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Symptoms » Kidney failure » Glossary
 

Glossary for Kidney failure

Medical terms related to Kidney failure or mentioned in this section include:

  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Kidney disease associated with AIDS.
  • Abdominal symptoms: Symptoms affecting the abdomen or digestive tract
  • Accelerated hypertension: Accelerated hypertension is a condition characterized by a rapid increase in blood pressure. The condition is a medical emergency which can cause organ damage if not treated promptly.
  • Acidosis: The accumulation of hydrogen ions or the depletion of the alkaline reserve in the body.
  • Acrorenal syndrome: A rare lethal syndrome characterized limb anomalies and kidney malformations.
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: A rare complication of pregnancy that can occur in the second half of the pregnancy. It is characterized by excessive fatty deposits in the liver which can be fatal without prompt diagnosis and treatment which involves delivering the baby as soon as possible.
  • Acute kidney failure: The sudden and acute loss of kidney function
  • Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome: The association of a sudden kidney disorder with eye inflammation. Autoimmune processes are believed to be involved.
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder where an enzyme (2, 8-dihydroxyadenine) deficiency results in urinary tract stone formation.
  • Adult-onset Renal Failure: A progressive kidney disease characterized by the presence of high blood pressure.
  • Allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome: An immune reaction to the ingestion of a drug called allopurinol. It is a potentially fatal disorder.
  • Alport Syndrome: A rare hereditary disorder involving the progressive deterioration of parts of the kidney resulting in chronic kidney disease.
  • Alport syndrome -- mental retardation -- midface hypoplasia -- elliptocytosis: A rare syndrome characterized by the association of Alport syndrome, mental retardation, underdeveloped midface and a blood abnormality (elliptocytosis). Alport syndrome is an inherited condition involving progressive kidney damage and hearing loss.
  • Alport syndrome with leukocyte inclusions and macrothrombocytopenia: A rare condition characterized by the presence of large blood platelets, kidney inflammation, deafness and abnormal leukocytes. End-stage kidney disease occurs in about a third of patients and tends to occur during the 3rd and 4th decades of life.
  • Alport syndrome with macrothrombocytopenia: A rare inherited syndrome characterized by progressive kidney damage and hearing loss as well as macrothrombocytopenia.
  • Alport syndrome, dominant type: A rare syndrome characterized by kidney problems and hearing loss. The condition is inherited as a dominant trait.
  • Alport syndrome, recessive type: A rare syndrome characterized by kidney problems and hearing loss. The condition is inherited as a recessive trait.
  • Alsing syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by kidney problems, skeletal abnormalities and a hole in the coloboma of the eye.
  • Alstrom disease: A rage genetic disorder involving a group of abnormalities affecting vision, hearing, kidney function and also characterized by obesity and diabetes mellitus.
  • Alström Syndrome: A progressive condition which is characterized by deafness, obesity and visual problems in childhood that may lead to diabetes and kidney failure in adulthood
  • Amelogenesis Imperfeca, Hypoplastic, and Nephrocalcinosis: A rare disorder involving abnormal tooth development and kidney problems.
  • Amyloidosis: A disease characterized by the accumulation of insoluble amyloid protein in tissues and organs which in turn affects the functioning of these tissues and organs.
  • Amyloidosis, Inherited: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage. In the inherited form, the type of amyloid involved is usually a plasma protein called transthyretin. The main parts of the body affected are the nerves, heart and kidneys.
  • Amyloidosis, inflammatory: Amyloidosis is a rare group of metabolic disorders where a protein called amyloid accumulates in body organs and tissues where it can cause damage and is potentially fatal. Symptoms depend on the organs involved. Secondary amyloidosis is caused by a chronic infection of inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple myeloma, tuberculosis and osteomyelitis. The main organs affected in secondary amyloidosis are usually the kidneys, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The peripheral and autonomic nerves and the heart are rarely affected.
  • Analgesic nephropathy syndrome: Kidney damage caused by excessive use of pain-killing drugs. Aspirin and phenacetin mixtures are the most common causes.
  • Analgesic syndrome: The use of large quantities of pain-killer drugs can sometimes cause serious kidney damage as well as various other problems.
  • Angiomyolipoma: A rare, benign growth that usually occurs in the kidney. It is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes large or starts bleeding. It is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis.
  • Anorexia Nervosa: A disorder where a distorted sense of body image leads to self-starvation to the point of death in some cases.
  • Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated disease: A kidney disorder involving varying degrees of kidney impairment. Severe cases lead to kidney failure whereas mild cases have normal kidney function.
  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess: A form of inherited high blood pressure that starts during early childhood. The condition results from a genetic defect which causes impaired metabolism of cortisol.
  • Aristolochic Acid poisoning: Aristolochic acid is derived from a forest herb from the Aristocholochia family. It is often used in herbal preparations such as Aristolochia Fang Ch, Bragantia and Asarum. It is usually used in herbal preparations to promote weight loss. The substance is believed to cause kidney failure and urinary tract cancer.
  • Arthrogryposis due to muscular dystrophy: A rare disorder where a non-progressive muscle disease results in the presence of multiple joint contractures at birth.
  • Atherosclerosis, premature -- deafness -- diabetes mellitus -- photomyoclonus -- nephropathy -- degenerative neurologic disease: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause.
  • Babesiosis: A protozoal infection which is transmitted to human via the bite of certain ticks.
  • Barakat syndrome: A rare condition characterized by deafness, kidney disease and insufficiency parathyroid hormone production.
  • Bartter Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder of kidney metabolism characterized by reduced blood acidity and low potassium levels.
  • Bartter Syndrome type 4: Bartter syndrome is a rare disorder where abnormal kidney metabolism results in low blood acidity an potassium levels. Type 4 also involves sensorineural deafness.
  • Bartter Syndrome type 4A: Bartter syndrome is a rare disorder where abnormal kidney metabolism results in low blood acidity an potassium levels. Type 4A also involves sensorineural deafness.
  • Bartter Syndrome type 4B: Bartter syndrome is a rare disorder where abnormal kidney metabolism results in low blood acidity an potassium levels. Type 4B also involves sensorineural deafness.
  • Bartter's syndrome, antenatal type 1: A rare genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. A defect in the NKCC2 gene impairs the functioning of the Na-Cl cotransporter and leads to electrolyte imbalance. The rate of death is high prior to diagnosis.
  • Bartters syndrome, antenatal , type 2: A rare genetic kidney disorder that causes hypokalemia. A defect in the ROMK gene impairs the ATP-regulated potassium channel functioning and leads to electrolyte imbalance.
