Diagnostic Tests for Knee symptoms
Diagnostic Test list for Knee symptoms:
The list of diagnostic tests
mentioned in various sources as
used in the diagnosis of Knee symptoms
- Physical examination
- Inspect the knee with the person walking, standing and lying
- A systematic examination of the affected knee looking for signs of inflammation, deformity, swelling, disordered stability and reduced range of motion - e.g. tenderness and warmth indicates inflammation; redness of the skin over the joint indicates gout, pseudogout, rheumatic fever or septic arthritis.
- Full physical examination looking for signs of systemic disease that can predispose or present with joint pain - e.g. rash and pitted nails of psoriasis; Raynaud's phenomenon of rheumatoid arthritis; doughnut-shaped rash of Lyme disease; butterfly rash of systemic lupus erythematosus; abdominal tenderness of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease; heart murmur of rheumatic fever or subacute bacterial endocarditis.
- Blood tests
- Full blood count, ESR and CRP
- Renal function tests and Electrolytes
- ASO titre, if suspect rheumatic fever
- Arthritis screen depending on suspicion including Rheumatoid factor, ANA and ENA antibodies, HLA-B27
- Uric acid (marker of gout)
- Coagulation profile
- Blood cultures, if fever
- Lyme disease serology
- Iron studies, if suspect hemochromatosis
- Urine tests
- Urinalysis for blood, sugar and protein
- 24 hour urinary uric acid, if suspect gout
- Radiological examination
- X-Ray of knee may show a fracture, osteoarthritis changes and punched out lesion of gout and pseudogout
- MRI may be indicated to diagnose torn menisci or other conditions
- Bone survey at times may be indicated
- Mantoux test - if suspect tuberculosis.
- Synovial fluid analysis and culture - should be done if there is sufficient joint fluid.
- Urethral discharge smear and culture, if urethral discharge is present
- Arthroscopic examination by an Orthopedic specialist may be necessary
Tests and diagnosis discussion for Knee symptoms:
Doctors use several methods to diagnose knee problems.
Medical history--The patient tells the doctor
details about symptoms and about any injury, condition, or general
health problem that might be causing the pain.
Physical examination--The doctor bends,
straightens, rotates (turns), or presses on the knee to feel for injury
and discover the limits of movement and the location of pain. The
patient may be asked to stand, walk, or squat to help the doctor assess
the knee's function.
Diagnostic tests--The doctor uses one or more tests
to determine the nature of a knee problem.
- X ray (radiography)--An x-ray beam is passed through the
knee to produce a two-dimensional picture of the bones.
- Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan--X rays lasting a
fraction of a second are passed through the knee at different angles,
detected by a scanner, and analyzed by a computer. This produces a
series of clear cross-sectional images ("slices") of the knee tissues
on a computer screen. CAT scan images show soft tissues such as
ligaments or muscles more clearly than conventional x rays. The
computer can combine individual images to give a three-dimensional
view of the knee.
- Bone scan (radionuclide scanning)--A very small amount of
radioactive material is injected into the patient's bloodstream and
detected by a scanner. This test detects blood flow to the bone and
cell activity within the bone and can show abnormalities in these
processes that may aid diagnosis.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--Energy from a powerful
magnet (rather than x rays) stimulates knee tissue to produce signals
that are detected by a scanner and analyzed by a computer. This
creates a series of cross-sectional images of a specific part of the
knee. An MRI is particularly useful for detecting soft tissue damage
or disease. Like a CAT scan, a computer is used to produce
three-dimensional views of the knee during MRI.
- Arthroscopy--The doctor manipulates a small, lighted optic
tube (arthroscope) that has been inserted into the joint through a
small incision in the knee. Images of the inside of the knee joint are
projected onto a television screen. While the arthroscope is inside
the knee joint, removal of loose pieces of bone or cartilage or the
repair of torn ligaments and menisci is also possible.
- Biopsy--The doctor removes tissue to examine under a
(Source: excerpt from Questions and Answers About Knee Problems: NIAMS
Conditions listing medical symptoms: Knee symptoms:
The following list of conditions
have 'Knee symptoms' or similar
listed as a symptom in our database.
This computer-generated list may be inaccurate or incomplete.
Always seek prompt professional medical advice about the cause
of any symptom.
Select from the following alphabetical view of conditions which
include a symptom of Knee symptoms or choose View All.
Conditions listing medical complications: Knee symptoms:
The following list of medical conditions have 'Knee symptoms'
or similar listed as a medical complication in our database.
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