Glossary for Meningitis
Medical terms related to Meningitis or mentioned in this section include:
- AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: A term given to HIV patients who have a low CD4 count (below 200) which means that they have low levels of a type of immune cell called T-cells. AIDS patients tend to develop opportunistic infections and cancers. Opportunistic infections are infections that would not normally affect a person with a healthy immune system. The HIV virus is a virus that attacks the body's immune system.
- Acanthamoeba: Several conditions from infection with ameba.
- Actinomycosis: A chronic infection usually caused by an organism normally found in human bowels and mouths. The disease usually affects the face and neck and results in deep, lumpy abscesses that emit a grainy pus through multiple sinuses.
- Acute meningitis: Acute meningitis is an inflammation of the brain that presents in an acute fashion. The inflammation may be the result of infective agents such as bacteria, viruses and fungi as well as non-infective agents such as certain drugs. Acute forms of meningitis can develop in within hours or days whereas chronic meningitis develops over weeks or months.
- American mountain fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
- Angiostrongyliasis: Infection by a parasitic worm (Angiostrongylus). Infection can occur through eating contaminated raw animals such as snails, slugs, prawns or crabs which act as hosts to these parasites.
- Anthrax: A serious infectious bacterial disease that can be fatal.
- Arachnoiditis: A progressive disorder where the arachnoid membrane becomes inflamed and the brain and spinal cord may also become inflamed.
- Arbovirosis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus. The virus is transmitted by arthropods such as insects and ticks. Examples of arboviruses include Yellow Fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The symptoms may vary depending on the type of virus involved. The infection can lead to life-threatening brain inflammation.
- Arbovirus: Any group of viruses transmitted to humans by mosquitoes and ticks
- Aseptic meningitis: The occurrence of symptoms consistent with meningitis without the location of a causative organism
- Ausrian triad: The association of pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis.
- Bacteremia: A condition where bacteria is present in the blood.
- Bartonella infections: Infection with bacteria from the Bartonella genus of bacteria. Specific bacteria from within this group are Bartonella bacilliforms (Oroya fever), Bartonella Heneslae (Cat-scratch disease). Other conditions caused by this bacteria are endocarditis, bacteremia and angiomatosis. Symptoms vary depending on the type of bacteria involved and the severity of the infection - immunocompromised patients face greater risk of severe infection.
- Bartonellosis: An infection by Bartonella bacilliformis which is transmitted through sandfly bites. Symptoms include fever, severe anemia, bone pain and skin lesions. Also called Carrion's disease, Oroya fever or verruga peruana.
- Behcet's Disease: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
- Behcet's syndrome: Recurring inflammation of small blood vessels affecting various areas.
- Biotinidase deficiency: A metabolic disorder where the body lacks the enzyme biotinidase needed to process the vitamin called biotin (vitamin H) into carboxylase enzymes.
- Birth symptoms: Symptoms related to childbirth.
- Blastomycosis: A fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis and resulting in lung, skin, bone and genitourinary involvement.
- Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
- Brain tumour: various extrinsic and intrinsic factors add up to to cause tumour in the brain
- Brucellosis: An infectious disease caused by the Brucella genus which is transmitted from animals to humans.
- Burkholderia pseudomallei: Gram negative, aerobic, motile rod shaped bacterium.
- Campylobacter fetus infection: Campylobacter fetus is a food borne bacterial infection which may vary in severity from mild to severe. The bacteria are opportunistic and mainly affect debilitated patients but can also occur in healthy patients. Abortion due to blood infection in the fetus can occur in pregnant women who become infected. The infection is less likely to cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea than other Campylobacter infections but is prone to causing infection in other parts of the body such as the appendix, abdominal cavity, central nervous system (meningitis), gallbladder, urinary tract and blood stream. Cattle and sheep are the main source of this bacteria.
- Campylobacter food poisoning: Common bacterial infection usually from chicken.
- Campylobacter jejuni infection: Campylobacter jejuni infection is a common food borne bacterial infection which may vary in severity from mild to severe. Death can occur in severe cases but tends to occur in patients with other existing illnesses such as HIV, cancer or liver disease. The infection can in rare cause infection in other parts of the body such as the appendix, abdominal cavity, central nervous system (meningitis), gallbladder, urinary tract and blood stream. Undercooked chicken is the main source of infection.