  • Bernheim's syndrome: Reduced size of right heart ventricle due to enlargement of the left ventricle which encroaches on the space in the right ventricle. Blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle is obstructed.
  • Blue Diaper Syndrome: A rare metabolic disorder characterized by vision problems, bluish urine, fever and digestive anomalies.
  • Body skin hyperlaxity due to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency: A rare inherited connective tissue disorder caused by a deficiency of a blood coagulation factor.
  • Boichis syndrome: A rare syndrome involving nephronophthisis (progressive destruction of kidney tissue) from birth which leads to kidney failure and liver fibrosis.
  • Brachymesomelia-renal syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by kidney abnormalities and forearm and lower leg deformity. The condition describes a single reported case.
  • Brown Recluse spider poisoning: The Brown Recluse spider is poisonous and is found mainly in southern and central areas of the US.
  • Brown snake poisoning: The Brown snake is a poisonous Australian snake. They are considered one of the most venomous snakes in the world and their bite can result in death without prompt medical attention. The snake venom contains toxins which affect the blood and nerve systems. Children tend to suffer more severe symptoms due to their smaller body size.
  • Budd chiari syndrome: A disorder where the main vein leaving the liver becomes blocked leading to symptoms such as liver enlargement and fluid buildup in the abdomen. Also called Chiari's syndrome or Rokitansky's disease.
  • Burnett's milk drinker's syndrome: Burnett's milk drinker's syndrome is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium which results in impaired kidney function. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Burnett's syndrome: Burnett's syndrome is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium which results in impaired kidney function. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Burns: Injury from burns and scalds.
  • Buttiens-Fryns syndrome: A rare genetic disorder characterized by a small jaw, small mouth and defects involving the hands and feet.
  • Bywaters' syndrome: A trauma or accident involving the crushing of soft tissues and associated symptoms. Severe cases can result in death.
  • Carnevale-Canun-Mendoza syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by loss of bone tissue in the wrists and ankles as well as kidney problems.
  • Cerebro oculo skeleto renal syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by brain, eye, skeletal and kidney abnormalities.
  • Cerebrorenodigital syndrome: A rare group of syndromes characterized mainly by brain, kidney, finger and toe abnormalities.
  • Chemical poisoning -- 1,4-Dioxane: 1,4-Dioxane is a chemical used mainly as a reagent in laboratries and as a solvent in chemical processing. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Aluminum: Aluminum is a chemical used mainly for metallurgical purposes and can be found in packaging, electrical parts, vehicles, cooking utensils, construction materials and building components. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Aniline: Aniline is a chemical used mainly in the manufacture of perfumes, varnishes, resins, dyes, paint removers, herbicides, fungicides, explosives, solvents and photographic chemicals. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Anti-rust products: Anti-rust products contain various chemicals which are toxic if ingested. The ingested chemicals can continue to cause damage to the organs and gastrointestinal lining for weeks after the ingestion and severe cases can result in death. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Arsine: Arsine is a chemical used in the making of semiconductors and in the metal refining industry. It is considered a possible chemical agent in chemical warfare. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Borates: Borate is a chemical used in a wide variety of products - herbicides, paints, insecticides, rodenticides and various personal products such as skin creams, toothpastes and powders. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Bromates: Bromate is a chemical used mainly in perming solution neutralizers and in small amounts as a bread preservative. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Camphor: Camphor is a chemical used mainly in moth repellents, pharmaceuticals (preservative) cosmetics, explosives, varnishes and various therapeutic applications. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Cresols: Cresols are a group of chemicals that occur naturally in mammals and various plants. It is also manufactured and used in the production of disinfectants, deodorizers and pesticides. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Cresylic acid: Cresylic acids are a group of chemicals that are used as solvents and in the manufacture of various products such as deodorants, disinfectants, pesticides, glues, paints, herbicides, pharmaceuticals as well as others. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The chemical is readily absorbed through the skin. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether: Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether is a chemical used in a variety of applications: cleaning agents, solvent, manufacture of dyes, rubber, soap and printing products . Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Dinitrocresol: Dinitrocresol is a chemical used mainly as a herbicide and fungicide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Ethylene Glycol: Ethylene Glycol is a chemical used mainly in antifreeze, coolants and as a solvent. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. Symptoms tend to occur in three phases: the first 12 hours involves inebriation, seizuresand brain swelling; the second and third day involves deterioration of lung and heart function and the third stage involves kidney damage and possibly failure. Death can occur during any of the stages.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Methanol: Methanol is a chemical used mainly in fuel, paint removers, solvent, antifreeze and in the production process of many other products. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Polyethylene Glycol -- Low Molecular Weight: Low molecular weight polyethylene glycol is a chemical used mainly in hair products, cosmetics, topical medications and in Lava lamps. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Pyrimidifen: Pyrimidifen is a chemical used mainly as an insecticide and acaricide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Toluene: Toluene is a chemical used mainly in pesticides, degreasers, glues and pain removers. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Triethylene Glycol: Triethylene Glycol is a chemical used mainly in brake fluid. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- Uranium: Uranium is an element used mainly in commercial nuclear power plants. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Chemical poisoning -- White Phosphorus: White Phosphorus is a chemical used mainly in fertilizers, water treatment, rodenticides and insecticides (for cockroaches). Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Cholera: An acute bacterial disease transmitted through food or water contaminated with human faeces. The intestinal infection is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
  • Cholestatic jaundice -renal tubular insufficiency: A very rare syndrome characterized by liver and kidney problems.
  • Chronic kidney failure: Gradual failure of the kidneys over a period of time
  • Chronic pyelonephritis: chronic pyelonephritis is persistent kidney inflammation that can scar the kidneys and may lead to chronic renal failure
  • Ciprofloxacin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolone antibiotic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Cirrhosis of liver: diffuse hepatic process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules
  • Cocaine overdose: Cocaine is an illegal and highly addictive recreational drug. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10), deficiency: A rare inherited disorder characterized by the deficiency of Coenzyme Q 10. The range and severity of symptoms is variable.
  • Colchicine poisoning: Ingestion of toxic quantities of colchicines. Colchicine is primarily used as a medicinal theapy for conditions such as gout and familial Mediterranean fever, scleroderma, secondary amyloidosis and pericarditis. The chemical is a natural chemical found in a plant called meadow saffron and ingestion of the plant can also result in poisoning. The plant is found in the northern parts of the world.
  • Collagen type III glomerulopathy: A rare progressive form of kidney disease characterized by the abnormal deposits of type III collagen in the kidneys. The severity and rate of progression of the condition is variable.
