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Diseases » Tonsilitis » Glossary

Glossary for Tonsilitis

  • Abscess: General name for any pus-filled lump or swelling
  • Adenoid disorders: A disorder of the adenoids of the throat
  • Adenoiditis: Infection of the adenoids in the nasal-throat region
  • Adenoviridae Infections: Infection with a virus from the Adenoviridae family. The most common sites for infection are membrane linings such as the intestines, respiratory and urinary tract and the eyes. The infection may result in a range of symptoms depending on the particular virus involved. Transmission usually occurs through breathing in the germs or through fecal-oral contact. The infection is contagious.
  • Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients: Infection with a virus from the Adenoviridae family that occurs in a patient with a weakened immune system. The infection in these people is serious and can be fatal. The infection may result in a range of symptoms depending on the particular virus involved. Transmission usually occurs through breathing in the germs or through fecal-oral contact.
  • Adenoviruses: Common viruses causing common cold and various other ailments.
  • Asrar-Facharzt-Haque syndrome: A form of sinus histiocytosis characterized by lymphadenopathy as well as involvement of other tissues such as the sinus cavity, skin, lungs, bone, eyes, kidneys, testes, head and neck area and the central nervous system. Symptoms vary according to the organ involved. The condition usually runs a prolonged course with spontaneous remission occurring in some cases. Rare cases may be fatal.
  • Candidiasis: Fungal infection of moist areas such as mouth or vagina
  • Cervical lymphadenopathy: The enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes
  • Child health conditions: Any medical conditions typically afflicting children.
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae: Specific bacterial type of pneumonia
  • Chronic tonsilitis: Chronic ongoing inflammation of the tonsils in the throat.
  • Chronic tonsillitis: Chronic infection/inflammation of the tonsils.
  • Common cold: A cold is a relatively minor contagious infection of the nose and throat that can be caused by a number of different viruses (e.g. rhinoviruses, coronaviruses). There are over 200 different viruses that have the potential to cause the common cold. Although colds can cause discomfort they are not considered a serious condition.
  • Conditions involving a pathogen: Medical conditions involving some type of pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria.
  • Diphtheria: Infectious bacterial respiratory disease
  • Dry mouth: A condition characterized by the sensation of a dry mouth
  • Ear symptoms: Symptoms affecting the ear or hearing
  • Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A condition which is characterized by sever pain that originates on the side of the throat and extends to the ear
  • Gonorrhea: Common sexually transmitted disease often without symptoms.
  • Group A Streptococcal Infections: "Strep" bacteria responsible for strep throat, impetigo and some other strep conditions.
  • HIV/AIDS: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus and AIDS is the progressive immune failure that HIV causes.
  • Head Conditions: Conditions that affect the head
  • Herpes: Virus with one subtype causing cold sores and another causing genital herpes.
  • Kidney symptoms: Symptoms affecting one or both kidneys.
  • Lemierre's syndrome: A very rare condition where a throat infection leads to secondary infection and blood clot formation in the internal jugular vein. The infected blood clot can then travel to other parts of the body and cause problems. The usual bacterial culprit is Fusobacterium necrophorum.
  • Lymphatic system conditions: Medical conditions affecting the lymphatic system including lymph nodes and lymphatic circulation.
  • Meningococcemia: A rare infectious disease whose main symptoms are upper respiratory tract infection, fever, rash and eye and ear problems.
  • Mononucleosis: Common infectious virus.
  • Mouth conditions: Any condition that affects the mouth
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Bacterial respiratory infection
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A malignant cancer that occurs in the nasopharynx area which is the upper part of the throat. Often there are no symptoms until the cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body such as the neck.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Oral thrush: Candida fungal infection of the mouth.
  • Pain swallowing: Pain related to the action of swallowing
  • Peritonsillar abscess: also known as quinsy
  • Pneumococcus: Bacteria causing ear infections, pneumococcal pneumonia, and pneumococcal meningitis.
  • Quinsy: Tonsil abscess
  • Retropharyngeal abscess: An abscess (pus-filled cavity) in the back of the throat. Prompt treatment is needed to avoid obstruction of airways and other complications including death.
  • Rheumatic fever: An inflammatory disorder that can occur as a complication of untreated streptococcal bacterial infection such as strep throat or scarlet fever. The condition may affect the brain, skin, heart and joints.
  • Rosai-Dorfman disease: A rare condition characterized by excessive production and accumulation of a particular white blood cell (histiocyte). Accumulation primarily occurs in the lymph nodes, especially in the neck, but may also occur in the skin, central nervous system, digestive tract and kidneys.
  • Severe sore throat: involvememt of the upper respiratory tract
  • Sleep apnea: Childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is characterized by episodic upper airway obstruction that occurs during sleep.
  • Sore Throat: Discomfort in the throat or with swallowing
  • Streptococcal Infections: Various "strep" bacterial infections.
  • Tonsil cancer: A disorder characterised by malignancy that is located on the tonsils
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome: Severe immune reaction causing shock
  • Trismus: Inability to open the jaw.
  • Tularemia: A rare infections disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis (a gram-negative pleomorphic coccobacillus). Transmission occurs through contact with infected animals or there habitats e.g. bites from infected insects or other animals, eating infected wild animals, contact with contaminated water and soil. Symptoms can vary greatly depending on the method of infection. For example infection through inhalation can cause symptoms similar to pneumonia, eating infected animals can cause a sore throat and abdominal symptoms and transmission through the skin can cause result in a painful skin ulcer.
  • Type A influenza subtype H1: The H1 subtype of influenza is a strain of the type A influenza virus that can cause cause serious illness and result in pandemics. Influenza is viral respiratory infection. The virus is very contagious and can cause severe illness especially in patients who are very young or old or have some other medical condition as well. The severity of symptoms can vary but usually involves respiratory and constitutional (e.g. headache, aching muscles) symptoms. The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. This frequent mutation means that people need regular vaccinations to ensure they are protected against new strains as they arise.


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