • Congenital herpes simplex: An infant born with a herpes simplex infection transmitted through the mother. The infection may be localized or involve various internal organs and even the central nervous system in which case death can occur.
  • Congenital syphilis: Syphilis inherited from mother during pregnancy.
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A very rare degenerative brain disease that can be inherited, transmitted (eg in surgical transplants using infected tissue) or as a result of genetic mutations. The condition is fatal.
  • Cryptococcosis: A fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans which primarily affects the central nervous system and the lungs. People with weakened immune systems such as AIDS sufferers are generally more susceptible to this type of infection.
  • Cytomegalovirus: A easily transmissible viral infection that is common but generally causes no symptoms except in infants and people with weakened immune systems.
  • Drowsiness: Excessive tiredness or sleepiness
  • E-coli food poisoning: Type of bacterial food poisoning
  • Eastern equine encephalitis: Is a mosquito born virus that occurs in the eastern united states and causes disease in humans, horses and some birds
  • Ehrlichiosis: Bacterial tick-borne disease
  • Encephalitis: Infection of the brain (as a symptom)
  • Enterovirus antenatal infection: Fetal infection with enterovirus. The condition is extremely rare but infection around the time of birth often results in death or paralysis in survivors. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the exact type of virus involved and at what stage of development the infection occurs.
  • Enteroviruses: Viruses affecting the digestive tract.
  • Epstein-Barr virus: Common virus causing mononucleosis
  • Fetal parainfluenza virus type 3: Maternal infection with parainfluenza virus type 3 can cause a serious infection in the fetus and result in hydrocephalus. The risk is greatest during the first half of the pregnancy.
  • Fever: Raised body temperature usually with other symptoms.
  • Flavivirus Infections: Infection with a virus from the Flaviviridae family of viruses. Infections by these pathogens include Dengue fever, Rocio encephalitis, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis. Transmission usually occurs through the bite of a mosquito.
  • Flu: Symptoms similar to flu including fever
  • Flu-like symptoms: Symptoms similar to flu including fever
  • Gnathostoma Infection: Infection with a type of round worm (Gnathostoma spinigerum and Gnathostoma hispidum). Infection typically occurs through eating undercooked fish or poultry containing the roundworm larvae or by drinking contaminated water. The symptoms are determined by which tissues the worms migrate through. The worms tend to migrate mainly through the skin.
  • Gnathostoma hispidum infection: A tapeworm infection with a tapeworm species called Gnathostoma hispidum. The infection is called gnathostomiasis and usually results from eating undercooked contaminated fish or poultry or drinking contaminated water. The nature and severity of symptoms vary depending on which part of the body the tapeworms migrate through (usually the skin).
  • Gnathostoma spinigerum infection: A tapeworm infection with a tapeworm species called Gnathostoma spinigerum. The infection is called gnathostomiasis and usually results from eating undercooked contaminated fish or poultry or drinking contaminated water. The nature and severity of symptoms vary depending on which part of the body the tapeworms migrate through (usually the skin).
  • Group B Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria that may affect newborns and the immune-compromised; compare strep A.
  • HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  • Hantavirosis: Infection by hantavirus which is a virus from the family Bunyaviridae. Infection generally causes severe febrile illness which can involve bleeding, shock and even death in some cases. The disease is transmitted by infected rodents.
  • Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
  • Headache: Pain affecting the head or brain area.
  • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A condition which is characterized by an abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood
  • Hemophagocytic reticulosis: The abnormal proliferation of reticulum cell (histiocytes) which infiltrate various organs and. Macrophages destroy blood cells causing blood abnormalities. Meningoencephalitis frequently occurs when the histiocytes infiltrate the mininges and cerebral tissue. Symptoms start at birth or soon after and become progressively worse without treatment. Medication can control the condition but a hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed to achieve remission.
  • Hemophilus influenzae B: Bacterial respiratory infection with dangerous complications.
  • Herpes: Virus with one subtype causing cold sores and another causing genital herpes.
  • Herpes, Neonatal: Neonatal herpes is the infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Central Nervous System Infection: Central nervous system herpes infection in neonates is a herpes infection of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) that develops in infants within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Central nervous system infection will occur in nearly three quarters of infants with a herpes infection.