  • Congenital chloride diarrhea: A rare birth disorder where the intestines don't absorb electrolytes properly (especially chloride) which leads to electrolyte imbalance which is potentially fatal if untreated. Symptoms often start while the infant is still inside the womb.
  • Congenital hepatic fibrosis: A rare inherited birth disorder characterized by fibrosis (scarring) of the liver which affects its ability to function. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients being symptomatic during infancy while others may be asymptomatic for most of their life.
  • Conorenal Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized mainly by kidney failure, abnormal bone development (cone-shaped epiphyses), eye problems and ataxia.
  • Cope's syndrome: Cope's syndrome is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia. Severe cases can lead to impaired kidney function (Burnett's syndrome).
  • Copper poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to copper.
  • Cortes-Lacassie syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by nail, hair and teeth abnormalities, malformed hands and feet and seizures. The disorder has only been reported in one cause which resulted in death at 31 months
  • Cyclosporin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Cyclosporin (an immunosuppressant drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • D-minus hemolytic uremic syndrome (D-HUS) -- familial: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. The familial type is not associated with diarrhea and is inherited. Autosomal recessive cases usually start early in life whereas autosomal dominant cases can occur at any age.
  • D-minus hemolytic uremic syndrome (D-HUS) -- pregnancy related: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. This type is not associated with diarrhea and is triggered by pregnancy.
  • Dahlberg syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hypoparathyroidism, nephropathy, congenital lymphedema, mitral valve prolapse and short end bones in fingers and toes.
  • Danubian endemic familial nephropathy: A form of slow-progressing kidney disease that occurs in a particular geographic area which includes countries such as Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Romania. The condition can remain asymptomatic for many years until serious kidney damage has occurred.
  • Darvocet overdose: Darvocet is a prescription drug mainly used to treat pain. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Deafness-mental retardation, Martin-Probst type: A rare disorder characterized mainly by deafness and mental retardation.
  • Death Angel poisoning: The Death Angel is a poisonous white, long-stemmed mushroom found mainly in the US.
  • Dehydration: Loss and reduction in body water levels
  • Del(1) (23-q25): A very rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of the long arm (23q-q25) of chromosome one is missing.
  • Dent syndrome: A rare X-linked inherited kidney disorder involving kidney tubule damage resulting in progressive kidney dysfunction.
  • Dent's disease: A rare kidney disease inherited in a X-linked manner. It involves kidney tubule damage which results in progressive kidney dysfunction. There are two types of Dent's disease and they differ in the origin of the genetic defect.
  • Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by multiple capillary hemangiomas as well as other abnormalities.
  • Diffuse systemic sclerosi: A rare condition that characterized by skin tightness affecting the trunk and extremities as well as organ involvement. It involves an early period of internal inflammation which distinguishes it from other forms of scleroderma and the organ involvement can be severe and even life-threatening.
  • Digestive symptoms: Any symptoms affecting the digestive tract.
  • E-coli food poisoning: Type of bacterial food poisoning
  • Eating symptoms: Symptoms related to eating.
  • Eclampsia: serious complication of pregnancy and is characterised by high blood pressure and convulsions
  • Ecstasy overdose: Ectsasy is an illegal and highly addictive recreational drug. Excessive doses of the drug can result in various symptoms and even death in severe cases.
  • Edwards-Patton-Dilly syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, kidney disease and increased parathyroid activity.
  • Elapid poisoning: Sea snakes, Kraits and cobras are from the Elapid group of snakes. The toxicity of the venom varies depending on the species. The venom is usually toxic to the nerves or heart. Early symptoms such as drowsiness can occur within 30 minutes with more severe symptoms developing over the next few hours. Severe envenomation can result in death within hours.
  • Electrical burns: Burns caused when an electric current pass through the body or part of it. The symptoms and severity of the burn depends on the strength of the electrical current, the duration of the exposure and the part of the body involved. Prompt treatment in more severe cases can improve the prognosis.
  • Elephant's-ear poisoning: The Elephant's ear is a common garden plant which has large, heart-shaped leaves on long stalks. The plant contains calcium oxalate and saphotoxin which can cause poisoning if eaten and irritation upon contact with skin or eyes. The toxins are quite poisonous and death can occur if sufficient quantities are eaten.
  • Enalapril -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Epidemic typhus: An infectious disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice. The severity of the illness may range from moderate to fatal.
  • Ethylene glycol poisoning: Excessive ingestion of ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol can be found in antifreeze.
  • Eugenol oil poisoning: Eugenol oil is used as a supplement or as a therapeutic ingredient in various medications and foods but excessive doses of undiluted oil can cause symptoms. Smoking undiluted cloves in cigarettes can also cause symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure.
  • Fabry disease: Genetic fat storage disorder
  • Face symptoms: Symptoms affecting the face
  • Fechtner syndrome: A rare condition characterized by the presence of large blood platelets, kidney inflammation, deafness and abnormal leukocytes.
  • Feigenbaum-Bergeron-Richardson syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized mainly by deafness, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease and premature hardening of the arteries.
  • Fetal indomethacin syndrome: Fetal exposure to indomethacin which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The drug can pass through the placenta from the mother to the baby and cause various problems depending on what stage of development the fetus is at.
  • Finnish nephrosis syndrome: A rare inherited disorder where the kidney's ability to filter is defective and results in excessive protein in the urine, failure to thrive and malnutrition.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare kidney disorder involving scarring of parts of the kidney filtering system which affects kidney function. It usually occurs for no apparent reason but can result from kidney damage caused by illicit drug use, certain viral infections and HIV.
  • Frasier syndrome: A rare syndrome involving kidney disease and male pseudohermaphrodism (genetic male with some female sex organs). Kidney failure can occur as early as adolescence.
  • Gentamicin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Gentamicin (an antibiotic) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Glomerulonephritis: A condition which affects the kidneys and is characterized by inflammatory changes that occur in the glomeruli
  • Glomerulonephritis -- sparse hair -- telangiectases: A rare syndrome characterized by sparse hair, kidney disease and enlarged skin blood vessels (telangiectasia).
  • Glomerulonephritis, membranous congenital due to anti-maternal NEP alloimmunisation: An immune reaction involving maternal antibodies which attack the fetus and causes kidney problems. The condition occurs when a mother with a deficiency of NEP becomes exposed to NEP antigen produced by the fetus which results in the production of antibodies that attack NEP and cause kidney damage.
  • Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits: An inherited form of kidney disease.
  • Glomerulosclerosis: A condition which results in the fibrosis and scarring of the renal glomeruli
  • Glory lily poisoning: The glory lily is a type of vine which bears unusual yellow and red flowers. It is often used as an indoor and outdoor ornamental plant. The plant contains various chemicals that can cause serious symptoms if eaten. The roots are the most toxic part of the plant. The plant is considered very toxic and serious cases can result in death.
  • Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A rare enzyme abnormality involving a deficiency of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase which causes premature destruction of red blood cells. The excessive destruction of red blood cells can be triggered by certain infections or drugs or by eating fava beans.
  • Goldberg syndrome: A rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an enzyme deficiency (neuraminidase and beta-galactosidase) which results in a build-up of glycoproteins in the urine. There are three main subtypes: infantile, juvenile and adult forms. The early infantile form is the most severe and often results in death during infancy.
  • Goodpasture syndrome: A rare disease involving inflammation of membranes in the lung and kidneys.
  • Goodpasture's syndrome: A condition which is characterized by glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage with circulating antibodies against basement membranes.
  • Hantavirosis: Infection by hantavirus which is a virus from the family Bunyaviridae. Infection generally causes severe febrile illness which can involve bleeding, shock and even death in some cases. The disease is transmitted by infected rodents.
  • Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
  • Heart symptoms: Symptoms affecting the heart
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 1: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 1 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 8q34.3.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 2: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 2 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 1q32.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 3: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 3 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 4q25.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 4: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 4 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 6p21.3.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 5: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 5 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 19p13.3-p13.2.
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Atypical, Susceptibility to, 6: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that has no obvious cause. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility to developing the condition. Type 6 is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 20p11.2.
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome: A rare condition characterized by acute kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (reduced blood platelet count). The condition is often caused by upper respiratory infections or infectious diarrhea.
  • Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: A blood disorder triggered by the use of the drug called heparin which is an anticoagulant. The severity of the condition is variable.
  • Hepatic veno-occlusive disease -- immunodeficiency: A rare form of liver disease involving the blockage of veins in the liver due to thickening of the blood vessel walls as well as immunodeficiency. The disease may be caused by a variety of factors including bone marrow transplant and genetic defects.
  • Hepatitis: Any inflammation of the liver
  • Hepatitis B: Viral liver infection spread by sex or body fluids.
  • Hepatorenal syndrome: A condition the occurs as a result of severe liver disease.
  • Hepatorenal tyrosinemia: A rare genetic metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of particular enzymes which prevents the breakdown of tyrosine which then builds up in the liver. Type 1 involves a deficiency of the enzyme fumaril acetoacetate hydrolase.
  • Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Pennyroyal Oil: Pennyroyal Oil can be used as a herbal agent to treat delayed menstruation and as an insect repellent. The herbal agent can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Ajuga Nipponensis Makino: Ajuga Nipponensis Makino can be used as a herbal agent used to control inflammation and coughing, to support liver function and is also used as a diuretic. The herbal agent contains chemicals such as cyasterone and ajugasterone and the ingestion of excessive amounts of these can result in symptoms. The main symptoms are gastrointestinal and urinary-related.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Autumn Crocus: Autumn crocus can be used as a herbal agent to treat gout and rheumatoid conditions. The herbal agent contains chemicals such as colchicine and the ingestion of excessive amounts of this can result in symptoms. Severe overdose can result in death and chronic ingestion can also cause harmful effects.
  • Herbal Agent overdose -- Cleistanthus Collinus: Cleistanthus collinus can be used as a herbal agent which is very toxic and has been used to commit suicide or murder. The herbal agent contains toxic chemicals such as dyphyllin, collinusin and glycosides.
  • Hereditary amyloidosis: An inherited form of amyloidosis which is characterized by a build up of the protein amyloid in tissues and organs. This form of amyloidosis tends to affect mainly the nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms are determined by the size and location of the amyloid deposits.
  • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension:
  • High blood pressure: Excessive blood pressure.
  • Hinman syndrome: A bladder condition where the bladder is emptied infrequently due to voiding problems. During voiding, the sphincter muscle is contracted which obstructs the outflow of the urine which can cause enlarged urinary tract and even kidney failure in severe cases. The disorder usually affects children but some cases persist into adulthood where they present with urination difficulty, bladder emptying problems or kidney failure. As urine is frequently retained, bacterial infections are common. The disorder is believed to have psychogenic origins possibly due to fear of punishment if bedwetting occurs or some other sort of stress such as family breakup. Usually the child's initial toilet training is satisfactory.
  • Holoprosencephaly -- caudal dysgenesis: A very rare syndrome where the tailbone and the portion above the tailbone (coccyx and sacrum) fail to develop. The brain also fails to divide into two lobes resulting in a single-lobed brain
  • Human carcinogen -- Cadmium: Cadmium is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the nature (e.g. inhalation, ingestion, skin contact), duration and level of exposure.
  • Human carcinogen -- Phenacetin: Phenacetin (a drug) is deemed to be carcinogenic to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Hydronephrosis: Swelling of the kidney resulting from a blockage to the flow of urine.
  • Hydronephrosis congenital: A rare kidney disorder that is present at birth and involves enlargement of the part of the ureter closest to the kidney due to obstruction of the flow of urine out of the kidney. The severity of the condition is determined by the degree of obstruction.
  • Hydronephrosis with Peculiar Facies: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by an unusual face and abnormalities in organs involved with urination.
  • Hypercalcaemia: Increased concentration of calcium in the blood
  • Hyperkalemic Renal Tubular Acidosis: A condition characterized by the inability of the kidneys to excrete acidic urine as well as an accumulation of potassium in the body
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands.
  • Hypertension: Excessive blood pressure.
  • Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta: Hypertension due to coarctation of the aorta is high blood pressure resulting from a birth defect where a heart blood vessel called the aorta is abnormally narrowed. The high blood pressure tends to affect mainly the upper part of the body. Babies and very young children tend to have more severe symptoms as the degree of narrowing tends to be greater than in older children or adults.
  • Hypertension of pregnancy: Pregnancy hypertension is the development of high blood pressure during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The increased blood pressure can cause complications in pregnancy women e.g. eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Hypopituitarism -- micropenis -- cleft lip palate: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by low pituitary hormone level, small penis and a cleft lip and palate.
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A rare condition where an infant is born with an underdeveloped left side of the heart which prevents the heart from pumping oxygenated blood efficiently to various parts of the body.
  • IgA nephropathy: A rare disorder where kidney inflammation leads to a build up of the antibody (IgA) in the kidney which results in the characteristic symptom of blood in the urine.