- Capnocytophaga: A bacterial infection caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus which is often found in normal healthy cats and dogs. The infections tends to occur mainly in immunocompromised patients, alcoholics or patients who have chronic respiratory disease or have had their spleen removed. The eyes are particularly sensitive to this infection. The incubation period can be as long as eight days.
- Cellulitis: inflammation of the subcutaneous fat
- Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by insect bites or blood transfusions. The disease primarily involves the heart and gastrointestinal system.
- Chickenpox: Common viral infection.
- Cholesteatoma: Uncommon middle ear condition
- Chronic meningitis: Chronic meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges with subacute onset and persisting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities lasting for at least one month.
- Coccidioidomycosis: An infectious fungal disease caused by inhaling the spores of a particular bacteria. Also called desert fever, desert rheumatism, San Joaquin fever and valley fever.
- Colorado tick encephalitis: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
- Colorado tick fever: A tickborne condition caused by an arenavirus
- Common Variable Immunodeficiency: An immunodeficiency disorder involving low blood gamma globulin levels which results in an increased susceptibility to infections. The condition may be inherited or can be caused by certain drugs (levamisole, hydantoin and carbamazepine).
- Complement component deficiency: Complement components are a part of the immune defense system involved in destroying and removing invading pathogens such as bacteria. A deficiency of the complement components can affect the ability of the body's immune system to function properly. The disorder which can be partial or complete and may be inherited or acquired. The severity of the symptoms is determined by which complement component (there are at least 30 of them) is deficient and whether the deficiency is partial or complete.
- Complement receptor deficiency: Complement receptors are a part of the immune defense system and they initiate the process of destroying and removing invading pathogens. A deficiency of complement receptors thus affects the immune system. It may be inherited or be associated with autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus diabetic nephropathy patients on hemodialysis.
- Congenital herpes simplex: An infant born with a herpes simplex infection transmitted through the mother. The infection may be localized or involve various internal organs and even the central nervous system in which case death can occur.
- Congenital syphilis: Syphilis inherited from mother during pregnancy.
- Cryptococcosis: A fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans which primarily affects the central nervous system and the lungs. People with weakened immune systems such as AIDS sufferers are generally more susceptible to this type of infection.
- Currarino triad: A rare birth malformation consisting of abnormalities in the anal, sacral and presacral areas.
- DIC: DIC s a syndrome triggered by a number of medical conditions including malignancy, infection and liver disease, and results in consumption of clotting factors in the blood.
- Dexamethasone -- Teratogenic Agent: There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Dexamethasone during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. A teratogen is a substance that can cause birth defects. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred at.
- Drug-resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae Disease: Streptococcal respiratory infection resistant to antibiotics
- E-coli food poisoning: Type of bacterial food poisoning
- Eastern equine encephalitis: Is a mosquito born virus that occurs in the eastern united states and causes disease in humans, horses and some birds
- Edwardsiella tarda infection: A type of bacterial infection. The bacterium (Edwardsiella tarda) infects freshwater-dwelling animals and transmission occurs through consuming infected animals or contact with contaminated water. Symptoms are determined by the location of the infection. Healthy people are often able to fight of the infection but those with an underlying illness or poor immune systems may be more susceptible.
- Ehrlichiosis: Bacterial tick-borne disease
- Eikenella corrodens infection: A type of anaerobic bacterial infection. The bacterium (Eikenella corrodens) is normally found in tooth plaque and can cause infection in various parts of the body. It tends to occur in patients with head and neck cancers or diabetics and drug users who lick their needles. Symptoms will depend on the location of the infection.
- Encephalitis: Infection of the brain (as a symptom)
- Enterovirus antenatal infection: Fetal infection with enterovirus. The condition is extremely rare but infection around the time of birth often results in death or paralysis in survivors. The type and severity of symptoms is determined by the exact type of virus involved and at what stage of development the infection occurs.
- Enteroviruses: Viruses affecting the digestive tract.
- Epiglotitis: Inflamation of the epiglottis in the throat
- Familial Mediterranean fever: A rare inherited condition characterized by recurrent fever and inflammation. The inflammation usually involves the stomach, lungs or joints.