  • Herpes, Neonatal -- Disseminated: Disseminated neonatal herpes is a widespread infection of a newborn with the herpes virus within the first six weeks of life. The virus may be transmitted from the mother to the baby while it is still in the uterus or during delivery. The risk of transmitting the virus is highest if genital herpes is contracted during the late stages of the pregnancy. A mother with long standing or recurring herpes infection usually has sufficient antibodies to the virus to prevent the infant becoming infected. Neonatal herpes can also be contracted when an infant comes into contact with an infected person e.g. being kissed by and adult with cold sores. A cesarean birth may be advised for mothers who have active genital lesions. Brain infection will occur in over half of infants with the disseminated form.
  • Immunosuppressive Measles Encephalitis: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Infection: Infections as a symptom.
  • Inflammatory symptoms: Symptoms related to inflammation.
  • Japanese encephalitis: A form of encephalitis caused by a flavivirus (Japanese B encephalitis virus - JBEV) and transmitted by mosquito bites. Most cases are mild and asymptomatic but severe cases can lead to death.
  • Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
  • Labrynthitis: Inner ear condition affecting various ear structures
  • Leptomeningitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the leptomeninges
  • Listeriosis: Bacterial food poisoning
  • Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis: Rodent-borne viral disease often causing meningitis or encephalitis
  • Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, X-Linked, 1: A rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder where the body's immune systm is unable to respond appropriately to certain viral infections (Epstein Barr virus). The immune system becomes weakened following and EBV infection. As the condition in inherited in a X-linked manner, males tend to suffer the full extent of the disease which tends to be eventually fatal in most cases. Female carriers tend not to develop and problems following an EBV infection. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome Xq25.@
  • Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, X-Linked, 2: A rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder where the body's immune systm is unable to respond appropriately to certain viral infections (Epstein Barr virus). The immune system becomes weakened following and EBV infection. As the condition in inherited in a X-linked manner, males tend to suffer the full extent of the disease which tends to be eventually fatal in most cases. Female carriers tend not to develop and problems following an EBV infection. Type 2 is linked to a defect in the XIAP gene on chromosome Xq25.
  • Lyssavirus: A group of viruses that infect mammals and arthropods
  • Malaria: A parasitic disease transmitted through mosquito bites.
  • Measles: Once common viral infection now rare due to vaccination.
  • Measles Encephalitis in Children with Immunosuppression: A rare complication of the measles virus. Some patients with a history of measles before the age of two develop progressive brain inflammation. The condition is rare and tends to only occur only in immunosuppressed children e.g. those who have acute lymphocytic leukemia. Symptoms may develop suddenly and tends to occur from weeks to months after the measles has resolved.
  • Meningitis: Infection of the membrane around the brain (as a symptom)
  • Meningoencephalitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the brain and meninges
  • Mononucleosis: Common infectious virus.
  • Mosquito bite: Bite from a mosquito.
  • Mountain fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Mountain tick fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
  • Mumps: An acute viral disease that causes the salivary glands to become swollen, sore and inflamed. Immunization had greatly reduced the incidence of this disease.
  • Murray Valley encephalitis: Severe viral form of encephalitis in Australia
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Bacterial respiratory infection
  • Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
  • Neurological disorders related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
  • Neurological symptoms: Any symptoms that are caused by neurological conditions
  • Paraneoplastic Neurologic Disorders: A term used to describe the distant neurological effects of cancer. It results from an autoimmune attack against antigens present in cancer and the nervous system. Peripheral nerves, central nervous system and muscle controlling nerves may be affected. Often the effects become obvious before the cancer is detected. Types of PNS include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, subacute cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus, retinopathies, limbic encephalitis, chronic gastrointestinal pseudoobstruction, sensory neuronopathy, encephalomyelitis, dermatomyositis, Stiff-Person syndrome and melanoma-associated retinopathy.
  • Plague: Any epidemic disease with a high death rate.
  • Pneumococcus: Bacteria causing ear infections, pneumococcal pneumonia, and pneumococcal meningitis.
  • Polio: Dangerous virus now rare due to vaccination.
  • Poliomyelitis: Dangerous virus now rare due to vaccination.
  • Pontiac fever: Mild form of legionellosis usually in healthy people.
  • Post-vaccinial encephalitis: Post-vaccinial encephalitis is a brain infection that occurs after a smallpox vaccination.
  • Poxviridae disease: A group of infectious diseases that cause puss filled skin eruptions. Chicken pox and small pox are examples.
  • Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: Meningitis/encephalitis from amebic infections.
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Progressive degenerative condition of the brain.