  • Immunotactoid glomerulonephritis: Immunotactoid glomerulonephritis is a rare, poorly understood kidney disease which can cause slow-progressing kidney failure. It is characterized by the deposit of immune complexes in the kidneys which affects kidney functioning. The kidney condition may be associated with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases e.g. rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Inborn amino acid metabolism disorder: A group of inherited disorders where the body is not able to metabolize amino acids consumed in the diet. Amino acids are a part of carbohydrates, fats and proteins and are metabolized in order to provide energy or to make other needed compounds. There are many steps involved in metabolism and the severity can be greatly variable depending on the exact nature of the disorder.
  • Infantile hypophosphatasia: An inherited bone disorder due to an inborn error of metabolism characterized by a deficiency of alkaline phosphate. The condition becomes noticeably during infancy and involves a period of normal development (about 6 months) followed by deterioration due to bone demineralization.
  • Infundibulopelvic stenosis multicystic kidney: A developemental disorder of the kidney where a part of the kidney structures are too narrow as well as the development of cystic kidneys. The severity of the disorder is variable.
  • Interstitial nephritis: Any primary or secondary condition which affects the renal interstitial tissue
  • Inverted smile -- occult nephropathic bladder: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by an unusual face and abnormalities in organs involved with urination.
  • Jeune syndrome -- situs inversus: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by short-limbed dwarfism, small chest, abnormally placed internal organs and various other abnormalities.
  • Juvenile gout: Gout that occurs in children as a result of kidney disease caused by a genetic defect.
  • Juvenile nephronophthisis: A rare inherited kidney disorder characterized by formation of cysts inside the kidney, kidney fibrosis and tubular atrophy which leads to progressive kidney failure.
  • Kidney conditions: Any condition affecting the kidney organs.
  • Kidney disease-Induced Hypertension: High blood pressure that results from kidney disease. Kidney diseases can cause changes to the rennin-aldosterone system which can result in high blood pressure by affecting the amount of water and salt retained within the body.
  • Kidney pain: The occurrence of pain that comes from the kidney
  • Kidney stones: A crystal deposit that is made of urates and phosphates that occurs in the kidneys
  • Kidney symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both kidneys.
  • Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency type A: A rare genetic disorder where an enzyme deficiency (Lactate dehydrogenase type A) affects the conversion of carbohydrates to energy.
  • Langer-Nishino-Yamaguchi syndrome: A rare disorder characterized by deformed forearms and lower legs, cloudy corneas and enlarged kidneys. In the reported case, death occurred in the newborn period from kidney and heart failure.
  • Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, LCAT: A rare genetic disorder characterized by an enzyme deficiency (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) which impairs the breakdown of lipoproteins which then builds up and causes damage to tissues. The condition is characterized by corneal disorders, anemia, protein in the urine and ultimately, kidney failure. Partial deficiency of the enzyme (alpha-LCAT) results in a condition called Fish-Eye disease whereas deficiency of the whole enzyme (alpha- and beta-LCAT) causes a condition called Norum disease.
  • Lemierre's syndrome: A very rare condition where a throat infection leads to secondary infection and blood clot formation in the internal jugular vein. The infected blood clot can then travel to other parts of the body and cause problems. The usual bacterial culprit is Fusobacterium necrophorum.
  • Leptospirosis: Bacterial infection usually caught from animal urine.
  • Lipoprotein glomerulopathy: A rare form of kidney disease which causes proteinuria and progressive kidney failure.
  • Liposarcoma: A rare malignant tumor of fat cells. Usually affects thighs in women over 30 years of age.
  • Lithium -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Lithium during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Lithium poisoning: A type of heavy metal poisoning caused by excessive exposure to lithium.
  • Liver failure: When the liver fails to function
  • Liver symptoms: Symptoms affecting the liver
  • Malaria: A parasitic disease transmitted through mosquito bites.
  • Malignant Buotonneuse fever: A serious complication of Buotonneuse fever that tends to occur mainly in patients who are old or have other conditions such as heart disease.
  • Malignant hypertension: Malignant hypertension is a condition characterized by very high blood pressure and swelling of the optic nerve. This type of hypertension is more common in people with kidney problems such as narrowed kidney blood vessels. The condition is a medical emergency which can cause organ damage if not treated promptly.
  • Malignant hyperthermia: A very rare genetic disorder where sufferers suffer episodes of adverse reactions when certain anesthetics or muscle relaxants are administered.
  • Mayapple poisoning: The Mayapple is a small flowering plant which is often found growing naturally. It bears small single flowers and apple-like fruit which turns yellow when ripe. The unripe fruit and leaves contain a chemical called podophyllin which can cause poisoning if eaten. The plant is considered highly toxic and death can occur if sufficient quantities are eaten. The leaves, roots and unripe fruit are toxic but the ripe fruit is edible. The plant has been used to treat venereal warts.
  • Medullary cystic kidney disease: A rare genetic kidney disease involving the development of cyst in the kidney which causes problems with kidney function.
  • Medullary cystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive: A genetic kidney disease which causes kidney failure in children, usually during adolescence.
  • Medullary cystic kidney disease, dominant: A rare genetic kidney disease which can lead to kidney failure.
  • Meier-Blumberg-Imahorn syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by high urine calcium level and eye problems.
  • Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
  • Meretoja syndrome: A form of familial amyloid polyneuropathy characterized by deposits of a substance called amyloid in the skin on the face as well as the facial nerves which can cause symptoms such as weak facial muscles.
  • Mesangial sclerosis, diffuse: A rare inherited disorder involving a kidney disorder that starts early in life and rapidly progresses to kidney failure. Death often occurs within years of birth.
  • Methylcobalamin deficiency cbl G type: An inherited organic acid disorder where an enzyme deficiency (cbl G) impairs the body's ability to break down certain proteins consumed in the diet. This results in a buildup of homocystine which results in harmful affects.
  • Microcephaly -- glomerulonephritis -- Marfanoid habitus: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by a small head, kidney disorder and a and a tall, slight build.
  • Milk poisoning: Milk poisoning is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Milk-Alkali syndrome: Milk-Alkali syndrome is a condition where the body is too alkaline and the blood contains too much calcium which results in impaired kidney function. It can be caused by drinking large quantities of milk or using too many alkaline antacid remedies. High vitamin D intake can make the condition worse. The people most at risk of this condition tend to be older people (especially women) who are taking calcium supplements as well as calcium carbonate containing remedies to treat dyspepsia.
  • Multiple myeloma: A rare malignant cancer that occurs in the bone marrow. More common in skull, spine, rib cage, pelvis and legs.
  • Muscle symptoms: Symptoms affecting the muscles of the body
  • Mushroom poisoning:
  • Myoglobinuria: Myoglobin (muscle protein) in the urine. It is often caused by destruction of muscle tissue for a variety of reasons such as certain drugs, metabolic abnormalities and trauma.