- Gnathostoma hispidum infection: A tapeworm infection with a tapeworm species called Gnathostoma hispidum. The infection is called gnathostomiasis and usually results from eating undercooked contaminated fish or poultry or drinking contaminated water. The nature and severity of symptoms vary depending on which part of the body the tapeworms migrate through (usually the skin).
- Gnathostoma spinigerum infection: A tapeworm infection with a tapeworm species called Gnathostoma spinigerum. The infection is called gnathostomiasis and usually results from eating undercooked contaminated fish or poultry or drinking contaminated water. The nature and severity of symptoms vary depending on which part of the body the tapeworms migrate through (usually the skin).
- Group A Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria responsible for strep throat, impetigo and some other strep conditions.
- Group B Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria that may affect newborns and the immune-compromised; compare strep A.
- HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
- Hand, Foot, & Mouth Disease: Common contagious viral infant or child condition
- Head injury: Any injury that occurs to the head
- Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
- Headache: Pain affecting the head or brain area.
- Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A condition which is characterized by an abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood
- Hemophagocytic reticulosis: The abnormal proliferation of reticulum cell (histiocytes) which infiltrate various organs and. Macrophages destroy blood cells causing blood abnormalities. Meningoencephalitis frequently occurs when the histiocytes infiltrate the mininges and cerebral tissue. Symptoms start at birth or soon after and become progressively worse without treatment. Medication can control the condition but a hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed to achieve remission.
- Hemophilus influenzae B: Bacterial respiratory infection with dangerous complications.
- Hydrocephalus: A condition which is characterized by marked dilatation of the cerebral ventricles
- Immunodeficiency due to interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 deficiency: Susceptibility to infection as a result of a genetic defect which affects immunity. Infections tend to be severe and can be life-threatening.
- Increased intracranial pressure: Increased pressure inside the skull due to brain swelling or fluid accumulation
- Infection: Infections as a symptom.
- Invasive candidiasis: Severe fungal infection usually in immunocompromised persons
- Japanese encephalitis: A form of encephalitis caused by a flavivirus (Japanese B encephalitis virus - JBEV) and transmitted by mosquito bites. Most cases are mild and asymptomatic but severe cases can lead to death.
- Kawasaki disease: A childhood illness that generally affects the skin, mouth and lymph nodes.
- Labrynthitis: Inner ear condition affecting various ear structures
- Leptomeningitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the leptomeninges
- Leptospirosis: Bacterial infection usually caught from animal urine.
- Listeriosis: Bacterial food poisoning
- Listeriosis meningoencephalitis: Listeria monocytogenes infection of the brain and meninges that can occur in immunocompromised people or newborns.
- Low blood pressure: Low blood pressure refers to blood pressure that is lower than the range that is considered normal. This may or may not cause symptoms and a person with low blood pressure may be catastrophically unwell, or perfectly well depending on the cause. Blood pressure refers to the pressure of the blood circulating through the blood vessels.
- Lyme disease: Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia.
- Lymphocytic choriomeningitis: Rodent-borne viral disease often causing meningitis or encephalitis
- Lymphoma: Any neoplastic disorder that occurs in lymphoid tissue
- Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, X-Linked, 1: A rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder where the body's immune systm is unable to respond appropriately to certain viral infections (Epstein Barr virus). The immune system becomes weakened following and EBV infection. As the condition in inherited in a X-linked manner, males tend to suffer the full extent of the disease which tends to be eventually fatal in most cases. Female carriers tend not to develop and problems following an EBV infection. Type 1 is linked to a defect on chromosome Xq25.@
- Lymphoproliferative Syndrome, X-Linked, 2: A rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder where the body's immune systm is unable to respond appropriately to certain viral infections (Epstein Barr virus). The immune system becomes weakened following and EBV infection. As the condition in inherited in a X-linked manner, males tend to suffer the full extent of the disease which tends to be eventually fatal in most cases. Female carriers tend not to develop and problems following an EBV infection. Type 2 is linked to a defect in the XIAP gene on chromosome Xq25.
- Lysteria monocytoigeneses meningitis: A very rare form of meningitis (bacterial infection of the brain membrane or meninges) caused by Listeria monocytogenes. The condition is more common in the elderly and those with poor immune system and death is common.