  • Rabies: An infectious disease that can affect any mammal including humans and is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. The infectious agent is the Neurotropic lyssavirus which affects the salivary gland and also causes neurological symptoms.
  • Rasmussen's Encephalitis: Rare possibly-autoimmune brain condition.
  • Rift Valley Fever: Mosquito-borne viral infection affecting animals and humans
  • Rocio encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain caused by a flavivirus called Rocio virus. It occurs in south-eastern Brazil with transmission occurring through mosquito bites. The incubation period is 1-2 weeks. Death is not an uncommon outcome.
  • Rubella: A contagious viral infection caused by the Rubella virus which produces a rash and lymph node swelling. It can have serious implication in pregnant women as the virus can be transmitted through the placenta and cause serious fetal defects or even fetal death.
  • Secondary syphilis: A condition which is characterized by fever, multiform skin eruptions, iritis, alopecia, mucous patches and severe pain in the head and joints
  • Seizures: Uncontrolled physical movements
  • Sensations: Changes to sensations or the senses
  • Shingles: Infectious viral infection occuring years after chickenpox infection.
  • Simian B virus infection: A type of herpesvirus which occurs in monkeys but can be transmitted to humans through bites or through contact with infected monkey tissue as in a laboratory situation. The virus infects the brain (encephalitis) and the surrounding membrane (meningitis).
  • Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinus passages (as a symptom)
  • Skin symptoms: Symptoms affecting the skin.
  • Skull symptoms: Symptoms affecting the skull surrounding the brain.
  • Smith disease: A harmless condition involving increased lymphocyte levels which may manifest as a variety of symptoms or may be asymptomatic. Diseases such as whooping cough and German measles are believed to be possible causes. The disease most commonly occurs in children and young adults.
  • St. louis encephalitis: Mosquito-borne type of brain infection (encephalitis)
  • Staphylococcal infection: Any infection caused by the bacteria staphylococcal
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus: chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare.
  • TORCH Syndrome: Infection of a fetus by any of a group of infectious agents which have been transmitted from the mother through the placenta. The infections include toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, hepatitis and syphilis. The severity and nature of symptoms is determined by the type of infection.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis: A viral infection (flavivirdae) of the central nervous system which is transmitted by ticks. Ticks usually feed on small rodents who are the main carriers of the virus. Transmission may also occur through the consumption of untreated milk. The incubation period is usually 1 to 2 weeks. The symptoms occur in two phases: the first involves symptoms of a general viral illness (fever, headache, nausea, aching muscles) followed by a period of remission and then central nervous system inflammation such as meningitis. However, many patients only suffer the first phase of the disease.
  • Togaviridae disease: Infection with any of a number of togaviridae viruses which can caused conditions such as Equine encephalitis, Ross River virus and Rubella virus. Symptoms are determined by the type of virus involved. Togaviridae are arboviruses and are transmitted by arthropods.
  • Toxocariasis: A parasitic roundworm (Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati) infection that normally occurs in cats and dogs but can be transmitted to humans by ingesting the larvae or eggs. The infection may be asymptomatic or severe and symptoms depend on where the larvae travel to when they migrate through the body.
  • Toxoplasmosis: Infection often caught from cats and their feces.
  • Trichinosis: Worm infection usually caught from pigs
  • Trypanosomiasis:
  • Trypanosomiasis, east-African: A rare infectious disease caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and is transmitted through the bite of an infected Tsetse fly. The infection causes an acute illness with symptoms occurring from days to weeks after infection. Death relatively common, especially in untreated cases.
  • Typhoid fever: Fever from bacterial food poisoning.
  • Vaccinia: A cowpox virus that was initially used for human smallpox vaccines.
  • Varicella zoster: A highly contagious disease caused by herpes virus 3
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis: A mosquito-borne virus that usually affects horses and related animals but may also infect humans. Young, weak and old people may become very sick and in some cases death can occur. It occurs in Central and South America. The incubation period is 2-5 days. The period of illness is usually 3-8 days but relapses are possible.
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by poliosis and hair, skin, eye and ear abnormalities as well as retinal detachment and neurological involvement.
  • Vomiting: Vomiting or retching symptoms.
  • West African Trypanosomiasis: West African sleeping sickness from the tsetse fly
  • West Nile fever: Mosquito-borne infectious virus.
  • Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
  • Whooping Cough: An infectious condition caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Encephalitis:

The following list of conditions have 'Encephalitis' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Encephalitis:

The following list of medical conditions have 'Encephalitis' or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.

 

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