  • Myoglobinuria recurrent: Recurring episodes of high urine myoglobin levels due to muscle destruction. The episodes are triggered by prolong exercise or infection.
  • Myoglobinuria, dominant form: A dominantly inherited condition which causes high levels of myoglobin in the urine due to destruction of muscle tissue. Episodes of muscle destruction was usually preceded by fever, virus, alcohol us end excessive exercise.
  • Nail-Patella Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by small or absent kneecap and ridged and/or absent nails as well as other abnormalities
  • Naked brimcap poisoning: Naked brimcap is a brown mushroom which becomes slimy when wet and is covered in thin hairs. The mushroom is often found growing in the wild in the US. This mushroom is poisonous and can lead to death if sufficient quantities are eaten. They are considered less toxic if cooked. This mushroom is unusual in that some people are able to eat them if they are cooked for a long time without any ill effect and can then develop a condition called immune hemolysis (where the body's immune system attacks it's own red blood cells).
  • Necrobacillosis: A form of bacterial blood infection caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum which can occur as a complication of throat infections. The infection is potentially fatal and can cause the development of abscesses in various parts of the body including the brain and lungs .
  • Nephritis, Familial, without Deafness or Ocular Defect: A progressive kidney disease characterized by the presence of high blood pressure.
  • Nephrocalcinosis: The presence of calcium deposits in the kidney.
  • Nephrolithiasis type 1: A rare X-linked inherited kidney disorder involving kidney tubule damage resulting in progressive kidney dysfunction. The disorder is caused by a genetic mutation on chromosome Xp11.22.
  • Nephrolithiasis type 2: A rare X-linked inherited kidney disorder involving kidney tubule damage resulting in progressive kidney dysfunction. The disorder is caused by a genetic mutation on chromosome Xq26.1.
  • Nephronophthisis -- hepatic fibrosis: A rare syndrome characterized by progressive destruction of kidney tissue (nephronophthisis) which occurs from birth and results in kidney failure and liver fibrosis.
  • Nephronophthisis 2: A genetic kidney disorder which causes kidney failure during childhood. Other problems such as underdeveloped lungs may also be associated with the condition. Type 2 is caused by a defect in the inversin gene.
  • Nephronophthisis 3: A genetic kidney disorder which causes kidney failure during adolescence. Other problems such as underdeveloped lungs may also be associated with the condition. Type 3 is caused by a defect in the NPHP3 gene.
  • Nephronophthisis 4: A genetic kidney disorder which causes kidney failure during adolescence. Other problems such as underdeveloped lungs may also be associated with the condition. Type 4 is caused by a defect in the NPHP4 gene.
  • Nephronophthisis 7: A genetic kidney disorder which causes kidney failure during adolescence. Other problems such as underdeveloped lungs may also be associated with the condition. Type 7 is caused by a defect in the GLIS2 gene.
  • Nephronophthisis familial, adult -- spastic quadriparesis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by progressive kidney destruction and spasticity and weakness of arms and legs.
  • Nephronophthisis, autosomal dominant: A rare genetic kidney disease which can lead to kidney failure.
  • Nephronophtisis familial, adult form -- spastic quadriparesia: A rare familial condition characterized by kidney disease and spastic quadriparesis.
  • Nephropathy familial with hyperuricemia: A rare inherited kidney disease characterized by early onset of gout, kidney failure and high blood uric acid level and low urine uric acid level. The uric acid level abnormalities are due to the kidneys reduced ability to excrete it into the urine.
  • Nephropathy, Familial: A progressive kidney disease characterized by the presence of high blood pressure.
  • Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of kidney arteries and arterioles.
  • Nephrosis -- deafness -- urinary tract -- digital malformation: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by kidney disease, deafness and abnormalities of the urinary tract, fingers and toes.
  • Nephrotic syndrome: A condition involving excess loss of protein in the urine, reduced albumin levels in the blood and swelling.
  • Nephrotic syndrome ocular anomalies: A rare disorder characterized by the association of particular eye anomalies with kidney disease. Kidney failure occurs before or soon after birth with death occurring within months of birth.
  • Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
  • Neuroaxonal dystrophy -- renal tubular acidosis: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by muscle and kidney abnormalities.
  • Neuropathy, Hereditary Sensory, Type IV: A rare disorder characterized mainly by insensitivity to pain and inability to sweat.
  • Non-diarrheal (D-) HUS syndrome: A rare condition characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney failure that is not associated with diarrhea which means that it is not a result of bacterial gastroenteritis. This form of hemolytic uremic syndrome may be caused by kidney transplants, certain drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cytotoxic drugs), pregnancy, malignancy, HIV, non-diarrheal bacterial infections, immunological conditions or it may be inherited or in some cases there is no obvious cause (idiopathic).
  • Norfloxacin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Norfloxacin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Norum disease: A rare genetic disorder disorder involving abnormal lipid metabolism due to a deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. The condition causes high levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. The condition is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Obstructive Jaundice: Condition where blockage of the flow of bile from the liver causes overspill of bile products into the blood and incomplete bile excretion from the body.
  • Oculo skeletal renal syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by eye, skeletal and kidney problems.
  • Oculorenocerebellar syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by eye, kidney and brain abnormalities.
  • Oligomeganephronic renal hypoplasia: A congenital renal hypoplasia associated with chronic renal failure in children. Also called oligomeganephronia.
  • Optic nerve coloboma with renal disease: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by kidney disease and a gap in the optic nerve which causes vision problems.
  • Oxalosis: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxalate aminotransferase and type II involves a deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.
  • Oxalosis, Type II: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.
  • Oxalosis, type I: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of alanine-glyoxalate aminotransferase.
  • Paracetamol -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Paracetamol during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Pearson's anemia: Pearson's anemia is a rare progressive condition characterized by abnormal pancreatic functioning and sideroblastic anemia. Diagnosis usually occurs within the first 7 years of life and death in infancy is common.
  • Penicillamine -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Penicillamine during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity: A rare X-linked metabolic disorder caused by the excessive activity of a particular enzyme (Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase). The main manifestations are increased production of uric acid and purine nucleotide.
  • Plant poisoning -- Conline: Conline is a toxin found naturally in plants such as aloe vera, senna, rhubarb and Cascara buckthorn. The main symptoms are gastrointestinal which can range in severity depending on the amount consumed. Severe cases can result in kidney damage and gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Plasma cell leukemia: A form of leukemia characterized by the proliferation of plasma cells in the peripheral blood system. The prognosis is generally poor for this usually aggressive condition.