- Mastoiditis: Inflammation of a bone behind the ear
- Measles: Once common viral infection now rare due to vaccination.
- Melioidosis: Bacterial infection from soil or water.
- Meningitis in adults:
- Meningococcal disease: Dangerous bacterial infection causing meningitis or bacteremia.
- Meningoencephalitis: A condition which is characterized by inflammation of the brain and meninges
- Middle ear infection: An infection which occurs in the middle ear
- Mountain fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
- Mountain tick fever: A viral disease transmitted through the bite of ticks (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) who are infected with the virus. Because the virus infects blood cells including erythrocytes, transmission can also occur through transfusion with infected blood but this is uncommon. Infection is most common in Canada and parts of western US. The incubation period usually lasts between 3 and 6 days but can be as long as a few weeks. The virus tends to cause to periods of fever each lasting for a few days.
- Mumps: An acute viral disease that causes the salivary glands to become swollen, sore and inflamed. Immunization had greatly reduced the incidence of this disease.
- Myiasis: Infestation of a living body part by maggots.
- NOMID syndrome: A rare autoinflammatory disease characterized by fever, rash, arthritic changes, eye problems and chronic meningitis.
- Naegleria: Rare bacterial infection from contaminated water
- Neck rigidity: Neck rigidity is a condition in which the neck is extremely stiff or inflexible.
- Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
- Neurological disorders related to AIDS: It usually occurs due to decreased immunity.
- Neurological symptoms: Any symptoms that are caused by neurological conditions
- Nosocomial infections: Any infection that originates in a hospital
- Pasteurella multocida: An infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Pasteurella multocida. It is often transmitted through bites and scratches from pets and it can be found in mammals and fowl.
- Phonophobia: An exaggerated or irrational fear of noise.
- Photophobia: Dislike, sensitivity or avoidance of bright light
- Plague: Any epidemic disease with a high death rate.
- Pneumococcus: Bacteria causing ear infections, pneumococcal pneumonia, and pneumococcal meningitis.
- Polio: Dangerous virus now rare due to vaccination.
- Pontiac fever: Mild form of legionellosis usually in healthy people.
- Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: Meningitis/encephalitis from amebic infections.
- Pseudomonas pseudomallei: A form of pseudomonas
- Pulmonary Anthrax: Inhaled lung anthrax, most severe form of anthrax.
- Rabies: An infectious disease that can affect any mammal including humans and is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. The infectious agent is the Neurotropic lyssavirus which affects the salivary gland and also causes neurological symptoms.
- Rat-bite fever: A disease caused by a rat bite where the patient becomes infected by a bacteria (causes skin ulceration and recurrent fever) or a fungus (causes skin inflammation, muscle pain and vomiting). Also called sodokosis.
- Recurring meningitis: This is a form of benign, recurrent, aseptic meningitis.
- Rhodococcus equi: A rare form of bacterial infection that usually affects horses and foals but can cause infection mainly in immunocompromised people. Infection usually starts at the site of some sort of trauma. Symptoms and severity may vary considerably depending on the location and extent of the infection.
- SCID: Major failure of the immune system, usually genetic.
- Salmonella food poisoning: Common type of food poisoning.
- Secondary syphilis: A condition which is characterized by fever, multiform skin eruptions, iritis, alopecia, mucous patches and severe pain in the head and joints
- Sepsis: The presence of microorganisms in the blood circulation
- Serratia: An infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Serratia genus. The bacteria can cause urinary tract infection, pneumonia, respiratory tract infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septicemia, eye infection, meningitis and wound infections. This type of bacterial infection shows some antibiotic resistance. Symptoms and severity depend on the location and extent of the infection.
- Severe combined immunodeficiency, T- B+ due to JAK3 deficiency: A recessively inherited immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a lack of circulating T and Natural Killer Cells and a normal level of B cells. The disorder is caused by a defect on the JAK3 gene. Infants may display symptoms such as pancytopenia, skin rash and abnormal liver function due to a graft-versus-host reaction to the mother's T cells via the placenta. If the condition is not treated, death occurs.
