Glossary for Muscle contractions
Medical terms related to Muscle contractions or mentioned in this section include:
- Acid-Base Imbalance: A disruption to the normal acid-base equilibrium in the body. There are four main groups of disorder involving an acid-base imbalance: respiratory acidosis or alkalosis and metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. Obviously the severity of symptoms is determined by the degree of imbalance.
- Alpers Syndrome: A rare syndrome characterized by liver disease, seizures and progressive, episodic psychomotor retardation.
- Athetosis: Involuntary, slow contraction particularly in the hands.
- Bartter Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder of kidney metabolism characterized by reduced blood acidity and low potassium levels.
- Basal ganglia calcification: Basal ganglia calcification refers to the deposit of calcium in a specific area of the brain called the basal ganglia found at the base of the brain..
- Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic 1: Abnormal calcium deposits in the part of the brain called the basal ganglia. Type 1 results in psychiatric, cognitive or neurological problems associated with the calcification. The symptoms experienced are variable.
- Bd syndrome: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of mental retardation, small eyes and a movement disorder.
- Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: This is a medical condition caused by the transmission of an infective prion causing an encephalopathy
- Brain symptoms: Symptoms affecting the brain
- Calcification of basal ganglia with or without hypocalcemia: Calcification of a part of the brain called the basal ganglia. That calcification may be associated with conditions such as hypothyroidism, cytomegalovirus, and AIDS or may occur for no apparent reason. The severity of the condition may vary greatly from asymptomatic to neurological, psychiatric and movement disorders. The disorder may also progress at variable rates or remain stable depending on the underlying disease process.
- Chorea familial benign: A rare movement disorder which is stable and involves abnormal involuntary movements (chorea) and continuous writhing movements.
- Conn's adenoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition may result from the presence of an adrenal adenoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
- Conn's syndrome: An adrenal gland disorder where excess aldosterone hormone is produced resulting in symptoms such as headache, fatigue, nocturia and increased urine production. Also called primary hyperaldosteronism.
- Conn-Louis Carcinoma: An uncommon (but possible highly underdiagnosed) condition characterized by the excessive production of a hormone called aldosterone by the adrenal gland. The condition results from the presence of an adrenal carcinoma. The severity of the condition is variable with some patients simply suffering high blood pressure and no other symptoms. Due to the high degree of variation in presenting symptoms, the condition may be frequently underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed.
- Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A very rare degenerative brain disease that can be inherited, transmitted (eg in surgical transplants using infected tissue) or as a result of genetic mutations. The condition is fatal.
- DiGeorge syndrome: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder which can result in a vast array of symptoms. Various names have been used to describe different manifestations of the syndrome. Di George Syndrome primarily involves an underdeveloped thymus and parathyroid glands which results in lowered immunity low blood calcium levels respectively. Another primary feature is heart defects. Various other variable features are also present. It is not uncommon for patients to have more than one of the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome subtypes which can make diagnosis confusing - other subtypes include Sphrintzen syndrome, Caylor cardiofacial syndrome and CATCH 22.
- Electrocution: Any injury caused by electricity
- Encephalophathy recurrent of childhood: A recurring form of brain disease that has been noted to occur within families. The condition appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in these families. Symptoms tend to have a recurring nature and can last for periods of days to weeks. The condition is believed to be an inherited predisposition with underlying immunological or metabolic problems which trigger the condition.
- Fahr's Syndrome: A rare neurologic disorder where calcium is deposited in various parts of the brain resulting in progressive loss of motor and mental function.
- Fasciculations: A small localized involuntary muscular contractions
- Fatal familial insomnia: A very rare inherited brain disease that severely affects sleep and causes progressive deterioration of mental and movement functions.
- Head symptoms: Symptoms affecting the head or brain
- Herbal Agent adverse reaction -- Senna: Senna can be used to treat constipation or to prepare the colon for a rectal examination. The herbal agent can cause an adverse reaction in some people.
- Hereditary methemoglobinemia, recessive, type II: A rare inherited blood disorder where the hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying part of red blood cells) can't bind with oxygen which impairs the oxygen supply to parts of the body, especially during exertion when more oxygen is needed by the body. The type II form of Gibson syndrome is more severe than type I and is characterized by cyanosis as well as neurological problems, mental deficiency and various other anomalies. Type I has enzyme deficiency (cytochrome B5 reductase) only in the red blood cells whereas in Type II the enzyme deficiency occurs in other body cells as well as red blood cells.
- Hyperphosphataemia: An increased level of phosphate in the circulation above that which is considered normal
- Hypocalcemia: Low blood calcium levels
- Hypokalemia: Abnormally low levels of potassium in the blood.
- Hypomagnesemia caused by selective magnesium malabsorption: A rare genetic disorder which causes low blood magnesium and results in low calcium levels also. Death can occur if left untreated. The condition is believed to results from abnormal intestinal absorption of magnesium rather than the excessive secretion of magnesium via malfunctioning kidneys.
- Hypoparathyroidism: causesd by lack of PTH
- Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated: A rare familial condition involving low levels of parathyroid hormone which upsets the body's ability to regulate calcium and phosphate. The severity of symptoms is determined by the how low the parathyroid hormone level is.
- Hypoparathyroidism, autoimmune: A rare autoimmune condition characterized by the inflammation of the parathyroid glands and resulting in a deficiency of parathyroid hormones (parathormone). Parathormone helps controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. Symptoms become progressively worse as calcium and phosphorus levels become increasingly imbalanced.
- Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia: A rare disorder that has neurological origins and causes progressive ataxia, impaired tendon reflexes, abnormal limb movements, and sensory, eye muscle and hearing impairment.
- Infantile sialic acid storage disorder: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of sialic acid in the tissues and excretion of sialic acid in the urine. The disorder results in death within the first few years of life - usually in infancy.
- Lafora body disease: A condition characterized by attacks of intermittent or continuous clonus of muscle groups
- Lafora disease: A rare genetic disorder caused by the inclusion of a substance called Lafora bodies in cells throughout the body. The condition is progressive and causes progressive seizures and dementia.
- Magnesium deficiency: A deficiency in the magnesium stores of the body
- Marie type ataxia: An inherited brain disorder that affects muscle coordination.
- Mental Retardation, Joint Hypermobility With or without Metabolic Abnormalities: A rare syndrome observed in a small number of patients and characterized by the association of mental retardation, loose joints. Metabolic abnormalities occur in only some patients.
- Mental retardation athetosis microphthalmia: A very rare syndrome characterized mainly by the association of mental retardation, small eyes and a movement disorder.
- Mount Reback syndrome: A rare inherited condition characterized by episodes of chorea (involuntary movements) which may be triggered by such things as hunger, tiredness, stress, coffee, alcohol and tobacco. Episodes may last for minutes or hours.
- Movement symptoms: Changes to movement or motor abilities
- Muscle conditions: Any condition that affects the muscles of the body
- Muscle pain: Aches or pains affecting the muscles
- Muscle spasm: The occurrence of a sudden prolonged and uncontrolled contraction of a muscle
- Muscle spasms: Involuntary movement or contraction of muscles without full control
- Muscle symptoms: Symptoms affecting the muscles of the body
- Musculoskeletal symptoms: Symptoms affecting muscles or bones of the skeleton.
- Myoclonus epilepsy: A form of epilepsy (brain function disturbance) associated with involuntary muscle twitching (myoclonus)
- NADH cytochrome B5 reductase deficiency: A very rare syndrome caused by a genetic anomaly resulting in an enzyme deficiency (NADH cytochrome B5 reductase).
- Nerve symptoms: Symptoms affecting the nerves
- Neuhauser-Eichner-Opitz syndrome: A very rare form of brain disease which causes recurring bouts of symptoms that may last from days to weeks.
- Neurological symptoms: Any symptoms that are caused by neurological conditions
- Neurosyphilis: Syphilis affecting the nervous system.
- Oxalosis: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxalate aminotransferase and type II involves a deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.
- Oxalosis, Type II: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of the enzyme glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase.
- Oxalosis, type I: A rare inherited metabolic disorder where excess oxalic acid forms crystals which make up urinary stones. In type I primary hyperoxaluria there is a deficiency of alanine-glyoxalate aminotransferase.
- Post-polio syndrome: A condition where patients who have a history of polio have a reoccurrence of muscle symptoms. The condition usually occurs at least ten years after partial or complete recovery from polio.
- Potassium deficiency: A deficiency of potassium in the body
- Psychogenic Movement Disorders: Movement problems for which no neurological, chemical or structural cause can be determined. The condition is believed to be the result of a psychiatric problem and symptoms occur subconsciously.
- Ramsay Hunt syndrome Type II: A condition caused by a reactivation of the herpes simplex virus and resulting in facial paralysis, ear pain and skin blistering.
- Respiratory alkalosis: A condition caused by excessive loss of carbon dioxide from the body.
- Seizures: Uncontrolled physical movements
- Sialuria, Finnish type: A rare inherited biochemical disorder characterized by the accumulation of sialic acid in the tissues and excretion of sialic acid in the urine. This condition is an adult form of sialuria.
- Spasms: Involuntary muscle movements without full control.
- Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I: Type of SMA, a genetic motor neuron disease affecting nerves and muscles.
- Tetanus: A disease caused by chemicals which are produced by a bacterium (clostridium tetani) and are toxic to the nerves. The infection usually occurs when the bacteria enter the body through a deep wound - these bacteria are anaerobic and hence don't need oxygen to survive.
- Tetany: Involuntary cramps of the muscles caused by low blood calcium levels.
- The Primary Hyperoxalurias: An excess of oxalates in the urine
- Tics: A condition which is characterized by an involuntary, compulsive, rapid and repetitive movement
- Torsion dystonia: A movement disorder where the muscles contract and contort uncontrollably due to neurological dysfunction.
- Torsion dystonia, X-linked: An inherited movement disorder where the muscles contract and contort uncontrollably due to neurological dysfunction. The first symptom in this form is spasmodic eye blinking.
- Torsion dystonia, autosomal dominant: An inherited movement disorder where the muscles contract and contort uncontrollably due to neurological dysfunction. Neck and torso muscle are affected first and progression is slower and occurs over a longer period of time than in the autosomal recessive form.
- Torsion dystonia, autosomal recessive: An inherited movement disorder where the muscles contract and contort uncontrollably due to neurological dysfunction. Muscle contractures start in the hands and feet and spread quickly to the trunk and extremities. Progression tends to slow down during adulthood.
- Tremor: The occurrence of involuntary trembling
- Uremic encephalopathy: occurs due to build up of toxins which are normally cleared by the kidneys
- WDHA syndrome: A syndrome characterized by watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria.
Conditions listing medical symptoms: Muscle contractions:
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