  • Plasmodium falciparum: A protozoan that causes falciparum malaria
  • Polyarteritis nodosa: A serious blood vessel disease where small and medium-sized arteries become swollen and damaged and are unable to adequately supply oxygenated blood to various tissues in the body. The disease can occur in a mild form or a serious, rapidly fatal form.
  • Polycystic kidney disease: Genetic kidney disease causing kidney cysts.
  • Polycystic kidney disease, infantile type: Severe form of polycystic kidney disease which is a genetic kidney disease. Symptoms develop very early in life and may even be present during the fetal stage.
  • Portuguese type amyloidosis: An inherited form of systemic amyloidosis which involves deposits of a substance called amyloid throughout various parts of the body.
  • Possible human carcinogenic exposure -- Mitomycin C: Some evidence indicates that exposure to Mitomycin C (a chemotherapy drug) has a possible link to an increased risk of developing cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Posterior valve, urethra: A congenital defect where there is an abnormal membrane in the back of the male urethra which affects urine flow. The urine can flow back through the valve and cause problems for organs such as the urethra, bladder, ureters and even the kidneys. The severity of the condition is determined by the severity of the malformation. Severe defects can cause fetal death and mild defects may cause incontinence.
  • Pregnancy toxemia /hypertension: Preeclampsia is the development of high blood pressure, excess protein in the urine and swelling during pregnancy. Hypertension is a serious health condition due to the fact that it often causes no symptoms until it is severe. The blood pressure usually returns to normal after delivery.
  • Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: A rare inherited inborn metabolic disorder characterized by excessive amounts of oxalate in the urine and deposits of oxalate in the kidneys which leads to progressive kidney failure. There are two subtypes of Oxalosis, each with a different origin for the genetic defect involved. Type 1 involves a deficiency of a liver enzyme called Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. Type 2 tends to cause a milder disease than type 1 with better longterm outcomes.
  • Primary hyperoxaluria type 2: A rare inherited inborn metabolic disorder characterized by excessive amounts of oxalate in the urine and deposits of oxalate in the kidneys which leads to progressive kidney failure. There are two subtypes of Oxalosis, each with a different origin for the genetic defect involved. Type 2 involves a deficiency of a liver enzyme called D-Glycerate Dehydrogenase. Type 2 tends to cause a milder disease than type 1 with better longterm outcomes.
  • Probable human carcinogen -- Cisplatin: Cisplatin (a chemotherapy drug) is a substance deemed to be a probable carcinogen to humans. The carcinogenicity of the substance may be influenced by the duration and level of exposure.
  • Progressive nephropathy with hypertension, autosomal dominant: A progressive kidney disease characterized by the presence of high blood pressure.
  • Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis: This is a condition that is characterised by a metabolic acidosis state caused by impairment of a persons renal function
  • Pseudoaldosteronism: A rare genetic disorder involving early onset high blood pressure, reduced aldosterone secretion, hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. The disorder originates from kidney dysfunction rather than impaired aldosterone secretion.
  • Pyelonephritis: Any inflammation of the kidney
  • RHYNS syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by eye, kidney and skeletal abnormalities as well as hypopituitarism.
  • Rambaud-Galian syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by the progressive deposition of a substance called hyaline in blood vessels of the digestive tract and kidneys. Calcification of the brain is also present.
  • Renal Failure, Progressive, with Hypertension: A progressive kidney disease characterized by the presence of high blood pressure.
  • Renal Magnesium Wasting -- hypercalciuria -- nephrocalcinosis -- Ocular disorders: A rare form of progressive kidney disease associated with eye problems.
  • Renal artery stenosis: renal artery stenosis is a narrowing or blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney
  • Renal hypomagnesemia -- hypercalciuria -- nephrocalcinosis: A rare form of kidney disease which is progressive.
  • Renal tubular acidosis, distal, type 4: A rare disorder where the kidney tubules fail to remove acids from the blood and into the urine which results in high blood acidity. The disorder is caused by low levels of the aldosterone hormone or the kidneys inability to respond to the hormone.
  • Renovascular stenosis: renal artery stenosis is a narrowing or blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney
  • Retroperitoneal fibrosis: A rare disorder involving the formation of a fibrous mass of tissue in the hollow space at the back of the abdomen. The mass can affect the flow of urine to the kidneys and may also affect other abdominal organs.
  • Rhabdomyolysis: The destruction of the striated muscle fibres with excretion of myoglobin in the urine
  • Ritter syndrome: A rare infantile skin disorder involving severe redness, inflammation, blistering and peeling of skin and mucous membranes which can result from a variety of infections, malignancies and drugs.
  • Salcedo syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by kidney disease
  • Scleroderma: A rare, progressive connective tissue disorder involving thickening and hardening of the skin and connective tissue. There are a number of forms of scleroderma with some forms being systemic (involving internal organs).
  • Scleroderma sine scleroderma: A very rare condition where the organ involvement normally associated with scleroderma is present but there are none of the characteristic skin symptoms. The degree of organ involvement is variable.
  • Secondary Reflux: A urological abnormality where some of the urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from secondary causes such as a urinary tract blockage but primary vesicoureteral reflex results from a genetic defect which affects the development of the ureterovesical junction.
  • Senior-Loken Syndrome: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 1: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 1 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 2q13. End stage kidney disease usually occurs early in the second decade.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 3: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 3 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 3q22. This form generally has an early onset.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 4: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 4 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 1p36.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 5: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 5 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 3q21.1. This form generally has a later onset.
  • Senior-Loken syndrome 6: A rare inherited disorder characterized by kidney dysfunction and progressive eye disease. Type 6 is caused by a chromosomal defect on chromosome 12q21.3. End stage kidney disease usually occurs early in the second decade and vision impairment occurs by 3 years of age.
  • Serpentine fibula -- polycystic kidney syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by unusual s-shaped calf bone (fibula) as well as the development of numerous cysts in the kidneys.
  • Sickle Cell Anemia: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by red blood cells which are crescent-shaped rather than the normal doughnut shape. These abnormally shaped red blood cells are unable to function normally and tend to undergo premature destruction which leads to anemia. If the genetic defect which causes the condition is inherited from both parents the condition can be quite severe whereas if it is inherited from only one parent, often there are no symptoms. The abnormally shaped red blood cells can cause problems when they clump together and block blood vessels.
  • Sideroblastic anaemia (generic term): A rare blood disorder where the bone marrow produces abnormal red blood cells. The anomaly may be caused by a genetic anomaly or may occur secondary to such things as blood cancer or use of certain drugs.
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia -- nephritic syndrome:
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia -- nephrotic syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized by skeletal and immunity abnormalities. The immune defect leads to progressive kidney dysfunction which can ultimately cause death during the first decade.