- Simian B virus infection: A type of herpesvirus which occurs in monkeys but can be transmitted to humans through bites or through contact with infected monkey tissue as in a laboratory situation. The virus infects the brain (encephalitis) and the surrounding membrane (meningitis).
- Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinus passages (as a symptom)
- Skin symptoms: Symptoms affecting the skin.
- Skull symptoms: Symptoms affecting the skull surrounding the brain.
- Smith disease: A harmless condition involving increased lymphocyte levels which may manifest as a variety of symptoms or may be asymptomatic. Diseases such as whooping cough and German measles are believed to be possible causes. The disease most commonly occurs in children and young adults.
- Spine symptoms: Symptoms affecting the spine
- St. louis encephalitis: Mosquito-borne type of brain infection (encephalitis)
- Staphylococcal infection: Any infection caused by the bacteria staphylococcal
- Streptococcal Group B invasive disease: Infection with bacteria called Group B Streptococcus which can cause severe symptoms or even death. The bacteria occur in the stomach and the urogenital tract of females and are normally harmless and cause no symptoms. However, it can cause a range of diseases in newborns, the elderly and people with poor immune systems.
- Streptococcal Infections: Various "strep" bacterial infections.
- Systemic candidiasis: A candida infection that spreads throughout the body. If it invades major organs such as the brain and heart, death may result. It is rare in healthy individuals and tends to occur in immunocompromised individuals. The disorder is difficult to diagnose as it can invade almost any organ of the body and hence the symptoms are hugely variable.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus: chronic autoimmune disease that can be fatal, though with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare.
- The clap: A sexually transmitted infection by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
- Tick-borne encephalitis: A viral infection (flavivirdae) of the central nervous system which is transmitted by ticks. Ticks usually feed on small rodents who are the main carriers of the virus. Transmission may also occur through the consumption of untreated milk. The incubation period is usually 1 to 2 weeks. The symptoms occur in two phases: the first involves symptoms of a general viral illness (fever, headache, nausea, aching muscles) followed by a period of remission and then central nervous system inflammation such as meningitis. However, many patients only suffer the first phase of the disease.
- Togaviridae disease: Infection with any of a number of togaviridae viruses which can caused conditions such as Equine encephalitis, Ross River virus and Rubella virus. Symptoms are determined by the type of virus involved. Togaviridae are arboviruses and are transmitted by arthropods.
- Torulopsis: A type of yeast infection caused by Torulopsis glabrata. The fungus is often found in normal healthy skin, respiratory system, genitourinary system and gastrointestinal system and it generally only becomes a problem in weakened or immunocompromised people. They type of symptoms are determined by where and how severe the infection is.
- Toxoplasmosis: Infection often caught from cats and their feces.
- Trichinosis: Worm infection usually caught from pigs
- Trypanosomiasis, east-African: A rare infectious disease caused by a parasite called Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and is transmitted through the bite of an infected Tsetse fly. The infection causes an acute illness with symptoms occurring from days to weeks after infection. Death relatively common, especially in untreated cases.
- Tuberculosis: Bacterial infection causing nodules forming, most commonly in the lung.
- Typhoid fever: Fever from bacterial food poisoning.
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis: A mosquito-borne virus that usually affects horses and related animals but may also infect humans. Young, weak and old people may become very sick and in some cases death can occur. It occurs in Central and South America. The incubation period is 2-5 days. The period of illness is usually 3-8 days but relapses are possible.
- Vibrio infection -- Vibrio cincinnatiensis: An infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Vibrio cincinnatiensis. The nature and severity of symptoms can vary considerably depending on the type of infection caused - gastroenteritis, wound infection or septicemia. This particular infection however tends to cause mainly meningitis. The elderly and very young tend to suffer more severe symptoms.
- Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by poliosis and hair, skin, eye and ear abnormalities as well as retinal detachment and neurological involvement.
- Weil's syndrome: Severe form of Leptospirosis
- West African Trypanosomiasis: West African sleeping sickness from the tsetse fly
- West Nile fever: Mosquito-borne infectious virus.
- Western equine encephalitis: An infectious disease caused by an arbovirus (Alphavirus - Togaviraidae) and transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The infection primarily attacks that central nervous system and severity can range from asymptomatic to severe complications and even death in rare cases.
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