  • Stones: The formation of consolidations that are stone like in nature
  • Streptomycin -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Streptomycin during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • Striped Blister Beetle poisoning: The striped blister beetle is native to many parts of America and Canada. Animals that accidentally eat the beetles can become quite ill and they can also cause symptoms in humans if accidentally ingested. The beetles contain toxic substances called cantharidin and pederin which can cause symptoms through skin or eye exposure as well as through ingestion.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Hemolytic Anemia, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and hemolytic anemia - the anemia often occurs months or even years before symptoms of SLE develop. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 11q14.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Nephritis, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and nephritis. More than half of SLE patients will develop nephritis. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 10q22.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Vitiligo, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE and vitiligo. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 17p13.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 1: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q41.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 10: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 10 is linked to a defect on chromosome 7q32.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 11: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 11 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q32.2-q32.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 12: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 12 is linked to a defect on chromosome 8p23.1.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 13: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 13 is linked to a defect on chromosome 6p23.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 2: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 2 is linked to a defect on chromosome 2q37.3.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 3: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 3 is linked to a defect on chromosome 4p16-p15.2.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 4: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 4 is linked to a defect on chromosome 12q24.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 5: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 5 is linked to a defect on chromosome 13q32.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 6: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 6 is linked to a defect on chromosome 16p11.2.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 7: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 7 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20p12.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 8: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 8 is linked to a defect on chromosome 20q13.1.
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Susceptibility to, 9: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease affecting mostly women and causing various effects throughout different parts of the body. Its severity can range from very mild to extremely serious depending on which body organs are afflicted. Researchers have discovered a number of genes linked to an increased susceptibility of developing SLE. Type 9 is linked to a defect on chromosome 1q32.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus: chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare.
  • Tacrolimus -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Tacrolimus during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
  • The Methylmalonic Acidemias: A condition which is characterized by an excess of methylmalonic acid in the blood
  • Thieffry and Sorrell Dejerine syndrome: A rare inherited syndrome characterized by kidney problems and progressive destruction of the wrist and ankle bones which may spread to adjoining bones.
  • Thromboembolism: Lodgement of a blood clot causing blockage
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Anticholinergic: Some mushrooms contain a toxic chemical called ibotenic acid which causes anticholinergic symptoms. Ibotenic acid is converted to muscimol during digestion. The two toxins have opposing actions which results in initial excitation symptoms followed by a prolonged coma-like sleep. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Amanita sp. - cothurnata, crenulata, frostiana, gemmata, muscaria and pantherina. Eating two to four mushrooms can result in impaired senses and eating more than twenty usually results in death.
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Monomethylhydrazine: Some mushrooms contain a toxic chemical called gyromitrin which is converted to monomethylhydrazine after digestion. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Gyromitra, Helvella, Sarcosphaera and Peziza. Poisoning may occur from inhaling fumes from cooking mushrooms. The amount of toxin varies amongst and within species but some are toxic enough to cause death. Urgent medical attention should be sought if mushroom poisoning is suspected.
  • Toxic mushrooms -- Renal toxic (orelline): Some mushrooms (Amanita smithiana) contain chemicals (allenic norleucine, chlorocrotyglycine) which can cause kidney damage.
  • Toxic mushrooms -- cyclopeptides: Some mushrooms contain a toxic chemical called cyclopeptide which can cause primarily gastrointestinal symptoms if ingested. Most cases of mushroom poisoning in North America involve cyclopeptide-containing mushrooms. Mushroom species from this group include certain species of Amanita (bisporigera, ocreata, phalloides, suballiacea, tenufolia, verna, virosa), Galerina and Lepiota. One Amanita mushroom cap may result in death in an adult. Poisoning occurs in three phases: gastrointestinal symptoms (within 24 hours of ingestion); remission (up to 72 hours after ingestion); and liver and kidney symptoms (3 to 6 days after ingestion). Poisoning symptoms are more severe in children due to their smaller body size.
  • Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
  • Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis: A rare disorder characterized by neurological degeneration and skeletal abnormalities.
  • Upper abdominal symptoms: Symptoms affecting the upper abdominal region.
  • Uremia: Build up of toxins usually excreted by the kidneys, associated with real failure in a woman who is pregnant.
  • Urethral stricture: Narrowing of the urethra
  • Urinary outflow obstruction: Inability to micturate can be due to external, internal or neurogenic in nature.
  • Urinary symptoms: Symptoms affecting urination or related organs.
  • Urinary tract infection: Infection of the urinary tract
  • Urine retention: Excessive holding of urine in the body.
  • Urofacial syndrome: A very rare inherited disorder characterized by an unusual face and abnormalities in organs involved with urination.
  • Vasculitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation to blood vessels
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux 1: A urological abnormality where some of the urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from secondary causes such as a urinary tract blockage but primary vesicoureteral reflex results from a genetic defect which affects the development of the ureterovesical junction. Type 1 is linked to a defect in chromosome 1p13 and type 2 is linked to a defect in chromosome 3p12.3. A significant number of children (up to a third) who develop urinary tract infections have vesicoureteral reflux.
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux 2: A urological abnormality where some of the urine flows from the bladder back into the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from secondary causes such as a urinary tract blockage but primary vesicoureteral reflex results from a genetic defect which affects the development of the ureterovesical junction. Type 1 is linked to a defect in chromosome 1p13 and type 2 is linked to a defect in chromosome 3p12.3. A significant number of children (up to a third) who develop urinary tract infections have vesicoureteral reflux.
  • Vesicoureteral reflux: Reverse flow of urine from bladder back into kidneys.
  • Wegener's granulomatosis: A rare disease involving blood vessel inflammation which can affect the blood flow to various tissues and organs and hence cause damage. The respiratory system and the kidneys are the main systems affected.
  • White Chameleon poisoning: The white chameleon is a type of thistle found mainly in dry areas of the Mediterranean. The rhizomes contains chemicals which can cause poisoning symptoms if eaten. The plant is often mistaken for a wild artichoke. The root extract is sometimes used in alternative medicine and excessive doses can also result in poisoning.
  • X-linked sideroblastic anaemia:
  • X-linked sideroblastic anemia: X-linked sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of iron in the red blood cells which makes them unable to function properly. The body continues to absorb more iron from digesting food in order to try and correct the problem but this simply leads to excessive iron being deposited in body tissues as the it can't use the iron properly. The severity of the condition is variable.

Conditions listing medical symptoms: Kidney failure:

The following list of conditions have 'Kidney failure' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete. Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause of any symptom.

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Conditions listing medical complications: Kidney failure:

The following list of medical conditions have 'Kidney failure' or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.

 

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